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Headword: *)aga/qarxos
Adler number: alpha,109
Translated headword: Agatharkhos, Agatharchos, Agatharchus
Vetting Status: high
A proper name. He was an outstanding painter from nature, the son of Eudemos, of Samian stock.
Greek Original:
*)aga/qarxos: o)/noma ku/rion. h)=n de\ zwgra/fos e)pifanh\s, *eu)dh/mou ui(o\s, to\ de\ ge/nos *sa/mios.
After the initial gloss, this entry derives from Harpokration s.v., commenting on Demosthenes 21.147 (web address 1).
The other primary sources on A. (translated in Pollitt, below) are Plutarch, Life of Pericles 13.2 (web address 2); Plutarch, Life of Alcibiades 16.4 (web address 3); Vitruvius, On Architecture 7, praef. 1l (web address 4).
According to tradition, A. was the first painter to make a theatrical skene (for Aeschylus).
OCD(4) s.v. (p.35)
J.J. Pollitt, The Art of Ancient Greece (Cambridge 1990) 145-6 (with 188)
Associated internet addresses:
Web address 1,
Web address 2,
Web address 3,
Web address 4
Keywords: art history; biography; definition; geography; rhetoric; science and technology; stagecraft; tragedy
Translated by: Elizabeth Vandiver on 1 October 1999@23:24:55.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (added headwords and note; augmented bibliography) on 9 February 2001@09:13:41.
David Whitehead (augmented notes and keywords; cosmetics) on 19 December 2003@08:05:39.
Elizabeth Vandiver (Added keyword) on 28 September 2005@20:10:00.
Jennifer Benedict (added links) on 26 March 2008@00:23:53.
David Whitehead (another keyword; cosmetics) on 19 July 2011@09:47:47.
Catharine Roth (upgraded links, other cosmetics) on 23 December 2011@18:47:22.
David Whitehead (updated a ref) on 29 July 2014@12:18:59.

Headword: *)agwnoqe/ths
Adler number: alpha,338
Translated headword: agonothete
Vetting Status: high
The man [engaged] in [organising] the theatrical [competitions]; but athlothete [is] the man [engaged] in [organising] the athletic [competitions].
Greek Original:
*)agwnoqe/ths: o( e)n toi=s skhnikoi=s, *)aqloqe/ths de\ o( e)n toi=s gumnikoi=s.
An interesting distinction, but uncorroborated outside lexicography.
Keywords: athletics; comedy; daily life; definition; stagecraft; tragedy
Translated by: Malcolm Heath on 7 July 1999@13:32:15.
Vetted by:
Elizabeth Vandiver on 14 December 1999@16:13:16.
David Whitehead (modified headword and translation; added note and keywords) on 11 July 2003@10:10:27.
Elizabeth Vandiver (Added keyword) on 28 September 2005@18:05:21.
David Whitehead on 6 January 2012@07:02:41.

Headword: *)agriopoio/n
Adler number: alpha,358
Translated headword: wild-maker, wild-making
Vetting Status: high
And a wild-making fellow.[1]
[sc. Meaning him who is] introducing savage heroes.[2] Aristophanes [says] about Aeschylus: "I know him and understand him well; I've watched him for a long time; a wild-making fellow, stubborn of speech, with an unbridled, ungoverned mouth with no door on it; can't be out-talked, blathers in big boastful bundles."[3]
Greek Original:
*)agriopoio/n. kai\ a)/nqrwpos a)griopoio/s. a)gri/ous ei)sa/gonta tou\s h(/rwas. *)aristofa/nhs peri\ *ai)sxu/lou: e)gw)=|da tou=ton ka)cepi/stamai kai\ die/skemmai pa/lai, a)/nqrwpon a)griopoio\n, au)qado/stomon, e)/xont' a)xa/linon a)krate\s a)qu/rwton sto/ma, a)perila/lhton, kompofakelorrh/mona.
The headword is the accusative case, extracted from the quotation eventually given.
[1] A marginal addition in ms. A.
[2] That is, onto the stage. The gloss is that of the scholiast to the passage from Aristophanes about to be quoted.
[3] Aristophanes, Frogs 836-839; again, in part, at alpha 3044 and epsilon 150, and cf. also alpha 772. Spoken by Euripides, who is not an impartial witness.
Keywords: biography; comedy; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; imagery; rhetoric; stagecraft; tragedy
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 28 August 1998@16:41:45.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (augmented notes; added keyword; cosmetics) on 12 February 2001@09:10:31.
David Whitehead (augmented notes and keyworsds; tweaks and cosmetics) on 8 January 2012@08:28:27.
David Whitehead (another x-ref and keyword; tweaked tr) on 27 March 2012@06:23:48.

