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Headword: *periklh=s
Adler number: pi,1178
Translated headword: Perikles, Pericles
Vetting Status: high
A general of Athenians; see under "deon"[1]. For the law of Perikles, son of Xanthippos, see under "demopoietos".[2]
Greek Original:
*periklh=s, *)aqhnai/wn strathgo/s: zh/tei e)n tw=| de/on. zh/tei no/mon *perikle/ous tou= *canqi/ppou e)n tw=| dhmopoi/htos.
OCD4 Pericles(1).
[1] delta 243. See also pi 1179 (which includes this rather gauche phrase "a general of Athenians), pi 1180, pi 1181.
[2] delta 451 (which deals with, without naming, his homonymous son [epsilon 3234]).
Keywords: biography; children; geography; history; law; military affairs
Translated by: Debra Hamel on 7 December 1998@21:25:46.
Vetted by:
Ross Scaife ✝ (added translated headwords for searches) on 21 February 2000@09:33:37.
David Whitehead (modified notes; added bibliography and keywords; cosmetics) on 22 January 2001@05:10:03.
David Whitehead (added another x-ref; cosmetics) on 11 July 2003@12:03:04.
Catharine Roth (cosmetic) on 17 January 2004@01:10:26.
David Whitehead (more keywords; cosmetics) on 4 August 2011@06:22:26.
David Whitehead (updated a ref) on 10 August 2014@04:54:12.

Headword: *periklh=s
Adler number: pi,1179
Translated headword: Perikles, Pericles
Vetting Status: high
An Athenian. In his time the Peloponnesian War began, and the Kylonian pollution, in which Perikles was implicated, was driven from the Athenians. Now, Kylon was an Athenian who had won a victory at the Olympic games and was the son-in-law of Theagenes, the tyrant of Megara. He attempted to become tyrant of Athens but fled immediately after the attempt and took refuge at [the altar of] the Erinyes. Associates of Perikles dragged him from the altar and killed him.[1] They [sc. the Spartans] issued counter-orders. But Perikles did not allow [the Athenians] to be persuaded.[2] And they say that when Perikles' mother was about to give birth to him she dreamt she had given birth to a lion.[3] On one occasion when there was thunder and lightning and the Athenians were thrown into confusion by the noise, as they were marching out to battle under his command Perikles hit two rocks together and struck fire from them. "This," he said, "is thunder and lightning."[4] He married Aspasia the Milesian, and had sons by her, Xanthippos and Paralos,[5] naming the latter, contrary to ancestral tradition, after a hero, which was not permitted.[6]
Greek Original:
*periklh=s, *)aqhnai=os. e)pi\ tou/tou h)/rcato o( *peloponnhsiako\s po/lemos. e)pi\ tou/tou to\ *kulw/neion a)/gos h)lau/neto para\ *)aqhnai/wn, w(=| e)nei/xeto *periklh=s: *ku/lwna ga\r a)/ndra *)aqhnai=on, *)olu/mpia nenikhko/ta, gambro\n *qeage/nous tou= *megare/wn tura/nnou, e)piqe/menon turanni/di tw=n *)aqhnai/wn, paraxrh=ma fugo/nta, katafugo/nta de\ e)pi\ ta\s *semna\s qea\s a)pospa/santes oi( peri\ *perikle/a a)pe/kteinan. oi( de\ a)ntepe/tatton. *periklh=s de\ ou)k ei)/a pei/qesqai. o(\s h)=n *canqi/ppou pai=s, strathgou= *)aqhnai/wn, *)anacago/rou d' o(milhth/s. fasi\ de/, o(/ti me/llousa to\n *perikle/a ti/ktein h( mh/thr o)/nar ei)=den w(s le/onta te/koi. ou(=tos keraunou= pote genome/nou kai\ qorubhqe/ntwn *)aqhnai/wn, w(s e)ch/|esan e)s ma/xhn u(p' au)tw=| strathgw=|, du/o li/qous sugkrou/sas kai\ pu=r e)c au)tw=n e)kko/yas, tou=to, ei)=pen, e)sti\n o( kerauno/s. e)/ghme de\ *)aspasi/an th\n *milhsi/an, e)c h(=s e)/sxe pai=das *ca/nqippon kai\ *pa/ralon: o(\n para\ ta\ pa/tria w)no/masen, h(/rwos e)piqei\s o)/noma, ou)k e)co/n.
OCD4 Pericles(1).
[1] cf. kappa 2673. For Kylon's coup in c.640 BC (i.e. long before the time of Perikles) see Herodotus. 5.71 (web address 1) and Thucydides 1.126 (web address 2). See also Simon Hornblower, A Commentary on Thucydides, vol.1 (Oxford 1991) ad loc.
[2] Though cryptic, these two short sentences probably bring us back from the C7 BCE to the 430s, i.e. they refer to the Spartans' demand immediately before the Peloponnesian War that the Athenians drive out the curse of the Alkmeonidai by expelling Perikles: Thucydides 1.126.2, 127 (web addresses 2 and 3). (Thuc. uses the verb a)nteke/leuon at 1.128.1 of the Athenians' counter-demand that the Spartans drive out the curse of Tainaros. Compare the Suda's very similar a)ntepe/tatton.)
