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Headword: Apei
Adler number: alpha,3114
Translated headword: you will go away
Vetting Status: high
Meaning you will depart. Sophocles [sc. uses the word].
Greek Original:
Apei: anti tou apeleusêi. Sophoklês.
Sophocles, Oedipus Tyrannus 430-431: ou) pa/lin ... a)/pei; "won't you go away?" = "go away!"
Indicative forms of a)pie/nai are used with present sense in Homer, but usually with future sense in Attic. See alpha 3138 and alpha 3208.
Keywords: definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; epic; tragedy
Translated by: Catharine Roth on 13 June 2000@19:55:38.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (cosmetics) on 19 August 2002@05:58:17.
David Whitehead (Greek typo; other tweaks) on 28 March 2012@09:56:58.
Catharine Roth (tweaked Greek) on 28 March 2012@12:10:54.

Headword: Chamadis
Adler number: chi,63
Translated headword: groundwards
Vetting Status: high
[Meaning] to the ground, into/towards [the] earth. Also [sc. attested is] xama=ze, [also meaning] to the ground.
Greek Original:
Chamadis: chamai, eis gên. kai Chamaze, chamai.
The primary headword xama/dis appears frequently in Homer (e.g. Iliad 3.300, 6.147; Odyssey 9.290); also in Aeschylus, Seven against Thebes 357. Commentary on these passages is the most probable source for most of the information in this entry.
The headword and the supplementary lemma xama=ze are formed from the obsolescent xa/ma ('ground', 'earth'), which survives primarily in compounds from the classical period and later and in the allative/illative/locative forms in epic mentioned in this entry. Both have directional suffixes common in epic: -ze is probably from original -de, by analogy with forms like qura/sde ("to the doors/gates"); the origins of -dis are less certain. The gloss xamai/ (chi 64) is a proper locative; the PIE locative morphological suffix was *-i for stems in *-eH2 (which became Greek nouns of the first declension in -a, Att.-Ion. -h).
Parts of this entry have parallels in Etymologicum Magnum 806.5 and the scholia to Homer, Iliad 3.29 (where xama=ze appears: web address 1 below). See also Hesychius chi127, ps.-Zonaras 1846, and (according to Adler) Lexicum Ambrosianum 134.
Associated internet address:
Web address 1
Keywords: definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; epic; poetry
Translated by: Jennifer Benedict on 27 March 2008@14:57:18.
Vetted by:
William Hutton (augmented notes, added keyword, raised status) on 27 March 2008@18:34:40.
David Whitehead (tweaks and cosmetics) on 28 March 2008@04:05:46.
David Whitehead on 7 November 2013@07:17:07.

Headword: Chlôros
Adler number: chi,358
Translated headword: pale-green, yellow-green
Vetting Status: high
[The words] xloero/s and xlwro/s ["pale green"] [are derived] from xolh/ ["bile"], and from this the [word] w)xro/s ["sallow"] [also comes]. And [sc. also attested is] xlwro/ths ["greenness"].
Greek Original:
Chlôros: apo tou cholê chloeros kai chlôros, apo toutou de to ôchros. kai chlôrotês.
See already chi 346, and cf. Etymologicum Magnum 813.1; also chi 357. The etymology proposed is probably close to correct for all but w)xro/s, which probably derives from w)/xra ("ochre"). The word for "bile" (xolh/) probably first referred to the colour "yellow" from PIE *ghelswos, cf. Latin helvus, German gelb.
Keywords: aetiology; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; medicine
Translated by: Jennifer Benedict on 31 March 2008@02:13:57.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (tweaked tr; another x-ref; another keyword; cosmetics) on 31 March 2008@05:12:39.
Catharine Roth (betacode cosmeticule) on 31 March 2008@07:59:44.
David Whitehead on 12 November 2013@06:10:09.

Headword: Diasia
Adler number: delta,752
Translated headword: Diasia
Vetting Status: high
A festival of Zeus the Kindly[1] at Athens; it is called 'Diasia' because they escaped [diafugei=n] troubles [a)/sai] with their prayers.[2]
And Aristophanes [writes]: "when I bought you a little cart at the Diasia."[3]
Greek Original:
Diasia: heortê Athênêsi Meilichiou Dios: prosagoreuetai de Diasia, apo tou diaphugein autous euchais tas asas. kai Aristophanês: hot' epriamên soi Diasiois hamaxida.