Headword: *)/ai+dos kunh=
Adler number: alpha,676
Translated headword: Hades' dog-skin [helmet]
Vetting Status: high
Aristophanes [writes]: "take for my sake the shadow-shaggy Hades helmet from Hieronymos." The proverb[1] was [sc. originally] said about those who are invisible. But now about those who grow their hair exceedingly long. For this Hieronymos was a melic and tragic poet [who was] deviant and unkempt, because he wrote roles that were too sentimental and used fearful masks; he seemed to be (?)applauded.[2] He was mocked for growing his hair all long: wherefore comedically [Aristophanes] said he is Hades' dog-skin, since he has long hair.
Greek Original:
*)/ai+dos kunh=: *)aristofa/nhs: la/be d' e)mou= g' e(/neka par' *(ierwnu/mou skotodasupukno/trixa th\n *)/ai+dos kunh=n. e)pi\ tw=n a)fanw=n ei)/rhtai h( paroimi/a. nu=n de\ e)pi\ tw=n a)/gan komw/ntwn. ou(=tos ga\r o( *(ierw/numos melw=n h)=n poihth\s kai\ tragw|do\s a)nw/malos kai\ a)noikono/mhtos, dia\ to\ a)/gan e)mpaqei=s gra/fein u(poqe/seis kai\ foberoi=s proswpei/ois xrh=sqai: e)do/kei krotei=sqai. e)kwmw|dei=to de\ w(s pa/nu komw=n: dio/per *)/ai+dos kunh=n e)/fh au)to\n kwmw|dikw=s, w(s koureiw=nta.
Aristophanes, Acharnians 388-390 (web address 1 below), with scholia. Modern editors prefer tin to the transmitted th\n, i.e. "a" rather than "the" helmet.)
On Hieronymos son of Xenophantes see also kappa 1768, where he is given similar attributes but, apparently in error, under the headword Kleitos (Clitus). He apparently also wrote comedies and dithyrambs.
[1] See under alpha 675.
[2] The sense of the multi-meaning verb krotei=sqai here is unclear.
Associated internet address:
Web address 1
Keywords: biography; clothing; comedy; daily life; ethics; gender and sexuality; imagery; military affairs; mythology; poetry; proverbs; stagecraft; trade and manufacture; tragedy
Translated by: Jennifer Benedict on 17 March 2001@23:54:36.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (augmented notes and keywords; cosmetics) on 18 March 2001@03:57:02.
Robert Dyer (added cross reference, raised status) on 25 February 2002@10:16:17.
Elizabeth Vandiver (Added keyword) on 28 September 2005@18:13:50.
Jennifer Benedict (updated link) on 16 March 2008@16:01:31.
David Whitehead (more keywords; tweaks and cosmetics) on 17 March 2008@08:11:06.
David Whitehead (tweaks and cosmetics) on 13 January 2012@09:00:16.
Catharine Roth (upgraded link) on 17 January 2012@00:13:28.
David Whitehead (more keywords) on 1 May 2015@06:48:46.

Headword: *)anerrixw=nto
Adler number: alpha,2313
Translated headword: they were clambering up, they were scrambling up
Vetting Status: high
[Meaning] they were going up grasping with hands and feet.
Strictly speaking they used to say a)narrixa=sqai for climbing to a height gripping with hands and feet. Hellanicus [writes]: "he scrambled up to the treetops just like a monkey."[1] That is, he climbed up high, up trees and walls. It is derived from arrichoi ["wicker baskets"]. It is a type of basket, which they usually draw up by means of cords. Or from arachnai ["spiders' webs"], and is in effect a)raxna=sqai ["to weave a spider's web"]: for spiders spin along their aerial routes. Aristophanes [writes]: "[that] he might scramble up these to heaven"[2] - speaking about the dung-beetle.
Greek Original:
*)anerrixw=nto: xersi\ kai\ posi\ peridrasso/menoi a)nh/rxonto. kuri/ws to\ toi=s posi\ kai\ xersi\ biazo/menon ei)s u(/yos a)nabai/nein a)narrixa=sqai e)/legon. *(ella/nikos: a)narrixa=tai de\ w(/sper pi/qhkos e)p' a)/kra ta\ de/ndra. toute/sti pro\s u(/yos a)ne/baine, pro\s de/ndra kai\ toi/xous. ei)/rhtai de\ a)po\ tw=n a)rri/xwn. ei)=dos de/ e)sti kofi/nwn, ou(\s ei)w/qasi dia\ sxoini/wn a)nima=n. h)\ a)po\ tw=n a)raxnw=n, kai/ e)stin oi(=on a)raxna=sqai: ai( ga\r a)ra/xnai nh/qousi kata\ ta\s e)naeri/ous o(dou/s. *)aristofa/nhs: pro\s tau=t' a)nerrixa=t' a)\n pro\s to\n ou)rano/n. peri\ tou= kanqa/rou le/gwn.
The headword is reckoned to be an unattributable and context-less fragment of Attic Comedy (Comica adespota fr. 936 Kock, but not in K.-A.).
cf. alpha 2049, alpha 3942.
[1] Hellanicus FGrH 1 F197.
[2] Aristophanes, Peace 70 (web address 1). This line actually refers to Trygaios' attempt to use ladders to ascend to heaven; the dung-beetle on which he flies (via the mechane) is introduced in 72ff.
Associated internet address:
Web address 1
Keywords: comedy; daily life; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; historiography; stagecraft; zoology
Translated by: Jennifer Benedict on 3 November 2000@21:46:31.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (modified translation; added keyword; cosmetics) on 5 November 2000@09:14:47.
David Whitehead (augmented notes and keywords; restorative cosmetics) on 6 August 2002@06:20:08.
Elizabeth Vandiver (Augmented note 2; added keyword) on 1 October 2005@14:52:57.
David Whitehead (augmented notes and keywords; betacode and other cosmetics) on 5 March 2012@05:55:32.
Catharine Roth (tweaked note and link) on 1 October 2013@23:59:45.
David Whitehead on 29 December 2014@04:49:46.
David Whitehead on 15 July 2015@03:19:56.

