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Headword: Ἀγάθαρχος
Adler number: alpha,109
Translated headword: Agatharkhos, Agatharchos, Agatharchus
Vetting Status: high
A proper name. He was an outstanding painter from nature, the son of Eudemos, of Samian stock.
Greek Original:
Ἀγάθαρχος: ὄνομα κύριον. ἦν δὲ ζωγράφος ἐπιφανὴς, Εὐδήμου υἱὸς, τὸ δὲ γένος Σάμιος.
After the initial gloss, this entry derives from Harpokration s.v., commenting on Demosthenes 21.147 (web address 1).
The other primary sources on A. (translated in Pollitt, below) are Plutarch, Life of Pericles 13.2 (web address 2); Plutarch, Life of Alcibiades 16.4 (web address 3); Vitruvius, On Architecture 7, praef. 1l (web address 4).
According to tradition, A. was the first painter to make a theatrical skene (for Aeschylus).
OCD(4) s.v. (p.35)
J.J. Pollitt, The Art of Ancient Greece (Cambridge 1990) 145-6 (with 188)
Associated internet addresses:
Web address 1,
Web address 2,
Web address 3,
Web address 4
Keywords: art history; biography; definition; geography; rhetoric; science and technology; stagecraft; tragedy
Translated by: Elizabeth Vandiver on 1 October 1999@23:24:55.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (added headwords and note; augmented bibliography) on 9 February 2001@09:13:41.
David Whitehead (augmented notes and keywords; cosmetics) on 19 December 2003@08:05:39.
Elizabeth Vandiver (Added keyword) on 28 September 2005@20:10:00.
Jennifer Benedict (added links) on 26 March 2008@00:23:53.
David Whitehead (another keyword; cosmetics) on 19 July 2011@09:47:47.
Catharine Roth (upgraded links, other cosmetics) on 23 December 2011@18:47:22.
David Whitehead (updated a ref) on 29 July 2014@12:18:59.

Headword: Ἀγωνοθέτης
Adler number: alpha,338
Translated headword: agonothete
Vetting Status: high
The man [engaged] in [organising] the theatrical [competitions]; but athlothete [is] the man [engaged] in [organising] the athletic [competitions].
Greek Original:
Ἀγωνοθέτης: ὁ ἐν τοῖς σκηνικοῖς, Ἀθλοθέτης δὲ ὁ ἐν τοῖς γυμνικοῖς.
An interesting distinction, but uncorroborated outside lexicography.
Keywords: athletics; comedy; daily life; definition; stagecraft; tragedy
Translated by: Malcolm Heath on 7 July 1999@13:32:15.
Vetted by:
Elizabeth Vandiver on 14 December 1999@16:13:16.
David Whitehead (modified headword and translation; added note and keywords) on 11 July 2003@10:10:27.
Elizabeth Vandiver (Added keyword) on 28 September 2005@18:05:21.
David Whitehead on 6 January 2012@07:02:41.

Headword: Ἀγριοποιόν
Adler number: alpha,358
Translated headword: wild-maker, wild-making
Vetting Status: high
And a wild-making fellow.[1]
[sc. Meaning him who is] introducing savage heroes.[2] Aristophanes [says] about Aeschylus: "I know him and understand him well; I've watched him for a long time; a wild-making fellow, stubborn of speech, with an unbridled, ungoverned mouth with no door on it; can't be out-talked, blathers in big boastful bundles."[3]
Greek Original:
Ἀγριοποιόν. καὶ ἄνθρωπος ἀγριοποιός. ἀγρίους εἰσάγοντα τοὺς ἥρωας. Ἀριστοφάνης περὶ Αἰσχύλου: ἐγᾦδα τοῦτον κἀξεπίσταμαι καὶ διέσκεμμαι πάλαι, ἄνθρωπον ἀγριοποιὸν, αὐθαδόστομον, ἔχοντ' ἀχάλινον ἀκρατὲς ἀθύρωτον στόμα, ἀπεριλάλητον, κομποφακελορρήμονα.
The headword is the accusative case, extracted from the quotation eventually given.
[1] A marginal addition in ms. A.
[2] That is, onto the stage. The gloss is that of the scholiast to the passage from Aristophanes about to be quoted.
[3] Aristophanes, Frogs 836-839; again, in part, at alpha 3044 and epsilon 150, and cf. also alpha 772. Spoken by Euripides, who is not an impartial witness.
Keywords: biography; comedy; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; imagery; rhetoric; stagecraft; tragedy
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 28 August 1998@16:41:45.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (augmented notes; added keyword; cosmetics) on 12 February 2001@09:10:31.
David Whitehead (augmented notes and keyworsds; tweaks and cosmetics) on 8 January 2012@08:28:27.
David Whitehead (another x-ref and keyword; tweaked tr) on 27 March 2012@06:23:48.

