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Headword: *tekmh/rion
Adler number: tau,245
Translated headword: proof
Vetting Status: high
[Meaning a] true sign.[1] Or something irrefutable. And 'probative demonstration' describes finding and understanding fire on the basis of smoke.[2] And if the effect always follows the cause, this is called 'proof'. Certainly, if [it] did not always follow [the cause], it would be called 'sign', not 'proof', insofar as it is not irrefutable. For example, [a woman] is pale-yellow, because [she] has given birth.[3]
And elsewhere: "one might have proved that Theodora was a daemon with a human shape if one had measured the magnitude of evils that she committed against men. For the power of the perpetrator also becomes manifest in the excessiveness of the deeds."[4]
And Damascius says elsewhere: "[Isidore] set down distinctive terms and criteria for divine elements with regard to the differentiation from human [elements]: above all the efficacy of industriousness, and of a keen intellect’s judgment in avoiding public and habitual conformity with the multitude, and of love itself, excited for the enjoyment of intellectual beauty."[5]
"He was very fearful, since he recognized [Trajan's] impulse, and that he gave evidence of his threats with his deeds."[6]
Greek Original:
*tekmh/rion: a)lhqino\n shmei=on. h)\ to\ a)/luton. kai\ *tekmhriw/dhs a)po/deicis le/getai to\ e)k tou= kapnou= to\ pu=r eu(rei=n kai\ katanoh=sai. kai\ a)\n me\n pa/ntws e(/phtai to\ ai)tiato\n tw=| ai)ti/w|, tekmh/rion tou=to le/getai: a)\n dh\ mh\ pa/ntws e(/poito, shmei=on a)\n le/goito, tekmh/rion de\ ou)ke/ti: dio/ti mhde\ a)/luto/n e)stin. oi(=on w(s to\ w)xra/ e)stin, e)peidh\ te/toke. kai\ au)=qis: o(/ti de\ dai/mwn h)=n a)nqrwpo/morfos h( *qeodw/ra, tekmhriw/saito a)/n tis tw=| mege/qei staqmw/menos, w(=n e)s tou\s a)nqrw/pous kakw=n e)/drasen. e)n ga\r tw=| u(perba/llonti tw=n pepragme/nwn kai\ h( tou= dedrako/tos du/namis e)/ndhlos gi/netai. kai\ au)=qi/s fhsi *dama/skios: o(/rous de\ e)ti/qeto kai\ tekmh/ria tw=n qei/wn a)fwrisme/na stoixei/wn pro\s th\n tw=n a)nqrwpei/wn dia/krisin: th=s me\n filoponi/as to\ a)nu/simon u(pe\r pa/nta lo/gon, th=s de\ eu)sune/tou gnw/mhs to\ e)cista/menon th=s e)mfanou=s kai\ sunh/qous toi=s polloi=s a)kolouqi/as, tou= de\ e)/rwtos au)tou= to\ parhreqisme/non ei)s th\n tou= nohtou= ka/llous a)po/- lausin. o( de\ kate/deisen, e)peidh\ e)/gnw th\n o(rmh\n au)tou=, kai\ o(/ti toi=s e)/rgois ta\s a)peila\s e)tekmhri/ou.
[1] Likewise or similarly in other lexica; references at Photius tau118 Theodoridis.
[2] The distinction between 'proof' and 'sign' is Aristotle's (see Rhetoric 1357b1-20). A similar distinction regarding signs can be found in Sextus Empiricus (Outlines of Pyrrhonism 2.100; 102: when one sees smoke, one has a sign that there was fire). The claim that a sign is refutable and a proof irrefutable belongs to Aristotle, who regards proof as being a species of the genus 'sign': "among signs, one [kind of sign] is like the particular with regard to the universal; for example, if one said that there is a sign that the wise are just. For Socrates was wise and just. Certainly, this is a sign, but it is refutable, even though what was said is true. For it is not deductively conclusive. By contrast, this [sign] is necessary: if one said that there is a sign that [this person] is sick for he has fever, or [that there is a sign] that [this woman] has given birth because she has milk. Among the signs, just this is a proof, for it is the only one that it is irrefutable" (Rhetoric 1357b10-17).
[3] John Philoponus, Commentary on Aristotle's de anima 31.16-20 Hayduck; cf. alpha 3289.
[4] Procopius, Secret History 18.1-2.
[5] Damascius, Life of Isidore fr. 74 Zintzen (32 Asmus); cf. omicron 644.
[6] Cassius Dio 68.17.2.
Keywords: biography; definition; ethics; gender and sexuality; historiography; medicine; philosophy; religion; rhetoric; women
Translated by: Marcelo Boeri on 6 January 2007@12:02:20.
Vetted by:
Catharine Roth (tweaked translation; added notes, cross-references, and keywords) on 6 January 2007@13:08:14.
David Whitehead (augmented notes and keywords; tweaks and cosmetics) on 7 January 2007@04:38:47.
David Whitehead (augmented notes; tweaks and cosmetics; raised status) on 7 January 2014@09:34:15.
David Whitehead on 28 August 2014@11:18:53.
Catharine Roth (tweaked translation) on 28 August 2014@22:12:43.
Catharine Roth (tweaked translation) on 12 February 2021@01:02:54.
Catharine Roth (tweaked translation in conformity with omicron 644) on 15 February 2021@00:24:40.


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