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Headword: *kardi/a
Adler number: kappa,365
Translated headword: heart
Vetting Status: high
Aquatic [animals] do not have a heart, or lungs.[1] Those which have lungs cool their inner warmth by the trachea as a wind-pipe, when the air enters through it. But fish cool their inner warmth through the gills, drawing them in and receiving the water, so that they do not need lungs. And in general aquatic [animals] do not at all need moisture to enter from outside in order to cool them; for the water which surrounds them accomplishes the cooling. The heart primarily needs cooling, for the heart is the well-spring of natural heat for animals, and because of [the heart], the lungs also [need cooling]. So the heart is cooled through breathing in, and through breathing out the smoky refuse is voided. For the most part we are not able to talk without breathing, because the breath in the chest is expended. So we need first to breathe something else in for production of the voice. But it is impossible to breathe in and to talk at the same time, since it is also not possible to breathe in and breathe out [at the same time]; for they are opposite. For this reason when the tragic singers are going to extend their songs, they first breathe in a deep breath, and thus they begin to vocalize, so that it may be sufficient for their breathing out.[2]
The heart of virtue is mercy.[3]
Greek Original:
*kardi/a: o(/ti ta\ e)/nudra kardi/an ou)k e)/xei, ou)de\ pneu/mona. o(/sa de\ pneu/mona e)/xei, th=| traxei/a| a)rthri/a| katayu/xetai to\ e)nto\s qermo/n, di' au)th=s ei)sio/ntos tou= a)e/ros. oi( de\ i)xqu/es dia\ tw=n bragxi/wn katayu/xousi to\ e)nto\s qermo\n suste/llontes au)ta\ kai\ ei)sdexo/menoi to\ u(/dwr, w(/ste ou) de/ontai pneu/monos. kai\ a)/llws ou)de\ pa/nu de/ontai ta\ e)/nudra tou= ei)sie/nai e)/cwqen to\ u(gro\n i(/na e)myu/ch|: to\ ga\r u(/dwr au)toi=s perikei/menon au)th=| th=| a(fh=| th\n e)/myucin e)rga/zetai. h( kardi/a de\ prw/tws th=s e)myu/cews dei=tai: phgh\ ga/r e)sti tou= e)mfu/tou qermou= toi=s zw/|ois h( kardi/a: dia\ de\ au)th\n kai\ o( pneu/mwn. dia\ me\n ou)=n th=s ei)spnoh=s e)myu/xetai h( kardi/a, dia\ de\ th=s e)kpnoh=s ta\ lignuw/dh perittw/mata a)pokri/netai. e)pipolu\ de\ a)pneusti\ ou) duna/meqa diale/gesqai, dia\ to\ dapana=sqai to\ pneu=ma to\ e)n tw=| qw/raki. deo/meqa ou)=n pro/teron ei)spneu=sai a)/llo ei)s xorhgi/an th=s fwnh=s. a(/ma de\ ei)spnei=n te kai\ diale/gesqai a)du/naton, e)pei\ mhde\ ei)spnei=n te kai\ e)kpnei=n: e)nanti/a ga/r. dia\ tou=to kai\ oi( tragw|doi\ e)ktei/nein me/llontes ta\ me/lh, polu\ pro/teron ei)spne/ousi pneu=ma, kai\ ou(/tws a)/rxontai fwnei=n, i(/na e)carke/sh| au)toi=s peri\ th\n e)kpnoh/n. o(/ti kardi/a th=s a)reth=s e)stin h( e)lehmosu/nh.
cf. kappa 366.
[1] The source of this short opening sentence is unidentifiable (but for what follows, see next note).
[2] John Philoponus, Commentary on Aristotle's De anima (ed. Hayduck) 382.1-7, 25-30; 383.29-384.2.
[3] Anecdota Oxoniensia (ed. Cramer) 2.452.24.
Keywords: definition; ethics; imagery; meter and music; philosophy; science and technology; tragedy; zoology
Translated by: Catharine Roth on 1 April 2008@15:49:51.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (x-ref; more keywords; cosmetics) on 2 April 2008@03:41:47.
David Whitehead (augmented notes and keywords; tweaking) on 27 January 2013@08:41:18.
David Whitehead (coding) on 29 April 2016@05:35:12.


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