[1] i.e. Zeus Meilichios (cf. generally mu 847). On this festival see Robert Parker in OCD(4) s.v. (p.446).
[2] This etymology is patently false, though a more correct one is difficult to specify. It is tempting to suppose that the name of the festival is related to that of Zeus himself (PIE *dyaus) or to the word di=os ('bright', 'divine'), but, as Chantraine (s.v.) asks, "mais comment?"
[3] An approximation of Aristophanes, Clouds 864 (web address 1), the scholia to which is the source of this entry; quoted here from alpha 1488.
P. Chantraine, Dictionnaire étymologique de la langue grecque ed. 2. Paris 2009.
Associated internet address:
Web address 1
Keywords: aetiology; children; comedy; daily life; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; geography; religion; science and technology
Translated by: William Hutton on 21 October 2003@15:31:56.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (modified translation; augmented notes) on 22 October 2003@03:56:52.
David Whitehead (more keywords; cosmetics) on 2 July 2012@06:19:14.
David Whitehead (updated a ref) on 3 August 2014@04:59:05.
Catharine Roth (tweaked bibliography) on 26 July 2016@22:47:31.
Catharine Roth (tweaked note) on 10 September 2016@22:51:57.

Headword: Diosêmeia
Adler number: delta,1205
Translated headword: Zeus-omen, Zeus-sign
Vetting Status: high
A [sign of] divine anger.[1]
"The thousand Scythians were present, more rapid than any Zeus-omen, whether a flash of light or a hurricane or a thunderbolt or a storm or a meteorite".[2]
Aternatively a dioshmi/a is an unexpected storm. Aristophanes[3][writes]: "it is a divine omen,[4] and a raindrop[5] has struck me!" –- [Herald:] "the Thracians are to withdraw,[6] and return the day after tomorrow;[7] for the prytaneis are dismissing the assembly".[8] In reference to business being postponed. The Athenians were respectful[9] of divine omens and used to break up the assemblies or everything else they were going to accomplish, every time a sign came from the sky.
And Eunapius says about the emperor Carinus: "and all of his outbursts were more violent than a Zeus-omen and he used to have fits of rage in the midst of his subjects".[10]
Greek Original:
Diosêmeia: theomênia. parêsan de hoi chilioi Skuthai, pasês oxuteroi diosêmeias êtoi astrapês ê prêstêros ê keraunou ê skêptou ê diaittontos asteros. ê Diosêmia estin ho para kairon cheimôn. Aristophanês: diosêmia esti, kai rhanis beblêke me. tous Thraikas apienai, pareinai d' eis enên: hoi gar prutaneis luousi tên ekklêsian. epi tôn anaballomenôn. parephulattonto de Athênaioi tas theosêmias kai dieluon tas ekklêsias diosêmias genomenês, ê allo ti mellontes anuein. kai Eunapios phêsi peri Karinou tou basileôs: kai panta ên autou barutera diosêmias kai elutta en mesois tois hupêkoois.
The headword is also written dioshmi/a: Aelius Aristides, Pros Platona, p.105 Jebb, 22; Cassius Dio 38.13.4, al. One frequently finds the ending -ei/a in manuscripts as an orthographic variant (an accepted form in later Greek; see Hesychius delta1918 dioshmei/a: tera/stion shmei=on; Simplicius on Aristotle, Physics 221b23; John Lydus, De ostentis 1; 15b; 37; 38; [John Lydus] De mensibus 2. However, I doubt that we should read here –ei/a and –i/a a few lines afterwards. Adler’s apparatus attributes –ei/a to mss A (which bears -i/a as a correction) and FV; in the second occurrence, only FV read –ei/a. Adler has evidently chosen to follow A’s reading in any case.