[3] cf. Herodotus 6.131.2 (web address 4) and Plutarch, Pericles 3.3 (web address 5). For discussion see Philip A. Stadter, A Commentary on Plutarch's Pericles (Chapel Hill and London 1989) on 3.3.
[4] cf. Perikles' eclipse-related ruse at Plutarch, Pericles 35.2 (web address 6; and Frontinus, Stratagems 1.12.10).
[5] These were in fact Perikles' legitimate children by his first wife (Plutarch, Pericles 24.8; web address 7). They both died of the plague (Plutarch, Pericles 36.6-9; web address 8). Perikles' son by Aspasia was the younger Perikles, who was among those tried and executed after the battle of Arginousai in 406/5. (For sources and discussion of the trial see M.H. Hansen, Eisangelia: the Sovereignty of the People's Court in Athens in the Fourth Century BC and the Impeachment of Generals and Politicians [Odense 1975], catalogue no.66.)
[6] cf. omicron 873. Paralos was 'named, like one of the two Athenian sacred triremes, after the Athenian hero and patron of sailors, a son of Poseidon. The more common name is Paralius' (Stadter [n.3 above] p.330). Another Paralos, from another family, is attested in the following century.
Associated internet addresses:
Web address 1,
Web address 2,
Web address 3,
Web address 4,
Web address 5,
Web address 6,
Web address 7,
Web address 8
Keywords: athletics; biography; chronology; dreams; ethics; geography; historiography; history; imagery; military affairs; politics; religion; women; zoology
Translated by: Debra Hamel on 16 November 1998@23:42:20.
Vetted by:
Ross Scaife ✝ (added translated headwords for searches) on 21 February 2000@09:34:38.
David Whitehead (modified translation; augmented notes; added bibliography and keyword; cosmetics) on 22 January 2001@05:44:41.
Elizabeth Vandiver (Added italics;changed display of betacode to Greek in notes; added links; added keyword; cosmetics) on 25 October 2003@16:08:54.
Catharine Roth (minor cosmetic) on 25 October 2003@16:20:44.
David Whitehead (more keywords; cosmetics) on 9 October 2005@06:21:55.
David Whitehead (another keyword) on 9 October 2005@08:44:08.
David Whitehead (more keywords; tweaks and cosmetics; raised status) on 25 September 2013@07:36:57.
David Whitehead on 10 August 2014@04:56:16.
David Whitehead (coding and other cosmetics) on 22 May 2016@10:09:04.
David Whitehead (note typo) on 10 September 2016@06:50:02.

Headword: *periklh=s
Adler number: pi,1180
Translated headword: Perikles, Pericles
Vetting Status: high
Son of Xanthippos and Agariste, an Athenian, rhetor and demagogue.[1] He is the first to have read a written speech in a lawcourt, those before his time having spoken extemporaneously. He was a pupil of Anaxagoras of Clazomenae, whom he saved from death.[2]
Greek Original:
*periklh=s, *canqi/ppou kai\ *)agari/sths, *)aqhnai=os, r(h/twr kai\ dhmagwgo/s: o(/stis prw=tos grapto\n lo/gon e)n dikasthri/w| ei)=pe, tw=n pro\ au)tou= sxediazo/ntwn. h)=n de\ maqhth\s *)anacago/rou tou= *klazomeni/ou: kai\ au)to\s e)ru/sato au)to\n e)k qana/tou.
OCD4 Pericles(1). See also pi 1178, pi 1179, pi 1181.
[1] On the term "demagogue" (not necessarily, at root, a derogatory one) see G.E.M. de Ste. Croix, The Origins of the Peloponnesian War (Ithaca NY 1972) 359 n.4.
[2] For further sources and bibliography on the trial of Anaxagoras (alpha 1981) see Philip A. Stadter, A Commentary on Plutarch's Pericles (Chapel Hill and London, 1989) on 32.2.
Keywords: biography; chronology; geography; law; philosophy; politics; rhetoric; women
Translated by: Debra Hamel on 16 November 1998@23:44:54.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (added headword, bibliography, keyword; cosmetics) on 22 January 2001@05:54:42.
Catharine Roth (cosmetics, cross-references) on 18 May 2004@02:13:51.
David Whitehead (more keywords) on 9 October 2005@06:23:15.
David Whitehead (another keyword; cosmetics; raised status) on 25 September 2013@07:39:25.
David Whitehead on 10 August 2014@04:56:58.
Catharine Roth (cross-reference) on 27 July 2021@21:10:14.

