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Headword: *zh=los
Adler number: zeta,57
Translated headword: eager rivalry, emulous desire
Vetting Status: high
[Meaning a] desire of [= for] something good, without any envy,[1] arising in the soul. For instance, somebody has courage, I admire this man for his excellence: that is, I yearn to possess the good thing, not with envy of the one who has got it; rather, I too want to be courageous.[2]
Appian [writes]: "the main body of eight-hundred picked youths, ready for any kind of action, followed Dentatus, with the aim of rivalling for honour; and he was inflexible on the advice coming from the comitia".[3]
Greek Original:
*zh=los: a)gaqou= tinos e)piqumi/a fqo/nou tino\s xwri\s e)gginome/nh th=| yuxh=|. oi(=on, e)/xei tis a)ndrei/an, zhlw= tou=ton th=s a)reth=s: toute/stin e)piqumw= kth/sasqai to\ kalo/n, mh\ fqonh/sas tw=| kekthme/nw|, a)lla\ ka)gw\ boulo/menos a)ndrei=os ei)=nai. *)appiano/s: *denta/tw| kata\ zh=lon a)reth=s ei(/peto ne/wn loga/dwn plh=qos o)ktakosi/wn e)pi\ pa/nta ta\ e)/rga e(/toimoi: kai\ baru\s h)=n th=| boulh=| para\ ta\s e)kklhsi/as.
More meanings of the noun zh=los, for which see already zeta 56.
[1] The meaning of zh=los is here clearly distinguished from fqo/nos 'envy/spite' as in Ammonius Grammaticus, De adfinium vocabulorum differentia 211: "zh=los differs from fqo/nos: zh=los is the imitation of something considered good created by desire, fqo/nos is the jealousy of the goods that other people own while we do not". Nonetheless in many other cases both terms are used as synonyms.
[2] Lexicon in Orationes Gregorii Nazianzeni zeta178.
[3] Appian, Samnitica fr.5.1. It refers to Manius Curius Dentatus (delta 222), consul in 290 BCE, leading the Romans in the third Samnitic War and again in 275 and 274, during the war against Pyrrhus (whom he defeated in the battle of Beneventum) and the Lucani.
Keywords: biography; Christianity; constitution; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; ethics; geography; historiography; history; military affairs; religion; rhetoric
Translated by: Stefano Sanfilippo on 1 June 2005@14:22:51.
Vetted by:
Catharine Roth (cosmetics) on 1 June 2005@15:45:43.
David Whitehead (tweaked translation; x-ref; another keyword; cosmetics on various levels) on 2 June 2005@02:59:23.
David Whitehead (more keywords; tweaking) on 29 November 2012@05:39:29.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 2 December 2012@01:05:37.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 19 January 2015@00:09:35.
David Whitehead (more keywords) on 19 January 2015@02:42:44.


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