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Headword: *dushni/ous
Adler number: delta,1631
Translated headword: hard to bridle, hard to rein, refractory
Vetting Status: high
[Meaning] disobedient, insubordinate, independent, hard to guide, hard to partner, them[1] out of a metaphor of horses: for h(ni/ai [are] the reins.[2]
Greek Original:
*dushni/ous: duspeiqei=s, a)nupota/ktous, dusagw/gous, dusmeto/xous, tou\s e)k metafora=s tw=n i(/ppwn: h(ni/ai ga\r ta\ lw=ra.
= Synagoge delta406; Photius, Lexicon delta820; and cf. Etymologicum Magnum 292.3. Both headword and glosses are accusative plurals: see further below. Hesychius delta2572 has a broadly comparable entry, but couched in nominative plurals and with different vocabulary for the glossing.
The headword adjective is normally used, as indicated, of unbroken horses, although in Hippocrates and Galen it can mean a state of affliction in human beings. Also, it is used in many authors in figurative senses (intractable, rebellious, etc.): see e.g. Menander fr. 589 Koerte, now 812 K.-A., a generalization about women.
The present entry's accusative plural must be quoted from somewhere. The extant possibilities include Philostratus, Life of Apollonius 1.13, and Epictetus in Stobaeus, Florilegium 4.8.84.
[1] This definite article should probably be deleted.
[2] h(ni/a de\ ta\ lw=ra: it occurs in Hesychius epsilon594 (a)ch/nioi), perhaps from a scholion to Homer (cf. Scholia in Iliadem 23.465 Heyne). Note the slight but important difference: we have there the Homeric h(ni/a instead of h(ni/ai. Nonetheless, Hesychius too has h)ni/ai (eta597). Here in the Suda see epsilon 3472, using h(ni/a; contrast eta 387. *lw=ra is a Latin word, used in the Christian era.
Keywords: definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; epic; ethics; imagery; philosophy; women; zoology
Translated by: Stefano Sanfilippo on 22 March 2005@17:48:17.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (modified headword and translation; added a note; cosmetics to existing notes; added a keyword) on 23 March 2005@04:28:17.
David Whitehead (another keyword) on 18 October 2005@06:11:41.
David Whitehead (augmented and tweaked notes; more keywords) on 20 July 2012@06:48:37.
William Hutton (augmented and rearranged general note) on 27 August 2013@17:58:27.
David Whitehead (updated a ref; another keyword) on 31 December 2014@04:09:04.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 21 February 2015@01:00:33.
David Whitehead on 16 November 2015@09:14:22.


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