Headword: *)anei=pen
Adler number: alpha,2384
Translated headword: proclaimed
Vetting Status: high
[Meaning he/she/it] announced, declared.[1]
Aristophanes [writes]: "he proclaimed, 'bring in, Theognis, your chorus!'"[2]
Greek Original:
*)anei=pen: a)nekh/rucen, a)nhgo/reusen. *)aristofa/nhs: o( d' a)nei=p' ei)/sag', w)= *qe/ogni, to\n xoro/n.
[1] Same glossing in Photius and elsewhere, and in the scholia to the Aristophanic passage about to be quoted.
[2] Aristophanes, Acharnians 11 (web address 1).
Associated internet address:
Web address 1
Keywords: biography; comedy; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; poetry; stagecraft
Translated by: Jennifer Benedict on 2 November 2000@18:08:21.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (added keyword; cosmetics) on 8 March 2001@10:46:29.
David Whitehead (another note; more keywords; tweaks and cosmetics) on 12 March 2012@07:59:38.
Catharine Roth (tweaked note, upgraded link) on 17 December 2013@21:30:42.
David Whitehead on 15 July 2015@08:25:09.

Headword: *)antistoixou=ntes
Adler number: alpha,2728
Translated headword: standing opposite in rows
Vetting Status: high
"They stood in rows opposite each other just like choruses, all holding wicker shields of white ox [hide]." [1]
Greek Original:
*)antistoixou=ntes: e)/sthsan w(/sper ma/lista xoroi\ a)ntistoixou=ntes a)llh/lois e)/xontes ge/rra pa/ntes bow=n leukw=n.
The headword participle (from the rare verb a)ntistoixe/w) is evidently extracted from the quotation given.
[1] A close paraphrase of Xenophon, Anabasis 5.4.12 (web address 1); cf. pi 1386.
Associated internet address:
Web address 1
Keywords: definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; historiography; imagery; military affairs; stagecraft; trade and manufacture
Translated by: Jennifer Benedict on 11 November 2000@02:48:07.
Vetted by:
William Hutton (Altered headword and translation, raised status.) on 12 November 2000@13:15:09.
David Whitehead (augmented note and keywords) on 15 August 2002@05:15:08.
Catharine Roth (tweaked link) on 30 March 2010@23:40:29.
Catharine Roth on 30 March 2010@23:41:47.
David Whitehead (another note; more keywords) on 31 March 2010@04:17:48.
Catharine Roth (expanded note, added keyword, raised status) on 31 March 2010@11:03:46.
Catharine Roth (tweaked link) on 3 November 2013@00:20:39.

Headword: *)/acestos
Adler number: alpha,2802
Translated headword: uncouth
Vetting Status: high
Xenokles the son of Karkinos used to be mocked as an uncouth and allegorical poet.
Greek Original:
*)/acestos: *cenoklh=s o( *karki/nou e)kwmw|dei=to w(s a)/cestos poihth\s kai\ a)llhgoriko/s.
From the scholia to Aristophanes, Frogs 86, where he is mentioned.
For this Xenokles (an Athenian tragic poet of the late C5 BCE) see also kappa 396, and generally OCD(4) p.1580, s.v. Xenocles. The two attributes credited to him here do not make an obvious pairing, and only the first of them may be authentic (in respect of his reported fondness for mechanical devices).
Keywords: biography; comedy; ethics; poetry; science and technology; stagecraft; tragedy
Translated by: Jennifer Benedict on 15 November 2000@23:04:45.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (modified headword, translation, keywords; added note) on 16 November 2000@05:18:26.
David Whitehead (added note and keyword) on 15 August 2002@09:35:08.
Elizabeth Vandiver (Added keyword) on 1 October 2005@17:24:12.
David Whitehead (more keywords; cosmetics) on 20 March 2012@10:46:46.
David Whitehead (updated a ref) on 30 July 2014@07:31:20.

Headword: *)ap' ai)gei/rou qe/a kai\ e)p' ai)/geiron
Adler number: alpha,2952
Translated headword: view from the poplar and (view) at the poplar
Vetting Status: high
[Meaning] the one from the outermost [parts]. For a poplar was on the upper part of the theatre, from which those who did not have a place watched.
Greek Original:
*)ap' ai)gei/rou qe/a kai\ e)p' ai)/geiron: h( a)po\ tw=n e)sxa/twn. ai)/geiros ga\r e)pa/nw h)=n tou= qea/trou, a)f' h(=s oi( mh\ e)/xontes to/pon e)qew/roun.
Same or similar entry in other lexica (and see again, albeit slightly differently, at alphaiota 35). The headword phrase itself goes back to C5-BCE Athens: Cratinus fr. 339 Kock, now 372 K.-A.
Keywords: botany; comedy; daily life; definition; proverbs; stagecraft
Translated by: Jennifer Benedict on 19 December 2000@13:28:12.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (added note and keyword; cosmetics) on 20 December 2000@03:28:32.
David Whitehead (added keyword) on 18 August 2002@06:37:19.
Elizabeth Vandiver (Added keyword) on 13 October 2005@20:43:01.
David Whitehead (tweaked headword; another keyword) on 14 October 2005@03:27:05.
David Whitehead (expanded note) on 25 March 2012@08:18:29.
David Whitehead on 23 December 2014@04:58:17.