[1] *qeomhni/a is better characterized as "negative sign" (see Herodian, Partitiones p. 56, 15 qeomhni/a: h( tou= qeou= o)rgh/) as referred to plagues and famines; Anna Comnena, Alexiad 4, 2, 1; Arrian, Bithyniaca fr. 37, 4; scholia to Hesiod, Works and Days 661; scholia to Homer, Iliad 8 77a2. The word is very frequently used by George the Monk, Malalas, Nicephorus Gregoras. Hesychius epsilon2620 gives dioshmei/a as a gloss for the very rare word e)naisimi/a.
[2] Quotation (from the lost section of the Excerpta Constantini) unidentifiable. Cardinal Mai’s attribution of it to Dexippus (delta 237), based on De legationibus 386,15, is arbitrary, as Adler remarked (temere attribuit).
[3] Aristophanes, Acharnians 171-173 (web address 1), with comment from the scholia there. A discussion is taking place in the Assembly about paying the wage the Thracian mercenaries are asking to ransack Boeotia. Dicaeopolis takes his advantage from a drop of rain, interpreted as a portent, to find a good excuse to break up the meeting as inauspicious and have it adjourned to another day. He is tired of war and is disagreeing with an assembly whose only interest is the increase of the scale of the conflict; moreover, he is clearly against giving a salary to soldiers whose "barbarian" manners appear immediately, since they try to steal the garlic Dicaeopolis has brought for himself. For other allusions to the violent, often bloody behaviour of the Thracians see Aristophanes, Lysistrata 563f; cf. Thucydides 7.29.4, describing a savage attack of the mercenaries on Mycalessos.
[4] cf. Eustathius on Homer, Iliad 1.34 to\ a)stra/ptein to\n *di=a, h)/toi to\n a)e/ra [...] (o(\ kai\ dioshmi/a dia\ tou=to w)no/mastai, "[a manifestation of divine will is] when Zeus, or the sky, shows a sudden lightning: for this reason, that [phenomenon] is called dioshmi/a". Some natural phenomena, such as earthquakes, thunders and storms, were held by the Athenians to be bad omens, so that they would interrupt an assembly and suspend a deliberation every time such an unexpected event occurred. Thucydides 5.45.4 has an earthquake as a dioshmi/a (web address 2); see also Dio Chrysostom 38,18; Philostratus, Life of Apollonius of Tyana 4.34. For other portents, such as a flash of lightening, see Aristophanes, Ecclesiazusae 792; Clouds 579; Philostratus, op.cit. 8.23.
[5] r(ani\s "raindrop", a word reminiscent of Euripidean language: see Andromache 227, Iph.Taur. 645, Ion 106, Iph.Aul. 1515, fr.856.4.
[6] a)pie/nai: jussive infinitive; cf. Aristophanes, Wasps 386.
[7] ei)s e)/nhn, "the day after tomorrow" (e)/nefin Hesiod, Works and Days 410, quoted by the scholiast ad loc., which explains the word: ei)s tri/thn h(me/ran). Cf. Antiphon 6.21; Theocritus, Idylls 18.14; Hesychius epsilon1116 and epsilon2996; epsilon 1292. The old adjective e(/nos (cf. Latin senex), normally with rough aspiration in Attic, meaning “belonging to last year” or generally “old” (Plato, Cratylus 409B) is attested only in a few instances, mostly in formal language, with reference to magistrates: cf. Aristotle, Politics 1322a12; idem, Athenaion Politeia 4.2 strathgoi\ e(/noi; IG 12.324.26 *(ellhnotami/ai e(/noi; Demosthenes 25.20; epsilon 1197 ai( e(/nai a)rxai/. See also the common phrase e)/nh te kai\ ne/a (Aristophanes, Clouds 1134; epsilon 1292, epsilon 1293), which indicates the last day of the month. The connection between the meaning of the adjective e(/nos and the expressions ei)s e)/nhn (sc. h(me/ran) or e)/nefin is unclear; however, the lack of the aspiration, rather than being a mere graphical or regional variant, might also indicate a totally different derivation of e)/nh and also support the hypothesis of a relationship with the Sanscrit an-ja-s, "another".
[8] The authority to dismiss a meeting due to a bad omen rested with the presiding magistrate(s). According to Pollux 8.24 the e)chghtai\ were appointed to the interpretation of signs and used to give instruction about the will of gods.
