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Headword: *)/ampukas
Adler number: alpha,1658
Translated headword: headbands, restraints
Vetting Status: high
[Meaning a horse's] bits/bridles/reins;[1] but an ampyx [sc. is also] a band for the hair or a decoration of the head. Thus Homer [sc. uses the word].
Greek Original:
*)/ampukas: xalinou/s: *)/ampuc de\ desmo\s trixw=n h)\ ko/smos kefalh=s. ou(/tws *(/omhros.
The primary headword, which has the same or similar glossing in other lexica, is in the accusative plural. Thus it has evidently been extracted from somewhere; and if the glossing is correct, it carried there sense I.2 in LSJ s.v. a)/mpuc.
LSJ's sense I.1 (alluded to in the second part of the present entry) is that of a woman's hairband, usually made from metal, and worn to restrain a complex hair-style from breaking loose forward. It occurs in the description of Andromache's head-dress at Homer, Iliad 22.469 (accusative singular: web address 1). The prefix am(ph)- indicated that its arms rested on the sides of the head. Such a headband is illustrated from Bronze Age Tiryns by Marinatos fig. 3 (p.11), cf. pp. 20-22, and Bielefeld 1-3.
[1] The word is used of horses by Homer (in the compound xrusa/mpuc, Iliad 5.358, 363, 720, 8.382; see chi 554), and the scholia interpret it as referring to the bit. This is indeed a restraint of similar shape to a hair-band, but the word could refer to any other frontal restraint on a horse; cf. LSJ xalino/s. Wiesner takes the xalinoi/ as all the head-straps of a horse, rather than as the bit alone, and regards the ampyx as the frontal strap on the horse's brow that is brought back to the nape of the neck (p. 20). See also on lipara/mpuc, theta 58.
Bielefeld, E. Schmuck (Archaeologia Homerica I C, 1968)
Marinatos, S. Kleidung, Haar- und Barttracht (Archaeologia Homerica I B, 1967)
Wiesner, J. Fahren und Reiten (Archaeologia Homerica I F, 1968)
Associated internet address:
Web address 1
Keywords: clothing; daily life; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; epic; women; zoology
Translated by: Jennifer Benedict on 22 March 2001@08:16:39.
Vetted by:
Robert Dyer (Extended notes. Modified first word in translation. Raised status) on 3 May 2002@11:01:58.
Robert Dyer (Added Wiesner's important argument) on 3 May 2002@14:11:26.
Elizabeth Vandiver (Added italics) on 28 September 2005@21:07:16.
Catharine Roth (tweaked links) on 21 October 2011@02:12:06.
David Whitehead (clarified notes; tweaks and cosmetics) on 21 October 2011@03:55:59.
David Whitehead on 21 October 2011@03:56:34.
David Whitehead on 21 October 2011@06:02:49.
Catharine Roth (cosmetics) on 29 October 2011@23:06:46.
David Whitehead on 19 June 2015@09:18:52.


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