Headword: *)apodu/ntes
Adler number: alpha,3305
Translated headword: stripping off [clothes]
Vetting Status: high
Meaning [they] having stripped themselves off. From a metaphor of athletes, who strip off their outer clothing, so that they may do the choral dance vigorously. Aristophanes [writes]: "but let us, stripping off, follow [him] with the anapaests."[1]
Greek Original:
*)apodu/ntes: a)nti\ tou= a)podusa/menoi. a)po\ metafora=s tw=n a)qlhtw=n, oi(\ a)podu/ontai th\n e)/cwqen stolh\n, i(/na eu)to/nws xoreu/swsin. *)aristofa/nhs: a)ll' a)podu/ntes toi=s a)napai/stois e)pi/wmen.
The headword -- aorist active participle, masculine nominative plural, of a)podu/w (here glossed with the corresponding middle participle) -- is extracted from the quotation given.
[1] Aristophanes, Acharnians 627 (web address 1 below), with scholion.
Associated internet address:
Web address 1
Keywords: athletics; clothing; comedy; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; imagery; meter and music; stagecraft
Translated by: Jennifer Benedict on 6 February 2001@07:12:13.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (modified translation; augmented note; added keywords) on 18 March 2001@05:33:41.
David Whitehead (cosmetics) on 20 August 2002@08:53:14.
Elizabeth Vandiver (Added keywords) on 13 October 2005@20:53:27.
David Whitehead (another keyword) on 18 October 2005@05:51:30.
Catharine Roth (updated link) on 1 November 2011@01:36:17.
David Whitehead (augmented notes and keywords; tweaks and cosmetics) on 1 November 2011@04:38:41.

Headword: *)apo\ mhxanh=s
Adler number: alpha,3438
Translated headword: from a machine
Vetting Status: high
[sc. A proverbial phrase] in reference to unexpected and unbelievable things. For the tragic poets, when they brought onto the stage a bold move designed to make the spectators disturbed at the things that were said, and to lead them to take pity on those who seemed to have fallen afoul of fortune (since what they suffered was undeserved), or to hate the perpetrators [of injustice] and those who commit transgressions, were accustomed to bring on gods; not setting them out on the stage itself, but on high by means of some kind of machine. The spectators would see this machine beforehand, but at the appointed time he [the poet] would have it turned to reveal the mask of the god. And this was the climax of the play. It was called 'god from a machine.'[1]
Greek Original:
*)apo\ mhxanh=s: e)pi\ tw=n parado/cwn kai\ paralo/gwn. oi( ga\r tw=n tragw|diw=n poihtai\, o(/tan ei)sh/gagon ei)s th\n skhnh\n h)\ to/lman w(/ste sugxuqh=nai tou\s qeata\s pro\s ta\ ei)rhme/na kai\ e)leei=n tou\s h)tuxhke/nai do/cantas, w(s a)na/cia peponqo/tas, h)\ mish=sai tou\s pepoihko/tas h)\ paranomh/santas, ei)w/qasi qeou\s ei)sa/gein, ou)k e)p' au)th=s th=s skhnh=s o(rmwme/nous, a)ll' e)c u(/yous u(po/ tinos mhxanh=s, h(\n e)/blepon me\n pro/teron oi( qeatai\, kat' e)kei/nhn de\ th\n h(me/ran strefo/menos e)dei/knue to\ tou= qeou= pro/swpon. kai\ tou=to katastolh\n ei)=nai tou= dra/matos. e)le/geto de\ qeo\s a)po\ mhxanh=s.
cf. Diogenianus 2.84 and other paroemiographers; also the scholia to Plato, Clitophon 470A (and other scholia).
For the proverbiality of the phrase see also e.g. Demosthenes 40.59: "Timocrates alone, as if from a machine, testifies that..."
[1] cf. theta 181.
Keywords: architecture; biography; daily life; definition; ethics; philosophy; poetry; proverbs; religion; rhetoric; science and technology; stagecraft; tragedy
Translated by: William Hutton on 20 March 2002@18:17:36.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (added note and keywords; cosmetics) on 21 March 2002@03:38:01.
William Hutton (added keyword) on 10 January 2007@11:03:35.
David Whitehead (augmented notes and keywords; cosmetics) on 4 April 2012@03:26:42.

Headword: *)aposemnu/nei
Adler number: alpha,3517
Translated headword: glorifies
Vetting Status: high
[Used] with an accusative. [Meaning he/she/it] honours.[1]
But [sc. also attested is the middle voice, future] a)posemnunei=tai ["will put on airs"] [meaning he/she/it] Is quietly mad, has delusions of grandeur. For on account of his dignity, Aeschylus was silent when entering the theatres; and at the beginnings of his plays he used to have impressive effects. And [so] Aristophanes in Frogs [says]: "first he will put on airs, just as he used to have impressive effects in his tragedies."[2]
Greek Original:
*)aposemnu/nei: ai)tiatikh=|. gerai/rei. *)aposemnunei=tai de\ a)ponoei=tai siwpw=n, u(perhfanei=. semno/thtos ga\r e(/neka e)pipolu\ e)siw/pa *ai)sxu/los e)n toi=s qea/trois ei)siw/n: kai\ e)n tai=s a)rxai=s tw=n drama/twn e)terateu/eto. kai\ *)aristofa/nhs *batra/xois: a)posemnunei=tai prw=ton, a(/per e(ka/stote e)n tai=s tragw|di/ais e)terateu/eto.
[1] Same or similar glossing in other lexica. The headword must be quoted from somewhere; there are numerous possibilities.
[2] Aristophanes, Frogs 833-4 (web address 1 below), with scholion.
Associated internet address:
Web address 1
Keywords: biography; comedy; daily life; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; ethics; stagecraft; tragedy
Translated by: Jennifer Benedict on 3 June 2001@18:25:12.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (modified translation; cosmetics) on 4 June 2001@05:05:06.
Elizabeth Vandiver (Added keyword) on 13 October 2005@21:00:37.
David Whitehead (augmented notes and keywords; betacode and other cosmetics) on 5 April 2012@05:03:24.
David Whitehead on 29 August 2015@08:58:12.
Catharine Roth (tweaks) on 21 September 2015@01:27:50.