[9] The information given by the Suda stems from the scholia vetera and Tricliniana, which, however, read *dio\s h(me/ras instead of dioshmi/as.
[10] Eunapius fr.4 FHG (4.14); cf. kappa 291. The cruelty of Emperor Carinus’ character as described by Eunapius is echoed by other sources. See Historia Augusta, Carus, 16 sqq.; Epit. 38, 7; Eutropius, Breviarium 9.19.1. The historical reliability of such accounts is questionable, however, since any negative detail about Carinus may have been exaggerated during the reign of Diocletian, his rival and successor (delta 1156).
Aristophanes, Acharnians, edited with introduction and commentary by S. Douglas Olson, Oxford-New York, Oxford Clarendon Press 2002
Aristophanes, Acharnians, edited with introduction and commentary by A. Sommerstein, Warminster, Wiltshire, Aris & Phillips, 1980
Associated internet addresses:
Web address 1,
Web address 2
Keywords: biography; comedy; constitution; daily life; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; ethics; historiography; history; imagery; poetry; religion
Translated by: Antonella Ippolito on 24 January 2005@21:15:01.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (modified headword and aspects of transation; cross-references; more keywords; (extensive) cosmetics) on 25 January 2005@05:42:36.
Catharine Roth (betacode cosmetics) on 26 January 2005@14:33:33.
Catharine Roth (corrected my correction of betacode) on 27 January 2005@00:17:11.
Catharine Roth (adjusted links) on 12 February 2005@12:10:31.
Catharine Roth (tried again to fix link) on 12 February 2005@12:11:55.
David Whitehead (more keywords; tweaks and cosmetics) on 13 July 2012@03:51:34.
Catharine Roth (coding and other cosmetics) on 11 November 2014@17:24:38.
Catharine Roth (cosmetics) on 16 November 2014@01:37:03.
Catharine Roth (reordered links) on 5 September 2016@01:18:29.

Headword: Limos Mêliaios
Adler number: lambda,557
Translated headword: Melian famine, Melian hunger, Melian starvation
Vetting Status: high
[A phrase used] in reference to hardships. For during the Peloponnesian War the Athenians dispatched Nikias[1] against everyone[2] and laid siege to them so strenuously as to make them perish by starvation. And in the first year Nikias brought Melos to terms not only by bringing up siege engines but also by starvation, because of their revolt; this had previously been a tribute-paying subject-community.[3] Or standing for "enormous."[4] Melos [is] a city of Thessaly.[5] The Melians, besieged by the Athenians to the point of starvation, were persuaded[6] and surrendered themselves.
Also [sc. attested is] "with Melian starvation",[7] a proverb. Since the Athenians afflicted the Melians by besieging them to the point of starvation. So Thucydides in the fifth [book].[8]
Greek Original:
Limos Mêliaios: epi tôn chalepôn. en gar tois Peloponnêsiakois kata pantôn Nikian pempsantes Athênaioi epi tosouton epoliorkêsan autous hôste limôi diaphtheirai. tôi de prôtôi etei Nikias Mêlon parestêsato ou monon mêchanôn prosagôgêi, alla kai limôi, dia to apostênai autôn, prôiên hupotelê ousan. ê anti tou megistôi. Mêlos de polis Thessalias. hoi de Mêlioi poliorkoumenoi limôi hupo Athênaiôn epeisthêsan kai prodedôkasin heautous. kai Limôi Mêliôi, paroimia. epei Athênaioi ekakôsan Mêlious poliorkountes limôi. hôs Thoukudidês en têi pemptêi.
The entry combines three parallel explanations of a phrase ("you will destroy the gods with Melian starvation") found at Aristophanes, Birds 186, the first two closely related to notes in scholia thereto, the third drawn from a paroemiographic source.
[1] Thucydides 5.84.3 lists the Athenian generals as Kleomedes and Teisias; Nikias was among the commanders in an earlier raid on the island (Thuc. 3.91.1f.), whence perhaps the confusion.
[2] Translating the transmitted kata\ pa/ntwn. The Aristophanes scholia have the more intelligible kat' au)tw=n, "against them" (i.e. the Melians). Without the preceding context the referent of au)tw=n was unclear; pa/ntwn will be a mistaken attempt at correction.
