Suda On Line menu Search

Search results for kappa,1052 in Adler number:
Greek display:    

Headword: *kathnarisme/nas
Adler number: kappa,1052
Translated headword: having been slaughtered
Vetting Status: high
Sophocles used it with reference to booty. And [= But] it is without authority; for the [verb] enarizein [means] skuleuein ["to strip a slain enemy of his arms"]; [note] that skula [are] enara, from the [verb] a)rhre/nai, and our being within [e)nto/s] them. And the [passage] in Homer [is] of this kind: "it is indeed better to slay beasts in the mountains". For how is it possible to 'despoil' lions, unless the [verb] skuleuein could also be applied to irrational creatures? Callimachus [applies it] to the skin of a lion: "the skulos, becoming a covering for a man,[1] a protection against snow and missiles".[2]
Greek Original:
*kathnarisme/nas: e)pi\ th=s lei/as e)xrh/sato *sofoklh=s. kai\ e)/stin a)/kuron: to\ ga\r skuleu/ein e)nari/zein: o(/ti ta\ e)/nara sku=la, para\ to\ a)rhre/nai, kai\ e)nto\s au)tw=n ei)=nai h(ma=s. kai\ to\ par' *(omh/rw| toiou=ton: h)/toi be/ltero/n e)sti kat' ou)/rea qh=ras e)nai/rein. pw=s ga\r oi(=o/n te e)sti\ skuleu/ein tou\s le/ontas, ei) mh\ ei)/h kai\ e)pi\ tw=n a)lo/gwn zw/|wn to\ skuleu/ein; *kalli/maxos e)pi\ th=s leontei/ou dora=s: to\ de\ sku/los a)ndri\ kalu/ptrh gino/menon nifetou= kai\ bele/wn e)/ruma.
The headword is the perfect passive participle, feminine accusative plural, of katenari/zw ('I kill outright'). It is quoted here from Sophocles, Ajax 26, with comment from the scholia there; cf. lambda 356.
The scholiast is criticizing a supposedly wrong usage by Sophocles, but his own explanation is not accurate either. The starting-point must be the equivalence of the two nouns e)/nara and sku=la. These nouns seem to have kept their original meanings with verbal forms derived from them (Chantraine s.v. e)/nara and sku=la; epsilon 1124, epsilon 1125, sigma 707). For e)/nara, the verb e)nai/rw is attested first, followed by the secondary form e)nari/zw. The primary meaning of both verbs, e)nai/rw and e)nari/zw, seems to have been to strip an enemy of his arms and only as a second step to slay him.
To the semantic field of e)/nara belongs the first quotation, given here: Homer, Iliad 21.485. Hera, reproving Artemis for taking part in the battle, defines Artemis' usual activity this way. The scholia there mention the same difficulties, and the expression (qh=ras e)nai/rein) is qualified as misuse of language, because animals do not have armour to be stripped of. An alternative explanation uses the verb to kill (foneu/w) to gloss it, alluding to special behaviour of Artemis, who is clad in animal skins. A fragment of Alcman (fr. 53 P = 119 Calame) is quoted but the transmitted form of the verb there is spurious (see Calame 1983). A third explanation links Artemis, through the custom of some hunters to skin animals at full moon, to this verb. Both explanations involving Artemis are however based on the wrong association of to\ sku/los and ta\ sku=la and extend the meaning of the verb from stripping a warrior of his armour to stripping an animal of its skin, which brings us back from e)/nara to sku=la and the quotation from Callimachus (fr. 677 Pfeiffer = SH 268B).
There is also some confusion in this second part of the explanation. The quotation from Callimachus attests the noun to\ sku/los (meaning skin) which is not the singular of sku=la (to\ sku=lon). See Chantraine s.v. sku/los. The verb skuleu/w involved here (with the meaning of stripping foes of their arms) is linked to sku=la, whereas to sku/los belongs another verb: sku/llw, with the meaning of maltreat, tear into pieces. Still, the equivalence of the two verbs skuleu/w and e)nari/zw is correct and reappears in the scholia to Homer, Iliad 21.26b. The same difficulty is mentioned but about Achilles slaying Trojan warriors near the Scamander. The scholiast reports the misuse of a rhapsode called Hermodoros and goes on affirming that e)nai/rein is a synonym of skuleu/ein. Sophocles, Ajax 26 is alluded to, however, as supporting evidence. The two occurrences in the Iliad prove however that the verb e)nai/rein was used for both, for the slaying of enemies (Achilles) and for the killing of beasts (Artemis) in Homer. Hesychius s.v. e)nai/rw gives both meanings, killing and despoiling.
[1] kalu/ptrh is more often used for a woman's veil. This may explain the addition of a)ndri/ in the line for its usage in the masculine sphere.
[2] e)/ruma: Callimachus seems to combine two usages of this word in archaic poetry. In Homer, Iliad 4.137, it describes a protection against thrown arms, whereas in Hesiod, Works and Days 536 it means a protection from snow.
The present occurrence is the only attestation of the two lines of Callimachus (fr. 677 Pf. = SH 268B). The fragment could be about Heracles. Indeed in Theocritus, Idylls 25.142 sku/los le/ontos is used for Heracles’ garment (see Pfeiffer 1949 and D’Alessio 1997). For the use of sku/los as the skin of any animal see Lycophron, Alexandra 1316, about the golden fleece and Hesychius s.v. sku/los.
Calame C., Alcman : Fragmenta, Rome 1983
d'Alessio G. B., Callimaco, Aitia giambi e altri frammenti, Milan 1997
Pfeiffer R., Callimachus, Fragmenta, Oxford 1949
Keywords: clothing; daily life; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; gender and sexuality; military affairs; poetry; science and technology; trade and manufacture; tragedy; women; zoology
Translated by: Alexandra Trachsel on 18 February 2009@09:21:43.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (modified aspects of tr; rearranged notes, adding another x-ref; tweaks and cosmetics) on 19 February 2009@04:28:33.
David Whitehead (cosmetics) on 11 February 2013@03:32:50.
David Whitehead (tweak to tr) on 15 August 2013@07:43:36.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 28 April 2015@23:25:29.
Catharine Roth (tweaked translation) on 7 July 2019@22:18:37.


Test Database Real Database

(Try these tips for more productive searches.)

No. of records found: 1    Page 1

End of search