Headword: *)ari/wn
Adler number: alpha,3886
Translated headword: Arion
Vetting Status: high
Of Methymna,[1] a lyric poet, son of Kykleus.[2] He was born in the 38th Olympiad.[3] Certain people recorded that he was even a pupil of Alkman.[4] He composed songs: [namely] preludes in 2000 verses.[5] It is claimed also that he was the inventor of the tragic style and that he was the first to establish a chorus,[6] to sing a dithyramb, to provide a name for what the chorus sang[7] and to introduce satyrs speaking in verse.
[The name] retains [omega] also in the genitive.[8]
Greek Original:
*)ari/wn, *mhqumnai=os, luriko\s, *kukle/ws ui(o\s, ge/gone kata\ th\n lh# *)olumpia/da. tine\s de\ kai\ maqhth\n *)alkma=nos i(sto/rhsan au)to/n. e)/graye de\ a)/|smata: prooi/mia ei)s e)/ph #22b#. le/getai kai\ tragikou= tro/pou eu(reth\s gene/sqai kai\ prw=tos xoro\n sth=sai kai\ diqu/rambon a)=|sai kai\ o)noma/sai to\ a)|do/menon u(po\ tou= xorou= kai\ *satu/rous ei)senegkei=n e)/mmetra le/gontas. fula/ttei de\ kai\ e)pi\ genikh=s
See generally Richard Seaford in OCD(3) 158 [now OCD(4) 152], under Arion [Author, Myth](2).
[1] On the E. Aegean island of Lesbos; cf. mu 898.
[2] cf. kappa 2643.
[3] 628-625 BCE. The words have also been interpreted to mean that "he flourished in the 38th Olympiad."
[4] For whom see alpha 1289, alpha 1290.
[5] Adler's '2' verses is corrected in her addenda and corrigenda
[6] Literally, "to set up a chorus". Pickard-Cambridge [p.97] translates "first composed a stationary chorus" and he notes on p.11 that "in late authors it means to 'make a chorus sing a stasimon'."
[7] Compare Herodotus 1.23 [web address 1]: Arion "was the first man we know to have composed the dithyramb and given it a name." According to Pickard-Cambridge [p.12 cf. Campbell pp. 11-12] the implication is that Arion made the chorus sing "a regular poem, with a definite subject from which it took its name," and not that Arion invented the name "dithyramb".
[8] The object 'omega' is an early editorial supplement omitted by Adler but incorporated by Bekker. The Suda frequently uses fula/ttei by itself to mean "keeps omega in the oblique cases."
D.A. Campbell, Greek Lyric [LCL] v.3, pp. 1-2, 16-25
O. Crusius , "Arion 5" in RE 2.1, cols.836-841
A.W. Pickard-Cambridge, Dithyramb, Tragedy and Comedy, 2nd ed. rev. T.B.L. Webster. Oxford, Clarendon Press, 1962, pp.10-12, 97-101
Associated internet address:
Web address 1
Keywords: biography; chronology; dialects, grammar, and etymology; epic; geography; meter and music; poetry; stagecraft; tragedy
Translated by: Tony Natoli on 7 December 2000@20:08:51.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (augmented notes; cosmetics) on 13 June 2001@06:34:38.
Catharine Roth (cosmetics) on 20 December 2001@00:07:13.
Catharine Roth (added link) on 20 December 2001@00:09:42.
Tony Natoli (Corrected typo in notes.) on 20 December 2001@15:40:50.
Catharine Roth (simplified link) on 20 December 2001@16:23:02.
David Whitehead (added keyword) on 20 December 2002@05:15:38.
Elizabeth Vandiver (Added keyword; cosmetics) on 14 October 2005@17:33:44.
David Whitehead (another keyword; cosmetics; raised status) on 12 April 2012@03:37:27.
David Whitehead (my typo) on 24 January 2014@07:40:57.
David Whitehead (tweaked tr; another note) on 24 January 2014@07:49:31.
Catharine Roth (coding, deleted link) on 2 January 2015@00:17:42.
Catharine Roth (expanded note) on 26 October 2015@11:43:42.

