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Headword: *pa/qos
Adler number: pi,27
Translated headword: affection, passion, emotion
Vetting Status: high
The word "affection" is spoken of in two ways, for it is what leads either to destruction or to completion. Thus it is said that a piece of wood is affected by fire, meaning that it is brought to destruction; it is also said that sensations are affected by sensible things,[1] meaning that they are fulfilled and are transformed from a potentiality to an actuality.
And something passes from the affections of the body to the soul, for the soul sympathizes with a body in pain[2] and rejoices with one that is cheerful. Nobody is unaware that the body, when disposed one way or another, interferes with the soul. This would not occur if a certain sympathy[3] did not pass from the condition of the body to the soul, just as the faculty of memory is affected when the rear chamber of the brain is affected.
On affections: the parts of the soul are the five sense-organs, the part that relates to speech, and the thinking part, which is thought.[4] Distortion comes to thought from falsehoods and, due to such a distortion, many affections arise which are causes of instability. The affection itself is a movement of the soul which is irrational and contrary to nature, or an impulse which is excessive.[5] The most generic division of affections is into four: pain, fear, appetite, pleasure. It seems to be[6] that the affections are judgments, for greed is a supposition that money is something fine or noble.[7] And the same thing occurs in the case of drunkenness, intemperance and the others. And pain[8] is an irrational contraction and its types are piety, envy, rivalry, resentment, distress, anxiety, folly, agony, confusion. Pity is the type of pain felt for someone suffering undeservedly; envy is pain over someone else's good fortunes; rivalry is a pain that comes from the fact that another person has what one also has oneself; distress is an oppressive pain; anxiety is a disabling pain that makes it difficult to act; folly is a persistent and growing pain that arises in deliberations; agony is an intense pain; confusion is an irrational and tormenting pain which prevents one from perceiving one's circumstances.
Immortality is an affection of life or some kind of accident: That immortality is an affection of life or some kind of accident will be proven on the ground of the hypothesis that the immortal comes to be from the mortal. For the mortal will not be immortal because of participation in another life but because of some kind of accident and affection. For the same life, in being affected, is immortality. But if life becomes immortality as cause of affection, life would be an affection of immortality. Therefore, if what has been affected is not a type of a particular affection (for the affection of what has been affected is a certain coincidence, i.e. an accident, but not a form), life would not be a type of immortality. For neither is the body a type of sweetness nor the soul a type of pleasure or pain.
This topic has also been treated in the [entry] "immortal", but more broadly there.[9]
Greek Original:
*pa/qos: o(/ti to\ tou= pa/qous o)/noma dixw=s le/getai: h)\ ga\r to\ ei)s fqora\n a)/gon h)\ ei)s telei/wsin. le/getai ga\r pa/sxein to\ cu/lon u(po\ tou= puro\s, w(s ei)s fqora\n a)go/menon, le/getai pa/sxein kai\ ta\s ai)sqh/seis u(po\ tw=n ai)sqhtw=n, a)nti\ tou= teleiou=sqai, kai\ e)k duna/mews ei)s e)ne/rgeian a)/gesqai. o(/ti e)k tw=n paqw=n tou= sw/matos diabai/nei ti pro\s th\n yuxh/n: a)lgou=nti ga\r sunalgei= kai\ eu)qumou=nti sunh/detai. o(/ti kai\ e)mpodi/zei au)th=| to\ sw=ma toiw=s h)\ toiw=s diakei/menon, ou)dei\s a)gnoei=, o(/per ou)k a)\n e)ge/neto, ei) mh\ die/bainen a)po\ th=s pro\s au)to\ sxe/sews sumpa/qeia/ tis e)pi\ th\n yuxh\n ou(/tws, w(s th=s koili/as tou= e)gkefa/lou th=s o)/pisqen paqou/shs to\ mnhmoneutiko\n pa/sxein. peri\ paqw=n: o(/ti th=s yuxh=s me/rh ta\ e# ai)sqhth/ria kai\ to\ fwnhtiko\n mo/rion kai\ to\ dianohtiko/n, o(/per e)sti\n h( dia/noia. e)k de\ tw=n yeudw=n e)pigi/gnesqai th\n diastrofh\n e)pi\ th\n dia/noian, a)f' h(=s polla\ pa/qh blasta/nein kai\ a)katastasi/as ai)/tia. e)/sti de\ au)to\ to\ pa/qos h( a)/logos kai\ para\ fu/sin yuxh=s ki/nhsis h)\ o(rmh\ pleona/zousa. tw=n paqw=n tw=n a)nwta/tw ge/nh te/ssara, lu/ph, fo/bos, e)piqumi/a, h(donh/. dokei= de\ ta\ pa/qh kri/seis ei)=nai: h(/ te ga\r filarguri/a u(po/lhyi/s e)sti tou= to\ a)rgu/rion kalo\n ei)=nai. kai\ h( me/qh de\ kai\ h( a)kolasi/a o(moi/ws kai\ ta\ a)/lla. kai\ th\n me\n ei)=nai sustolh\n a)/logon, ei)/dh de\ au)th=s