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Headword: *zeu=gma
Adler number: zeta,33
Translated headword: yoke
Vetting Status: high
Eunapius [sc. uses the word]. [It means] a crossing of a river, a bridge.[1]
"The currents of rivers are yoked very easily by Romans, since this too always served as an exercise for the soldiers just like any other element of military science that was practiced, [and they did this] on the Istros [Danube], Rhenos [Rhine] and Euphrates. The method -- since not everybody knows about it -- is as follows: wide are the ships with which the river is yoked; they are anchored a little bit upstream, above the place where the yoking will take place. After the sign is given they send forth the first ship so it is borne downstream close to their own bank. As soon as it has reached the place for the yoking, they throw into the stream a basket full of stones tied with cord like an anchor. After the ship is moored and positioned by the bank, immediately planks and ties, of which the ship carries an abundant supply, are laid out toward the point of disembarcation. Then they send forth another ship little bit further from that one and the next one further than the second until they extend the yoke to the opposite bank. A ship as outfitted for war also carries turrets and a gate and archers and catapults. Since plenty of arrows were being shot against the people that were doing the yoking, Cassius orders them to fire arrows and catapults. When the first attackers fell for the barbarians others followed."[2]
Yoking a mule-team or ox-team, what is called a klini/s,[3] which is similar to a double seat,[4] completes the entourage of the bride.[5] After taking her from her father's home they lead her on the cart to the house of the one who is marrying her when the evening is well advanced. Three of them sit on the cart, the bride in the middle and on either side the groom and the best man. He is the [groom's] most esteemed and beloved friend or relative. Since the cart used to be called an o)/xhma ['vehicle'], the one riding alongside [paroxou/menos] in the third place was called the pa/roxos ['best man']. From this custom even if people to go fetch the girl on foot the third in attendance is called a pa/roxos.
Greek Original:
*zeu=gma: *eu)na/pios. h( tou= potamou= dia/basis, h( ge/fura. zeu/gnutai de\ *(rwmai/ois a)ponw/tata tw=n potamw=n ta\ r(eu/mata, a(/te kai\ tou=to dia\ mele/ths a)ei\ toi=s stratiw/tais w(/sper a)/llo ti tw=n polemikw=n a)skou/menon, e)pi/ te *)/istrw| kai\ *(rh/nw| kai\ *eu)fra/th|. e)/sti de\ o( tro/pos, ou) ga\r dh\ pa/ntas ei)de/nai, toio/sde: platei=ai me/n ei)sin ai( nh=es, di' w(=n o( potamo\s zeu/gnutai, a)normi/zontai de\ o)li/gon a)/nw tou= r(eu/matos u(pe\r to\n me/llonta zeu/gnusqai to/pon. e)pa\n de\ to\ shmei=on doqh=|, a)fia=si prw/thn mi/an nau=n kata\ r(ou=n fe/resqai plhsi/on th=s oi)kei/as o)/xqhs. e)pa\n de\ kata\ to\n zeugnu/menon h(/kh| to/pon, e)mba/llousin e)s to\ r(eu=ma formo\n li/qwn e)mpeplhsme/non kalwdi/w| dh/santes, w(/sper a)/gkuran: a)f' ou(= deqei=sa h( nau=s pro\s th=| o)/xqh| i(/statai sani/si kai\ zeu/gmasin, a(/per a)/fqona au)toi=s h( nau=s fe/rei, paraxrh=ma me/xri th=s a)poba/sews katastrw/nnutai. ei)=ta a)/llhn a)fia=sin o)li/gon a)p' e)kei/nhs kai\ a)/llhn a)p' e)kei/nhs, e)/st' e)pi\ th\n a)ntipe/ran o)/xqh e)la/swsi to\ zeu=gma. h( de\ pro\s th=| polemi/a| nau=s kai\ pu/rgous e)p' au)th=| kai\ puli/da kai\ toco/tas kai\ katape/ltas fe/rei. ballome/nwn de\ tw=n belw=n pollw=n e)pi\ tou\s zeugnu/ntas o( *ka/ssios a)fie/nai be/lh kai\ katape/ltas keleu/ei. peso/ntwn de\ toi=s barba/rois tw=n prw/twn e)festhko/twn e(/teroi h(=kon. *zeu=gos h(mioniko\n h)\ boeiko\n zeu/cantes, th\n legome/nhn klini/da, h(/ e)stin o(moi/a die/drw|, th\n th=s nu/mfhs me/qodon poiei=tai. paralabo/ntes de\ au)th\n e)k th=s patrw/|as e(sti/as e)pi\ th\n a(/macan a)/gousin e)s ta\ tou= gamou=ntos e(spe/ras i(kanh=s. ka/qhntai de\ trei=s e)pi\ th=s a(ma/chs, me/sh me\n h( nu/mfh, e(kate/rwqen de\ o(/ te numfi/os kai\ o( pa/roxos. ou(=tos de/ e)sti fi/los h)\ suggenh\s o(/ti ma/lista timw/menos kai\ a)gapw/menos. e)peidh\ de\ h( a(/maca o)/xhma e)le/geto, o( e)k tri/tou o( paroxou/menos pa/roxos e)klh/qh. kai\ a)po\ tau/ths th=s sunhqei/as, ka)\n pezoi\ meti/wsi/ tines ko/rhn, o( tri/tos sumparw\n pa/roxos le/getai.
[1] Eunapius fr.93 FHG (4.54).
[2] Cassius Dio 71.2.4.
[3] (Literally "little bed"; cf. Latin lectica.) This material, until the end of the entry, is also in Photius and elsewhere.
[4] The revised supplement of LSJ replaces the interpretation of die/drion as 'chaise-longue' with 'double seat', which is more appropriate according to other occurrences. See delta 897 and delta 897 (di/edron).
[5] The participle translated here as "yoking" is nominative plural, yet "completes" is singular; emend poiei=tai to poiou=ntai, as in Photius etc.
Keywords: architecture; daily life; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; gender and sexuality; geography; historiography; history; military affairs; science and technology; women; zoology
Translated by: Kiril Galev on 24 December 2003@10:37:45.
Vetted by:
William Hutton (modified translation, added notes and keywords.) on 28 December 2003@03:07:06.
David Whitehead (augmented notes and keywords; cosmetics) on 28 December 2003@06:57:37.
Antonella Ippolito (modified a word in translation; added a note and cross-references) on 6 April 2005@13:41:35.
Catharine Roth (tweak) on 17 December 2010@01:11:15.
David Whitehead (tweaking) on 29 November 2012@04:34:18.
David Whitehead on 16 May 2015@07:26:57.
Catharine Roth (tweaked translation) on 21 May 2018@01:18:51.


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