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Headword: *pneu/mwn
Adler number: pi,1826
Translated headword: lung
Vetting Status: high
It is also spelled with ā€œlā€.[1]
[Note] that[2] not all the animals have a voice, but only those that are furnished with lung and respiration; for the inhaled air is the matter of the voice. Insects do not breathe, nor do animals without blood nor any of the amphibious animals have a voice nor do the molluscs, such as the land-snails, nor the crustaceans, such as crabs [and] skytalai. But of the amphibious animals, the hippopotamus and crocodile do have a voice;[3] for this one has a voice briefly. But the fishes of the Achelous,[4] although they seem to have a voice, do not have a voice. For they do not have a voice through phonetic organs, but [that sound is due to] a certain movement of their gills. Effectively, when they swim in the surface of water, they enclose a lot of it in their gills; and then, when they contract their gills, they send out the water and disturb it as they send it out. But what is disturbed encloses a certain air which, when squeezed out, sounds with the stroke, and so [the fishes] seem to have a voice. The cicadas, on account of a membrane implanted in the surface underneath their breast, have a voice when they squeeze that membrane out and the air is agitated by their wings. In fact, they have no voice through phonetic organs. But flies strike the air with their wings, which are rough, and produce a sound. Indeed, when they stand still, they do not make a humming noise any longer. And the parrot-wrasses,[5] when squirting water out through the mouth, produce a piping sound; doubtless when they are in the deeps they have no voice.
Greek Original:
*pneu/mwn: le/getai kai\ dia\ tou= l. o(/ti ou) pa/nta ta\ zw=|a e)/xei fwnh/n, mo/na de\ ta\ e)/xonta pneu/mona kai\ a)napne/onta: u(/lh ga/r e)sti th=s fwnh=s o( a)napneo/menos a)h/r. ou)/te de\ ta\ e)/ntoma a)napnei= ou)/te ta\ a)/naima ou)/te pa/nta ta\ a)mfi/bia fwnou=sin ou)/te ta\ o)strako/derma, oi(=on oi( koxli/ai, ou)/te ta\ malako/straka, oi(=on karki/noi, skuta/lai. fwnou=si de\ tw=n a)mfibi/wn pota/mios i(/ppos kai\ kroko/deilos: fwnei= ga\r ou(=tos kata\ braxu/. oi( de\ peri\ to\n *)axelw=|on i)xqu/es dokou=ntes fwnei=n ou) fwnou=sin: ou) ga\r dia\ tw=n fwnhtikw=n o)rga/nwn fwnou=sin, a)lla\ kata/ tina tw=n bragxi/wn ki/nhsin: nhxo/menoi ga\r kata\ th\n tou= u(/datos e)pifa/neian, e)napolamba/nontes polu\ u(/dwr e)n toi=s bragxi/ois, ei)=ta suste/llontes ta\ bragxi/a e)kpe/mpousi to\ u(/dwr kai\ tara/ttousi th=| e)kpomph=|: to\ de\ taratto/menon e)napolamba/nei tina\ a)e/ra, o(\s e)kqlibo/menos th=| plhgh=| h)xei=, kai\ tau/th| dokou=si fwnei=n. oi( de\ te/ttiges di' u(me/nos tino\s u(po\ to\ sth=qos kata\ th\n e)pifa/neian e)mpefuko/tos, o(\n qli/bontes tai=s pte/ruci to\n e)napeilhmme/non a)e/ra, fwnou=sin: ou) ga\r dia\ tw=n fwnhtikw=n o)rga/nwn fwnou=sin. ai( de\ mui=ai toi=s pteroi=s traxe/sin ou)=si plh/ttousi to\n a)e/ra kai\ h)xou=sin: a)me/lei staqei=sai ou)ke/ti bombou=si. kai\ oi( ska/roi tw=| sto/mati u(/dwr e)cwqou=ntes meta\ r(oi/zou to\n h)=xon a)potelou=sin: a)me/lei e)n tw=| ba/qei o)/ntes ou) fwnou=si.
[1] That is, pleu/mwn; cf. nu 182 and the scholia to Aristophanes, Peace 1069, where this version appears.
[2] This part of the entry is taken (with some significant changes) from John Philoponus, Commentary on Aristotle's De anima 377.15-378.25.
[3] That is, 'they produce a sound like a voice'.
[4] Name of several rivers; in poets any stream or source of water (see Homer, Iliad 21.194; Hesiod, Theogony 340). See also Aristotle, Meteorology 350b15 and 352a35.
[5] Or the scarus, 'the only fish that appears to chew the cud', according to Aristotle (History of animals 508b11-12).
Keywords: comedy; dialects, grammar, and etymology; geography; medicine; science and technology; zoology
Translated by: Marcelo Boeri on 12 November 2004@19:41:15.
Vetted by:
Catharine Roth (cosmetics) on 12 November 2004@20:27:39.
Catharine Roth (modified translation, added cross-reference, set status) on 12 November 2004@22:03:53.
David Whitehead (augmented notes; augmented and modified keywords) on 14 November 2004@05:12:45.
David Whitehead (tweaking) on 7 October 2013@06:36:05.
David Whitehead (coding) on 23 May 2016@09:11:19.
Catharine Roth (tweaked translation, coding) on 24 September 2021@00:46:44.


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