[3] The actual status of Melos in relation to the Athenian empire is controversial; cf. Gomme, Andrewes & Dover on Thucydides 5.84.2.
[4] i.e. a "Melian starvation" means an enormous one.
[5] Melos is, rather, an island in the Cyclades. The Suda has confused it with the region of central Greece, just south of Thessaly, named Malis or Melis. Note that the adjective *mhliai=os which opens the headword phrase is unparalleled, but a form with alpha in place of eta (*maliai=os), also unparalleled, occurs in the manuscript of ps.-Skylax, Periplous, section 62, dealing with that region of Greece.
[6] The Aristophanes scholia have e)pie/sqhsan, "were hard pressed."
[7] The phrase is here quoted in the dative, as it appears in Aristophanes; likewise in Zenobius 4.94 and other paroemiographers.
[8] Thucydides 5.116.2-4.
A.W. Gomme, A. Andrewes and K.J. Dover, A Historical Commentary on Thucydides, vol. 4 (Oxford, 1970), 190
Nan Dunbar (ed.), Aristophanes. Birds (Oxford, 1995), 195f
Keywords: biography; chronology; comedy; daily life; definition; food; geography; historiography; history; military affairs; proverbs; science and technology
Translated by: Gregory Hays on 19 November 2000@16:45:09.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (added note; cosmetics; raised status) on 19 January 2001@08:24:31.
D. Graham J. Shipley (Expanded n. 5.) on 30 June 2008@06:55:44.
David Whitehead (more keywords; tweaks and cosmetics) on 30 June 2008@07:59:57.
Catharine Roth (added betacode) on 30 June 2008@22:45:26.
David Whitehead (expanded n.7; tweaking) on 19 April 2013@05:41:12.
David Whitehead (tweaked betacode) on 17 May 2016@03:24:25.

Headword: Melitaion kunidion
Adler number: mu,519
Translated headword: Maltese lap-dog
Vetting Status: high
"For some dogs are trackers, others go head-to-head with beasts; some watch the house on guard over possessions, others [are kept] for pleasure, for instance Maltese lap-dogs.[1]
Also [sc. attested are] Honey-pie dogs, ones reared for pleasure.[2]
Greek Original:
Melitaion kunidion. tôn gar kunôn hoi men ichneutai, hoi de homose tois thêriois chôrousin, hoi de epi phulakêi tôn ktêmatôn oikouroi, hoi de epi terpsei, hôs ta Melitaia kunidia. kai Melitêroi kunes, hoi epi terpsei trephomenoi.
[1] Artemidorus 2.11. For other references to them see LSJ s.v. Melitaios.
[2] [Occasion for mentioning these arises from the similarity between *melitai=oi ("Maltese") and melithro/s ("honey-sweet").] This phrase is also in the paroemiographer Apostolius (11.24), who expands with the material already given here.
Keywords: daily life; definition; ethics; food; geography; imagery; proverbs; zoology
Translated by: Ross Scaife ✝ on 21 March 2002@20:39:35.
Vetted by:
William Hutton (Modified translation, added note, raised status) on 21 March 2002@22:28:40.
David Whitehead (added note; cosmetics) on 10 April 2002@04:24:57.
David Whitehead (more keywords) on 26 July 2006@07:53:43.
David Whitehead (augmented n.2; another keyword) on 28 March 2011@07:27:39.
David Whitehead on 15 May 2013@05:38:21.

Headword: Ô 'phêmere
Adler number: omega,275
Translated headword: o creature of a day
Vetting Status: high
[Meaning] o man. This is how Aristophanes introduces Socrates in Clouds saying, o mortal, o man, o thinker on things which last a day.[1] He says this because he is himself already thinking about divine matters and disdaining human affairs by considering celestial phenomena. Or because Socrates was said to be very like Silenus [Author, Myth];[2] for he was both snub-nosed and bald. So [Aristophanes] gives him Silenus' phrase in Pindar. For Pindar portraying him conversing with Olympos [Myth, Place, Place][3] gave him the following words, "O wretched man, creature of a day, fool, you are talking by boasting to me of money".[4] At the same time too, because Socrates [sc. in Clouds] already disdains human matters and is himself among the gods,[5] since he was a star-gazer, so [Aristophanes] made him talk about that which lives for one day.