Headword: *)ari/starxos
Adler number: alpha,3893
Translated headword: Aristarkhos, Aristarchos, Aristarchus
Vetting Status: high
Of Tegea,[1] a composer of tragedies, who was sick with some disease; then Asclepius cured him and required him to give a thanksgiving dedication for his health. The poet allotted him the drama that bears his name. But gods of health would never request payment nor accept it. How could that be? - when with a good, philanthropic spirit they offer us the greatest things free of charge: to see the sun and to share in the all-sufficing beam of such a great god for free, and the use of water and the myriad advantages of the similar art of fire, and various and cooperative aids, and to breathe the air and from that to have breath, the sustenance of life. In these small things they want us to be neither ungrateful nor unmindful, and in such things they prove us better men.
This Aristarchus was a contemporary of Euripides; he was the first to establish the length of play which is still current.[2] And he produced 70 dramas, won with 2, and lived over 100 years.
Greek Original:
*)ari/starxos, *tegea/ths, o( tw=n tragw|diw=n poihth\s, nosei= tina no/son: ei)=ta au)to\n i)a=tai o( *)asklhpio\s kai\ prosta/ssei xaristh/ria th=s u(gei/as. o( de\ poihth\s to\ dra=ma to\ o(mw/numo/n oi( ne/mei. qeoi\ de\ u(gei/as me\n ou)k a)/n pote misqo\n ai)th/saien ou)d' a)\n la/boien. h)\ pw=s a)/n; ei)/ ge ta\ me/gista h(mi=n freni\ filanqrw/pw| kai\ a)gaqh=| pare/xousi proi=ka, h(/lio/n te o(ra=n kai\ tou= qeou= tou= tosou/tou th=s panarkou=s a)misqi\ metalamba/nein a)kti=nos, kai\ xrh=sin u(/datos kai\ puro\s sunte/xnou muri/as e)pigona\s, kai\ poiki/las a(/ma kai\ sunergou\s e)pikouri/as, kai\ a)e/ros spa=n kai\ e)/xein trofh\n zwh=s to\ e)c au)tou= pneu=ma. e)qe/lousi de\ a)/ra e)n toi=sde toi=s mikroi=s mh/te a)xari/stous ei)=nai mh/te a)mnh/monas h(ma=s, kai\ e)n tou/tois a)mei/nonas a)pofai/nontes. ou(=tos de\ o( *)ari/starxos su/gxronos h)=n *eu)ripi/dh|: o(\s prw=tos ei)s to\ nu=n au)tw=n mh=kos ta\ dra/mata kate/sthse. kai\ e)di/dace me\n tragw|di/as o#, e)ni/khse de\ b#, biou\s u(pe\r e)/th r#.
C5 BCE; see generally OCD(4) p.154, under 'Aristarchus(3)'. The principal paragraph of the present entry derives from Aelian (fr. 104 Domingo-Forasté).
[1] In Arkadia (central Peloponnese).
[2] A.L. Brown in OCD s.v. notes that "no precise meaning can be attached" to this assertion.
Keywords: biography; chronology; economics; ethics; food; geography; medicine; religion; stagecraft; tragedy
Translated by: Jennifer Benedict on 21 November 2001@10:05:42.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (modified translation; added notes and keyword; cosmetics) on 21 November 2001@10:51:29.
David Whitehead (more keywords; cosmetics) on 12 April 2012@04:04:25.
Catharine Roth (updated reference) on 4 July 2014@01:07:32.
David Whitehead (updated a ref) on 31 July 2014@03:17:57.
Catharine Roth (another keyword) on 27 December 2018@01:52:10.