Headword: Ἄϊδος κυνῆ
Adler number: alpha,676
Translated headword: Hades' dog-skin [helmet]
Vetting Status: high
Aristophanes [writes]: "take for my sake the shadow-shaggy Hades helmet from Hieronymos." The proverb[1] was [sc. originally] said about those who are invisible. But now about those who grow their hair exceedingly long. For this Hieronymos was a melic and tragic poet [who was] deviant and unkempt, because he wrote roles that were too sentimental and used fearful masks; he seemed to be (?)applauded.[2] He was mocked for growing his hair all long: wherefore comedically [Aristophanes] said he is Hades' dog-skin, since he has long hair.
Greek Original:
Ἄϊδος κυνῆ: Ἀριστοφάνης: λάβε δ' ἐμοῦ γ' ἕνεκα παρ' Ἱερωνύμου σκοτοδασυπυκνότριχα τὴν Ἄϊδος κυνῆν. ἐπὶ τῶν ἀφανῶν εἴρηται ἡ παροιμία. νῦν δὲ ἐπὶ τῶν ἄγαν κομώντων. οὗτος γὰρ ὁ Ἱερώνυμος μελῶν ἦν ποιητὴς καὶ τραγῳδὸς ἀνώμαλος καὶ ἀνοικονόμητος, διὰ τὸ ἄγαν ἐμπαθεῖς γράφειν ὑποθέσεις καὶ φοβεροῖς προσωπείοις χρῆσθαι: ἐδόκει κροτεῖσθαι. ἐκωμῳδεῖτο δὲ ὡς πάνυ κομῶν: διόπερ Ἄϊδος κυνῆν ἔφη αὐτὸν κωμῳδικῶς, ὡς κουρειῶντα.
Aristophanes, Acharnians 388-390 (web address 1 below), with scholia. Modern editors prefer τιν to the transmitted τὴν , i.e. "a" rather than "the" helmet.)
On Hieronymos son of Xenophantes see also kappa 1768, where he is given similar attributes but, apparently in error, under the headword Kleitos (Clitus). He apparently also wrote comedies and dithyrambs.
[1] See under alpha 675.
[2] The sense of the multi-meaning verb κροτεῖσθαι here is unclear.
Associated internet address:
Web address 1
Keywords: biography; clothing; comedy; daily life; ethics; gender and sexuality; imagery; military affairs; mythology; poetry; proverbs; stagecraft; trade and manufacture; tragedy
Translated by: Jennifer Benedict on 17 March 2001@23:54:36.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (augmented notes and keywords; cosmetics) on 18 March 2001@03:57:02.
Robert Dyer (added cross reference, raised status) on 25 February 2002@10:16:17.
Elizabeth Vandiver (Added keyword) on 28 September 2005@18:13:50.
Jennifer Benedict (updated link) on 16 March 2008@16:01:31.
David Whitehead (more keywords; tweaks and cosmetics) on 17 March 2008@08:11:06.
David Whitehead (tweaks and cosmetics) on 13 January 2012@09:00:16.
Catharine Roth (upgraded link) on 17 January 2012@00:13:28.
David Whitehead (more keywords) on 1 May 2015@06:48:46.