Greek Original:
Ô 'phêmere: ô anthrôpe. houtô pareisagei Aristophanês en Nephelais ton Sôkratên legonta, ô thnête, ô anthrôpe, ô ta ephêmera phronôn. touto de legei, hôs autos loipon ta tôn theôn phronôn kai huperêphanôn ta tôn anthrôpôn dia to phrontizein peri meteôrôn. ê hoti elegeto ho Sôkratês Seilênôi parempherês einai: simos te gar kai phalakros ên. periethêken oun autôi phônên tên tou para Pindarôi Seilênou. ho gar toi Pindaros dialegomenon paragôn ton Seilênon tôi Olumpôi toioutous autôi periethêke logous: ô talas, ephêmere, nêpie, bazeis chrêmata moi diakompeuôn. hama de kai hôs huperêphanountos loipon tou Sôkratous ta anthrôpina kai en theois ontos autou, dioti meteôroleschês ên, houtô to ephêmeron epoiêsen auton legonta.
[1] Socrates' (sigma 829) first words in Aristophanes' Clouds include the present headword -- "Why are you calling me, o creature of a day?" (line 223, Web address 1) -- spoken to Strepsiades. The present entry draws on the scholia to this line.
[2] Elderly satyr (sometimes portrayed as father of the satyrs) and teacher/foster-father of Dionysus.
[3] The legendary musician and pupil of the satyr Marsyas; cf. omicron 219.
[4] Pindar fr.157 Snell-Maehler. Pindar's editors (e.g. S.-M.) correct nh/pie, ba/zeis ["fool, you are talking"] to nh/pia ba/zeis ["you are talking nonsense"]. Note also that diakompeu/wn ["boasting", usually diakompe/wn, Web address 2] is attested in this form only in the present entry.
[5] This may refer to the fact that in Clouds Socrates studies celestial phenomena from a basket suspended in the air (225ff.).
Associated internet addresses:
Web address 1,
Web address 2
Keywords: biography; comedy; definition; economics; ethics; medicine; mythology; philosophy; poetry; religion; science and technology; stagecraft
Translated by: Andrew Morrison on 20 December 2002@12:24:32.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (added keyword; cosmetics) on 21 December 2002@09:04:37.
Catharine Roth (cosmetics) on 4 July 2007@22:49:52.
David Whitehead (more keywords; tweaking) on 4 November 2013@05:50:01.

Headword: Pedai
Adler number: pi,901
Translated headword: fetters, shackles
Vetting Status: high
[Meaning] bindings.[1]
[sc. The word comes] from pou=s ["foot"] and de/w ["I bind"], the [verb meaning] I tie together: or from weighing down [pie/zein] the feet [po/das].[2]
Greek Original:
Pedai: desma. para to pous kai to deô, to desmeuô: ê para to piezein tous podas.
The headword, a feminine nominative plural, is either extracted from somewhere in this grammatical form or else (and more probably: see next note) generated by an instance of the accusative plural in Homer.
[1] Same or similar glossing in other lexica (references at Photius pi509 Theodoridis), and see also the scholia to Homer, Iliad 13.36, where the phrase pe/das ... xrusei/as occurs.
[2] cf. Etymologicum Magnum 658.18.
Keywords: definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; epic; trade and manufacture
Translated by: David Porter on 21 November 2011@07:16:54.
Vetted by:
Catharine Roth (tweaked translation) on 21 November 2011@13:16:43.
David Whitehead (notes; more keywords; cosmetics) on 22 November 2011@04:09:24.
David Whitehead (tweaked notes; raised status) on 18 September 2013@10:00:36.
David Whitehead (coding) on 22 May 2016@08:17:16.

Headword: Piezomenos
Adler number: pi,1563
Translated headword: oppressed
Vetting Status: high
[Meaning] being weighed down, being overcome.[1]
Also[2] ["is oppressing"] meaning is harming. Aristophanes [writes]: "[the fire] is oppressing Stilbides". Stilbides [was] an excellent and well-respected seer.[3]
Greek Original:
Piezomenos: baroumenos, damazomenos. kai anti tou lupei. Aristophanês: ton Stilbidên piezei. ho de Stilbidês mantis aristos kai eudokimos.