e)/leos, fqo/nos, zh=los, zhlotupi/a, a)/xqos, e)no/xlhsis, a)noi/a, o)du/nh, su/gxusis. e)/leon me\n w(s e)pi\ a)naci/ws kakopaqou=nti, fqo/non de\ lu/phn e)p' a)llotri/ois a)gaqoi=s, zh=lon de\ lu/phn e)pi\ tw=| a)/llw| parei=nai w(=n kai\ au)to\s e)/xei, a)/xqos lu/phn baru/nousan, e)no/xlhsin lu/phn stenoxwrou=san kai\ dusxwri/an paraskeua/zousan, a)noi/an lu/phn e)k dialogismw=n me/nousan h)\ e)piteinome/nhn, o)du/nhn lu/phn e)pi/ponon, su/gxusin lu/phn a)/logon, a)poklei/ousan kai\ kwlu/ousan ta\ paro/nta sunora=n. o(/ti h( a)qanasi/a th=s zwh=s pa/qos e)sti\n h)\ su/mptwma/ ti. o(/ti de\ pa/qos h)\ su/mptwma/ ti h( a)qanasi/a th=s zwh=s, deixqh/setai e)pi\ u(poqe/sei th=| e)k qnhtou= a)qa/naton gi/gnesqai: ou) ga\r metalh/yei a)/llhs zwh=s a)qa/naton e)/stai to\ qnhto/n, a)ll' w(s sumptw/mati/ tini kai\ pa/qei: h( ga\r au)th\ zwh\ paqou=sa a)qanasi/a e)sti/n. ei) de\ pa/qous ai)ti/a h( zwh\ a)qanasi/a gi/netai, ei)/h a)\n pa/qos h( zwh\ th=s a)qanasi/as. ei) ou)=n tou= pa/qous tou= i)di/ou to\ peponqo\s ou)k e)/sti ge/nos [su/mptwma/ ti ga\r kai\ sumbebhko\s to\ pa/qos tou= peponqo/tos, a)ll' ou)k ei)=dos], ou)d' a)\n th=s a)qanasi/as ge/nos ei)/h h( zwh/: ou)de\ ga\r glu- ku/thtos to\ sw=ma ge/nos ou)de\ h(donh=s h)\ lu/phs yuxh/. le/lektai peri\ tou/tou kai\ e)n tw=| a)qa/natos, a)ll' e)ntau=qa platu/teron.
This main paragraph of this composite entry follows, first, John Philoponus, On Aristotle's de anima 301.9-13 and 155.23-29; then Diogenes Laertius 7.110-112; then Alexander of Aphrodisias, On Aristotle's Topica 353.12-21.
cf. alpha 705, delta 556.
[1] This sentence looks like a brief paraphrase of the opening lines of Aristotle, Physics 7.3: "That everything which undergoes alteration is altered by sensible causes, and that there is alteration only in things that are said to be affected in their own right by sensible things, can be seen from the following considerations" (transl. R.P. Hardie and R.K. Gaye, in J. Barnes, ed. The Complete Works of Aristotle. The Revised Oxford Translation, Princeton 1984).
[2] That is to say, it shares its affection or "feeling" with another thing.
[3] The Greek word is sympatheia, "co-affection", "affinity".
[4] This distinction is Stoic in character (see Diogenes Laertius 7.110). "The faculty of procreation" (to spermatikon) is not mentioned here, although it is listed in the Stoic doxographies on the parts of the soul. In the Stoic sources the "thinking part" (to dianoetikon) is called "the commanding or ruling part" (to hegemonikon). See Diogenes Laertius 7.110 and Nemesius, On the nature of man 72.7-9 (ed. Morani).
[5] This is the canonical Stoic definition of pathos ("affection", "passion", "emotion") attributed to Zeno of Citium, the founder of the Stoic school (see Stobaeus, Excerpts 2.39.5-9, 2.88.8-10 ed. Wachsmuth; Diogenes Laertius 7.110).
[6] To the Stoics (Diogenes Laertius 7.111; Galen, On the Doctrines of Hippocrates and Plato V 1, 292, 17-20 ed. De Lacy).
[7] Every affection or emotional state involves a belief or opinion (doxa) that something is good or bad. The cause of appetite is to believe that a good thing is approaching; that of fear is to believe that a bad thing is approaching (Stobaeus, Excerpts 2.90.8-12 ed. Wachsmuth; Diogenes Laertius 7.111).
[8] The word "pain"(lupe) is not in the text; I follow Diogenes Laertius 7.113, where this definition of pain is given.
[9] alpha 705.
T. Brennan, "The Old Stoic Theory of Emotions", in J. Sihvola, T. Engberg-Pedersen (eds.) The Emotions in Hellenistic Philosophy (Dordrecht/Boston/London, 1998), 21-70
J.M. Cooper, Reason and Emotion. Essays on Ancient Moral Psychology and Ethical Theory (Princeton 1999)
C. Gill, "Did Galen Understand Platonic and Stoic Thinking on Emotions?", in Sihvola, Pedersen (quoted above)
Keywords: definition; ethics; philosophy
Translated by: Marcelo Boeri on 4 November 1999@14:31:52.
Vetted by:
William Hutton on 10 November 1999@00:35:18.
William Hutton on 10 November 1999@20:51:45.
William Hutton on 10 November 1999@23:48:57.
Scott Carson on 2 January 2000@23:58:18.
Scott Carson on 11 February 2000@16:03:22.
Catharine Roth (cosmetic) on 26 February 2002@00:45:57.
David Whitehead (added x-refs; cosmetics) on 11 July 2003@08:37:40.
David Whitehead (another keyword) on 20 November 2005@09:33:23.
David Whitehead (expanded primary note; cosmetics) on 9 August 2013@03:47:38.
David Whitehead (codings) on 21 May 2016@06:21:38.
Catharine Roth on 6 April 2021@23:10:10.
Catharine Roth on 7 April 2021@00:29:39.
Ronald Allen (typos in translation) on 19 May 2021@15:03:15.
Catharine Roth (tweaked translation) on 20 May 2021@00:15:05.


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