Headword: *)asko\s e)n pa/xnh|
Adler number: alpha,4177
Translated headword: a wineskin in a frost
Vetting Status: high
David says: "I have become as a wineskin in a frost."[1] A wineskin when heated becomes porous and when inflated it swells, but in the frost it is hardened and frozen. Thus also the nature of the body becomes complacent with luxury and is swollen, but with ascetic training it is humbled and oppressed. And Paul is a witness to this, saying: "But I oppress my body and treat it as a slave, lest somehow I, having exhorted others should myself become disreputable."[2] For also the prophet [David], when he was pursued by Saul, was stronger than his sufferings, but after enjoying peace he was injured by the impulses [resulting] from luxury; he humbled his body and renewed his memory of the divine laws.
Also [sc. attested is the phrase] "Ktesiphon's wineskin;" Aristophanes [writes]: "according to our customs, at the trumpet signal drink your pitchers; whoever drains his first will win Ktesiphon's wineskin."[3] For in the Pitchers[4] there was a contest concerning who could drain his pitcher first, and the winner was crowned with a wreath of leaves and got a skin of wine. At a trumpet signal they would drink. Ktesiphon was ridiculed for being fat and paunchy. An inflated wineskin was set forth in the festival of the Pitchers, on which those drinking in the competition would stand. The first one to finish his drink won, and got a wineskin. They drank a certain measure, a choa, of wine.[5]
Also [sc. attested is the verb] "to bear a wineskin" [a)skoforei=n]. In the Dionysiac processions, some things were done by the townspeople, but others had been assigned to the metics to do by the lawgivers. Accordingly the metics would put on chitons which had a crimson color and carry troughs;[6] wherefore they were called tray-bearers [skafhfo/roi]. The townspeople wore whatever clothing they wanted and carried wineskins on their shoulders, wherefore they were called "wineskin-bearers" [a)skofo/roi].
And [there is] a proverb: "to be spooked by a little wineskin" [a)skw=| mormolu/ttesqai], in reference to those who are frightened absurdly and for no good reason.[7]
Also [sc. attested is the verb] a)skolia/zon ["they used to dance as at the Askolia"]; the Athenians had a festival, the Askolia[8], in which they would hop on wineskins to the honor of Dionysus.[9] The creature[10] appears to be a natural enemy of the vine. In any event an epigram appears addressed to a goat that goes like this: "devour me to the root, yet all the same I will bear fruit; enough to pour a libation for you, goat, as you are being sacrificed."[11] But "dance on a wineskin" means [dance] on the other [leg]; strictly a)skwlia/zein is what they used to call hopping on wineskins to make people laugh. In the middle of the theatre they placed wineskins which were inflated and oiled and when they hopped onto these they slipped; just as Eubulus says in Damalia[12]: "and in addition to these things, they put wineskins in the middle and hopped and guffawed at those who fell off the track."
Also [sc. attested is the participle] a)skwlia/zontes, [meaning] they who hop on one foot and who lag behind those [who move] according to nature.
"He, it seemed to me, came to his master in his rush from the [temple] of Asclepius hopping on one of his feet and when at daybreak the paean to Asclepius was sung, he showed up as one of the chorus dancers. He stood in the line as if he'd been given his stance by some chorus director, and as much as he was able he tried to sing along with the bird-like strain."[13]
Also [attested is] a)skwliasmo/s [used] likewise, [meaning] going on one foot.
Wineskins smeared with salt become better.[14]
Greek Original:
*)asko\s e)n pa/xnh|: o( *dabi\d le/gei, o(/ti e)genh/qhn w(s a)sko\s e)n pa/xnh|. o( a)sko\s qermaino/menos xaunou=tai kai\ fusw/menos e)cogkou=tai, e)n de\ th=| pa/xnh| sklhru/netai kai\ ph/gnutai. ou(/tw kai\ tou= sw/matos h( fu/sis xaunou=tai me\n th=| trufh=| kai\ e)cogkou=tai, th=| de\ a)skhtikh=| a)gwgh=| tapeinou=tai kai= pie/zetai. kai\ tou/tou ma/rtus o( *pau=los bow=n: a)ll' u(popie/zw mou to\ sw=ma kai\ doulagwgw=, mh/ pws a)/llois khru/cas au)to\s a)do/kimos ge/nwmai. toiga/rtoi kai\ o( profh/ths, e)peidh\ diwko/menos u(po\ tou= *saou\l krei/ttwn h)=n tw=n paqw=n, ei)rh/nhs de\ a)polau/sas toi=s a)po\ th=s trufh=s e)bla/bh skirth/masi, tapeinw/sas to\ sw=ma tw=n qei/wn no/mwn th\n mnh/mhn a)nenew/sato. kai\ *)asko\s *kthsifw=ntos: *)aristofa/nhs: kata\ ta\ pa/tria tou\s xoa\s pi/nein u(po\ th=s sa/lpiggos: o(\s d' a)\n e)kpi/h| prw/tistos, a)sko\n *kthsifw=ntos lh/yetai. e)n ga\r tai=s *xoai=s a)gw\n h)=n peri\ tou= e)kpiei=n prw=to/n tina xoa=, kai\ o( nikw=n e)ste/feto fulli/nw| stefa/nw| kai\ a)sko\n oi)/nou e)la/mbane. pro\s sa/lpiggas de\ e)/pinon. o( de\ *kthsifw=n w(s paxu\s kai\ proga/stwr e)skw/pteto. e)ti/qeto de\ a)sko\s pefushme/nos e)n th=| tw=n *xow=n e(orth=|, e)f' ou(= tou\s pi/nontas pro\s a)gw=nas e(sta/nai, to\n propio/nta de\ w(s nikh/santa lamba/nein a)sko/n. e)/pinon de\ me/tron ti oi(=on xoa=. kai\ *)askoforei=n. e)n tai=s *dionusiakai=s pompai=s, ta\ me\n u(po\ tw=n a)stw=n e)pra/tteto, ta\ de\ toi=s metoi/kois poiei=n u(po\ tw=n nomoqethsa/ntwn prosete/takto. oi( me\n ou)=n me/toikoi xitw=nas e)nedu/onto xrw=ma e)/xontas foinikou=n kai\ ska/fos e)/feron: o(/qen skafhfo/roi proshgoreu/onto. oi( de\ a)stoi\ e)sqh=ta ei)=xon, h(\n e)bou/lonto, kai\ a)skou\s e)p' w)/mwn e)/feron: o(/qen a)skofo/roi e)kalou=nto. kai\ paroimi/a: *)askw=| mormolu/ttesqai, e)pi\ tw=n ei)kh= kai\ diakenh=s dedittome/nwn. kai\ *)askwli/azon: e(orth\n oi( *)aqhnai=oi h)=gon ta\ *skw/lia, e)n h(=| h(/llonto toi=s a)skoi=s ei)s timh\n tou= *dionu/sou. dokei= de\ e)xqro\n ei)=nai th=| a)mpe/lw| to\ zw=|on. a)me/lei gou=n kai\ e)pi/gramma fai/netai pro\s th\n ai)=ga ou(/tws e)/xon: kh)/n me fa/gh|s e)pi\ r(i/zan, o(/mws d' e)/ti karpoforh/sw, o(/sson e)pilei=yai soi\, tra/ge, quome/nw|. *)askwli/aze de\ a)nti\ tou= a(/llou: kuri/ws a)skwlia/zein e)/legon to\ e)pi\ tw=n a)skw=n a(/llesqai e(/neka tou= gelwtopoiei=n. e)n me/sw| de\ tou= qea/trou e)ti/qento a)skou\s pefushme/nous kai\ a)lhlimme/nous, ei)s ou(\s e)nallo/menoi w)li/sqainon: kaqa/per *eu)/boulos e)n *damali/a| fhsi\n ou(/tws: kai\ pro/s ge tou/tois a)sko\n e)s me/son kataqe/ntes e)na/llesqe kai\ kagxa/zete e)pi\ toi=s katarre/ousin a)po\ keleu/smatos. kai\ *)askwlia/zontes, e)f' e(no\s podo\s e)fallo/menoi, u(sterou/menoi tw=n kata\ fu/sin. o(\ de\ e)moi\ dokei=n, o(rmh=| th=| para\ tou= *)asklhpiou= e)s to\n despo/thn a)skwlia/zwn qa/teron tw=n podw=n e)/rxetai, kai\ o)/rqrion a)|dome/nou tou= paia=nos tw=| *)asklhpiw=| e(auto\n a)pofai/nei tw=n xoreutw=n, e(/na kai\ e)n ta/cei sta\s w(/sper ou)=n para/ tinos labw\n xorode/ktou th\n sta/sin, w(s oi(=o/s te h)=n suna/|dein e)peira=to tw=| o)rniqei/w| me/lei. kai\ *)askwliasmo\s o(moi/ws, to\ e)f' e(no\s podo\s bai/nein. o(/ti oi( a)skoi\ a(lsi\ smhxo/menoi belti/ones gi/nontai.
[1] Psalm 118.83 LXX. This first paragraph of the entry comes from Theodoret's commentary on it (PG 80, 1848bc).
[2] 1 Corinthians 9.27.
[3] Aristophanes, Acharnians 1000-2 (web address 1). What follows here derives from scholiastic comment on the line.
[4] The Khoes, the second day of the Anthesteria festival; see also chi 369.
[5] About three quarts, or 2.8 liters.
[6] *ska/fos here is in error for ska/fas, trays.
[7] cf. mu 1251.
[8] Scholia in three manuscripts provide the correction *)askw/lia for the erroneous *skw/lia.
[9] From the scholia to Aristophanes, Wealth [Plutus] 1129.
[10] Explained in the next sentence.
[11] Greek Anthology 9.75.
[12] Eubulus fr. 8 Kock, now 7 K.-A. -- from his Amaltheia, in fact.
[13] Aelian fr. 101b Domingo-Forasté, 98 Hercher (a man from Tanagra experiences a miracle cure); cf. sigma 1606, chi 407.
[14] From alpha 1409.
Associated internet address:
Web address 1
Keywords: biography; botany; Christianity; clothing; comedy; daily life; definition; ethics; food; imagery; law; medicine; meter and music; poetry; proverbs; religion; science and technology; stagecraft; zoology
Translated by: Jennifer Benedict on 30 March 2002@23:49:06.
Vetted by:
William Hutton (Modified translation, cosmetics, raised status) on 31 March 2002@13:19:27.
Catharine Roth (fixed typo) on 31 March 2002@14:07:03.
David Whitehead (modified translation; augmented notes and keywords; cosmetics) on 10 April 2002@07:30:46.
David Whitehead (betacoding and other cosmetics; augmented n.1) on 25 May 2004@08:58:32.
David Whitehead (another keyword) on 7 October 2005@08:21:58.
Elizabeth Vandiver (Added keyword) on 14 April 2007@23:36:07.
David Whitehead (tweaked tr) on 12 June 2009@03:45:52.
David Whitehead (more keywords; tweaks and cosmetics) on 24 April 2012@10:12:58.
Catharine Roth (upgraded link, updated reference, cosmetics) on 25 November 2012@12:14:47.
David Whitehead on 30 December 2014@07:56:32.
David Whitehead on 1 September 2015@08:52:40.
Catharine Roth (tweaks and cosmetics) on 17 December 2015@01:06:22.