Headword: Ἀνερριχῶντο
Adler number: alpha,2313
Translated headword: they were clambering up, they were scrambling up
Vetting Status: high
[Meaning] they were going up grasping with hands and feet.
Strictly speaking they used to say ἀναρριχᾶσθαι for climbing to a height gripping with hands and feet. Hellanicus [writes]: "he scrambled up to the treetops just like a monkey."[1] That is, he climbed up high, up trees and walls. It is derived from arrichoi ["wicker baskets"]. It is a type of basket, which they usually draw up by means of cords. Or from arachnai ["spiders' webs"], and is in effect ἀραχνᾶσθαι ["to weave a spider's web"]: for spiders spin along their aerial routes. Aristophanes [writes]: "[that] he might scramble up these to heaven"[2] - speaking about the dung-beetle.
Greek Original:
Ἀνερριχῶντο: χερσὶ καὶ ποσὶ περιδρασσόμενοι ἀνήρχοντο. κυρίως τὸ τοῖς ποσὶ καὶ χερσὶ βιαζόμενον εἰς ὕψος ἀναβαίνειν ἀναρριχᾶσθαι ἔλεγον. Ἑλλάνικος: ἀναρριχᾶται δὲ ὥσπερ πίθηκος ἐπ' ἄκρα τὰ δένδρα. τουτέστι πρὸς ὕψος ἀνέβαινε, πρὸς δένδρα καὶ τοίχους. εἴρηται δὲ ἀπὸ τῶν ἀρρίχων. εἶδος δέ ἐστι κοφίνων, οὓς εἰώθασι διὰ σχοινίων ἀνιμᾶν. ἢ ἀπὸ τῶν ἀραχνῶν, καί ἐστιν οἷον ἀραχνᾶσθαι: αἱ γὰρ ἀράχναι νήθουσι κατὰ τὰς ἐναερίους ὁδούς. Ἀριστοφάνης: πρὸς ταῦτ' ἀνερριχᾶτ' ἂν πρὸς τὸν οὐρανόν. περὶ τοῦ κανθάρου λέγων.
The headword is reckoned to be an unattributable and context-less fragment of Attic Comedy (Comica adespota fr. 936 Kock, but not in K.-A.).
cf. alpha 2049, alpha 3942.
[1] Hellanicus FGrH 1 F197.
[2] Aristophanes, Peace 70 (web address 1). This line actually refers to Trygaios' attempt to use ladders to ascend to heaven; the dung-beetle on which he flies (via the mechane) is introduced in 72ff.
Associated internet address:
Web address 1
Keywords: comedy; daily life; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; historiography; stagecraft; zoology
Translated by: Jennifer Benedict on 3 November 2000@21:46:31.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (modified translation; added keyword; cosmetics) on 5 November 2000@09:14:47.
David Whitehead (augmented notes and keywords; restorative cosmetics) on 6 August 2002@06:20:08.
Elizabeth Vandiver (Augmented note 2; added keyword) on 1 October 2005@14:52:57.
David Whitehead (augmented notes and keywords; betacode and other cosmetics) on 5 March 2012@05:55:32.
Catharine Roth (tweaked note and link) on 1 October 2013@23:59:45.
David Whitehead on 29 December 2014@04:49:46.
David Whitehead on 15 July 2015@03:19:56.

Headword: Ἀνεῖπεν
Adler number: alpha,2384
Translated headword: proclaimed
Vetting Status: high
[Meaning he/she/it] announced, declared.[1]
Aristophanes [writes]: "he proclaimed, 'bring in, Theognis, your chorus!'"[2]
Greek Original:
Ἀνεῖπεν: ἀνεκήρυξεν, ἀνηγόρευσεν. Ἀριστοφάνης: ὁ δ' ἀνεῖπ' εἴσαγ', ὦ Θέογνι, τὸν χορόν.
[1] Same glossing in Photius and elsewhere, and in the scholia to the Aristophanic passage about to be quoted.
[2] Aristophanes, Acharnians 11 (web address 1).
Associated internet address:
Web address 1
Keywords: biography; comedy; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; poetry; stagecraft
Translated by: Jennifer Benedict on 2 November 2000@18:08:21.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (added keyword; cosmetics) on 8 March 2001@10:46:29.
David Whitehead (another note; more keywords; tweaks and cosmetics) on 12 March 2012@07:59:38.
Catharine Roth (tweaked note, upgraded link) on 17 December 2013@21:30:42.
David Whitehead on 15 July 2015@08:25:09.

Headword: Ἀντιστοιχοῦντες
Adler number: alpha,2728
Translated headword: standing opposite in rows
Vetting Status: high
"They stood in rows opposite each other just like choruses, all holding wicker shields of white ox [hide]." [1]
Greek Original:
Ἀντιστοιχοῦντες: ἔστησαν ὥσπερ μάλιστα χοροὶ ἀντιστοιχοῦντες ἀλλήλοις ἔχοντες γέρρα πάντες βοῶν λευκῶν.
The headword participle (from the rare verb ἀντιστοιχέω ) is evidently extracted from the quotation given.
[1] A close paraphrase of Xenophon, Anabasis 5.4.12 (web address 1); cf. pi 1386.
Associated internet address:
Web address 1
Keywords: definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; historiography; imagery; military affairs; stagecraft; trade and manufacture
Translated by: Jennifer Benedict on 11 November 2000@02:48:07.
Vetted by:
William Hutton (Altered headword and translation, raised status.) on 12 November 2000@13:15:09.
David Whitehead (augmented note and keywords) on 15 August 2002@05:15:08.
Catharine Roth (tweaked link) on 30 March 2010@23:40:29.
Catharine Roth on 30 March 2010@23:41:47.
David Whitehead (another note; more keywords) on 31 March 2010@04:17:48.
Catharine Roth (expanded note, added keyword, raised status) on 31 March 2010@11:03:46.
Catharine Roth (tweaked link) on 3 November 2013@00:20:39.