Headword: *periklh=s
Adler number: pi,1181
Translated headword: Perikles, Pericles
Vetting Status: high
This man advises the Athenians: "when they consider the enemy's land their own, and their own land as that of the enemy; and when they consider their fleet as their resource, and their other resources destitution".[1] This man bade the Athenians, when the Lacedaimonians had invaded Attica, not to march out but to remain inside the walls; [he said] they should attack Laconia with the fleet. So [he bade them] consider passage by land difficult, but passage by sea favorable. In other words: [Aristophanes] is referring to the opinion of Perikles, that the Athenians should consider Attica enemy territory and allow it to be laid waste, while making a voyage round Laconia. He advised them to sail around the enemy's territory, but not to fight a battle while Attica was being ravaged.[2] [He also advised them] to regard as [the] one means of obtaining money having as many ships as possible; but the other means -- anything which might arise beyond this -- to consider unavailable, such as the theoric payments and jurors' payments and assembly payments.[3] So his recommendation is that they allocate all expense entailed in these areas to the warships. For with regard to this idea there was also the following added: for Dionysos[4] says "but the juror alone drinks this down", because much money was being spent on jury pay.
Greek Original:
*periklh=s: ou(=tos sumbouleu/etai *)aqhnai/ois, th\n gh=n o(/tan nomi/swsi th\n tw=n polemi/wn ei)=nai sfete/ran, th\n de\ sfete/ran tw=n polemi/wn: po/ron de\ ta\s nau=s, a)pori/an de\ to\n po/ron. ou(=tos e)ke/leusen *)aqhnai/ois, e)mbalo/ntwn me\n *lakedaimoni/wn ei)s th\n *)attikh/n, mh\ e)pecie/nai, a)ll' e)/sw tei/xous me/nein: au)tou\s de\ dia\ tw=n ploi/wn e)pie/nai th=| *lakwnikh=|. to\n ou)=n kata\ gh=n po/ron a)pori/an h(gei=sqai, to\ de\ dia\ qala/tths, tou=to h(gei=sqai po/ron. a)/llws: th\n *perikle/ous le/gei gnw/mhn, th\n *)attikh\n w(s polemi/an h(gei=sqai kai\ e)a=n te/mnesqai, th\n de\ *lakwnikh\n peripleu=sai. sunebou/leuse de\ periplei=n th\n polemi/an, mh\ ma/xesqai de/, temnome/nhs th=s *)attikh=s. e(/na po/ron h(gei=sqai xrhma/twn, to\ nau=s w(s plei/stas e)/xein: to\n de\ a)/llon po/ron, o(\s a)\n e)/cw tou/tou gi/nhtai, tou=ton a)/poron nomi/zein, oi(=on ta\ qewrika\ kai\ dikastika\ kai\ e)kklhsiastika/. sumbouleu/ei ou)=n pa=san th\n e)n tou/tois ginome/nhn dapa/nhn tai=s nausi\n a)fori/sai. pro\s tau/thn ga\r th\n e)/nnoian kai\ to\ e)pifero/menon a)ko/louqon: fhsi\ ga\r o( *dio/nusos: plh/n ge o( dikasth\s au)ta\ katapi/nei mo/nos. w(s pollw=n dapanwme/nwn ei)s to\n dikastiko\n misqo/n.
OCD4 Pericles(1). See again tau 515; cf. pi 1178, pi 1179, pi 1180.
[1] Aristophanes, Frogs 1463-1465 (web address 1), with material from the scholia there.
[2] cf. Thucydides 1.143.4-5, 2.13.2 (web address 2).
[3] For Pericles' introduction of payment to jurors (dikasts) see chiefly the Aristotelian Athenaion Politeia (27.3). Pay for attendance at meetings of the assembly, however, was not instituted until the 390s, long after his death; see the note at epsilon 471. As to the theorika (theta 218, theta 219, theta 220), "theater monies", orthodoxy holds that they too were introduced in the C4, either the 390s or the 350s, though some scholars do accept Periclean origins. For evidence and arguments see, most recently, D.K. Roselli, 'Theorika in fifth-century Athens', GRBS 49 (2009) 5-30.
[4] That is, the character of Dionysos at Aristophanes, Frogs 1466.
Associated internet addresses:
Web address 1,
Web address 2
Keywords: biography; comedy; economics; geography; history; law; military affairs; politics
Translated by: Debra Hamel on 12 August 1999@19:19:52.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (added headword, note, bibliography, keywords; cosmetics) on 22 January 2001@06:19:05.
David Whitehead on 22 January 2001@06:20:06.
Catharine Roth (cosmetics, cross-references) on 18 May 2004@02:18:19.
David Whitehead (another keyword) on 9 October 2005@06:24:15.
Catharine Roth (minor tweak, links) on 14 May 2008@10:38:55.
Catharine Roth (upgraded links) on 23 July 2012@01:03:10.
David Whitehead (modified and expanded n.3) on 23 July 2012@03:35:12.
David Whitehead (more keywords; cosmetics; raised status) on 25 September 2013@07:42:25.
David Whitehead on 10 August 2014@04:57:42.
David Whitehead (coding etc.) on 22 May 2016@10:11:28.
Catharine Roth (tweaked translation) on 1 August 2021@21:25:08.


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