Headword: *ai)gei/rou qe/a
Adler number: alphaiota,35
Translated headword: poplar
Vetting Status: high
The white [sc. variety].[1] A type of plant.
Poplar's view: there was a poplar in Athens near to the shrine; there they used to set up the benches before the theater existed.[2]
From this poplar those who did not have a place used to watch. But Aigiros [is] a name of a city.[3]
Greek Original:
*ai)/geiros: h( leu/kh. ei)=dos futou=. *ai)gei/rou qe/a: ai)/geiros h)=n *)aqh/nhsi plhsi/on tou= i(erou=: e)/nqa pri\n gene/sqai qe/atron, ta\ i)kri/a e)ph/gnuon. a)f' h(=s ai)gei/rou oi( mh\ e)/xontes to/pon e)qew/roun. *ai)/giros de\ o)/noma po/lews.
NB: the online headword is incorrect; it should be ai)/geiros, not the subsidiary lemma ai)gei/rou qe/a.
[1] i.e. populus alba. Note, however, LSJ's belief that this term refers to the black variety, populus nigra.
[2] See already under alpha 2952. (For benches cf. iota 275.) The Suda's 'near to the shrine' looks incomplete or otherwise faulty, but it is already in Hesychius alpha1695. Modern scholarship would suggest that the hieron in question is that of Lenaean Dionysus; see Pickard-Cambridge/Gould/Lewis 37-38.
[3] See alphaiota 58.
A.W. Pickard-Cambridge, The Dramatic Festivals of Athens, 2nd edition with new supplement, revised J. Gould & D.M. Lewis (Oxford: Clarendon Press 1988)
Keywords: architecture; botany; comedy; daily life; geography; history; proverbs; religion; stagecraft; tragedy
Translated by: William Hutton on 22 May 2003@21:51:11.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (added note and keyword; cosmetics) on 23 May 2003@04:32:14.
Elizabeth Vandiver (Added keyword) on 17 October 2005@18:44:47.
David Whitehead (augmented notes; tweaks and cosmetics) on 10 May 2012@08:53:58.
David Whitehead (cosmetics) on 4 August 2015@03:19:47.
David Whitehead (expanded n.2) on 22 November 2015@06:33:36.

Headword: *ai)\ ai)/
Adler number: alphaiota,91

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