[1] Likewise or similarly in other lexica; references at Photius pi872 Theodoridis. The headword is present middle/passive participle, masculine nominative singular, of pie/zw. It must be quoted from somewhere: Theodoridis mentions a string of possibilities begininng with two in Xenophon (Anabasis 1.1.10, Cyropaedia 7.2.20); one could add Thucydides 2.89.8.
[2] From the scholia to Aristophanes, Peace 1032 (web address 1), about to be quoted; cf. sigma 1108.
[3] c.470-412 BCE. His main claim to fame was as religious adviser to Nikias (Plutarch, Nikias 23.5, web address 2). See also Eupolis fr. 211 Kock, now 225 K.-A.
Associated internet addresses:
Web address 1,
Web address 2
Keywords: biography; comedy; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; ethics; historiography; religion
Translated by: David Whitehead on 17 December 2002@07:24:53.
Vetted by:
Catharine Roth (added links, set status) on 8 July 2004@17:29:27.
David Whitehead (augmented note 2) on 9 July 2004@03:58:00.
David Whitehead (another note; another keyword; tweaks and cosmetics) on 30 September 2011@06:38:47.
Catharine Roth (supplemented note) on 22 September 2013@00:28:33.
David Whitehead on 3 October 2013@07:02:21.
David Whitehead on 30 December 2014@08:29:20.
David Whitehead on 23 May 2016@06:13:43.

Headword: Proôros
Adler number: pi,2550
Translated headword: untimely
Vetting Status: high
[Meaning] before the [sc. appropriate] time.[1]
Greek Original:
Proôros: pro tês hôras.
The headword is a two-ending adjective in the masculine/feminine nominative singular; see generally LSJ s.v.
The entry is perhaps generated by one of the many instances of the neuter accusative singular pro/wron, first attested (C1 BCE - C1 CE) in Philo Judaeus, De specialibus legibus 3.91.1: e)/ti kai\ pe/nqos pro/wron a)nede/canto, yet they too experienced untimely grief. In lexicography note also Hesychius pi4109, s.v. pro/wron with gloss pro\ kairou=: prematurely. Epigrams are another possible source: see e.g. Greek Anthology 7.643.3-4 (web address 1), an epitaph for a slave girl attributed to Crinagoras; ti/ pro/wron e)fi/eis moi=ran th=| pa/ntws sei=o/ e)ssomenh|;, 'why do you thrust an untimely fate at her who in any case will at some time be yours?'; Gow and Page, pp. 208-9.
The first instance of the exact form (masculine/feminine nominative singular) of the headword is considerably later (C4 CE), in Oribasius, Collectiones medicae 39.9.1: ou)de\n ga\r ou(/tws e)gkoptiko\n ei)s e)pi/dosin yuxh=s kai\ sw/matos w(s h( pro/wros kai\ dayilh\s xrh=sis tw=n a)frodisi/wn, 'for nothing is so detrimental to the nurture of soul and body as the untimely and excessive enjoyment of sexual pleasures'.
[1] Coincidentally, this glossing phrase occurs in Xenophon, Oeconomicus 20.16 (web address 2): kai\ a)/llos ge a)nh\r diafe/rei tw=| pro\ th=s w(/ras a)pie/nai, 'and another man does make a difference in disengaging before the appropriate time'.
A.S.F. Gow and D.L. Page, The Greek Anthology: The Garland of Philip, vol. I, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1968
Associated internet addresses:
Web address 1,
Web address 2
Keywords: definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; economics; ethics; gender and sexuality; law; medicine; mythology; poetry; religion; women
Translated by: Ronald Allen on 20 August 2013@03:56:07.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (tweaks and cosmetics) on 20 August 2013@04:23:29.
Catharine Roth (upgraded links) on 20 August 2013@10:49:33.
David Whitehead on 16 October 2013@07:57:43.
David Whitehead (codings) on 24 May 2016@07:27:40.


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