Headword: Ἄξεστος
Adler number: alpha,2802
Translated headword: uncouth
Vetting Status: high
Xenokles the son of Karkinos used to be mocked as an uncouth and allegorical poet.
Greek Original:
Ἄξεστος: Ξενοκλῆς ὁ Καρκίνου ἐκωμῳδεῖτο ὡς ἄξεστος ποιητὴς καὶ ἀλληγορικός.
From the scholia to Aristophanes, Frogs 86, where he is mentioned.
For this Xenokles (an Athenian tragic poet of the late C5 BCE) see also kappa 396, and generally OCD(4) p.1580, s.v. Xenocles. The two attributes credited to him here do not make an obvious pairing, and only the first of them may be authentic (in respect of his reported fondness for mechanical devices).
Keywords: biography; comedy; ethics; poetry; science and technology; stagecraft; tragedy
Translated by: Jennifer Benedict on 15 November 2000@23:04:45.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (modified headword, translation, keywords; added note) on 16 November 2000@05:18:26.
David Whitehead (added note and keyword) on 15 August 2002@09:35:08.
Elizabeth Vandiver (Added keyword) on 1 October 2005@17:24:12.
David Whitehead (more keywords; cosmetics) on 20 March 2012@10:46:46.
David Whitehead (updated a ref) on 30 July 2014@07:31:20.

Headword: Ἀπ' αἰγείρου θέα καὶ ἐπ' αἴγειρον
Adler number: alpha,2952
Translated headword: view from the poplar and (view) at the poplar
Vetting Status: high
[Meaning] the one from the outermost [parts]. For a poplar was on the upper part of the theatre, from which those who did not have a place watched.
Greek Original:
Ἀπ' αἰγείρου θέα καὶ ἐπ' αἴγειρον: ἡ ἀπὸ τῶν ἐσχάτων. αἴγειρος γὰρ ἐπάνω ἦν τοῦ θεάτρου, ἀφ' ἧς οἱ μὴ ἔχοντες τόπον ἐθεώρουν.
Same or similar entry in other lexica (and see again, albeit slightly differently, at alphaiota 35). The headword phrase itself goes back to C5-BCE Athens: Cratinus fr. 339 Kock, now 372 K.-A.
Keywords: botany; comedy; daily life; definition; proverbs; stagecraft
Translated by: Jennifer Benedict on 19 December 2000@13:28:12.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (added note and keyword; cosmetics) on 20 December 2000@03:28:32.
David Whitehead (added keyword) on 18 August 2002@06:37:19.
Elizabeth Vandiver (Added keyword) on 13 October 2005@20:43:01.
David Whitehead (tweaked headword; another keyword) on 14 October 2005@03:27:05.
David Whitehead (expanded note) on 25 March 2012@08:18:29.
David Whitehead on 23 December 2014@04:58:17.

Headword: Ἀποδύντες
Adler number: alpha,3305
Translated headword: stripping off [clothes]
Vetting Status: high
Meaning [they] having stripped themselves off. From a metaphor of athletes, who strip off their outer clothing, so that they may do the choral dance vigorously. Aristophanes [writes]: "but let us, stripping off, follow [him] with the anapaests."[1]
Greek Original:
Ἀποδύντες: ἀντὶ τοῦ ἀποδυσάμενοι. ἀπὸ μεταφορᾶς τῶν ἀθλητῶν, οἳ ἀποδύονται τὴν ἔξωθεν στολὴν, ἵνα εὐτόνως χορεύσωσιν. Ἀριστοφάνης: ἀλλ' ἀποδύντες τοῖς ἀναπαίστοις ἐπίωμεν.
The headword -- aorist active participle, masculine nominative plural, of ἀποδύω (here glossed with the corresponding middle participle) -- is extracted from the quotation given.
[1] Aristophanes, Acharnians 627 (web address 1 below), with scholion.
Associated internet address:
Web address 1
Keywords: athletics; clothing; comedy; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; imagery; meter and music; stagecraft
Translated by: Jennifer Benedict on 6 February 2001@07:12:13.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (modified translation; augmented note; added keywords) on 18 March 2001@05:33:41.
David Whitehead (cosmetics) on 20 August 2002@08:53:14.
Elizabeth Vandiver (Added keywords) on 13 October 2005@20:53:27.
David Whitehead (another keyword) on 18 October 2005@05:51:30.
Catharine Roth (updated link) on 1 November 2011@01:36:17.
David Whitehead (augmented notes and keywords; tweaks and cosmetics) on 1 November 2011@04:38:41.

Headword: Ἀπὸ μηχανῆς
Adler number: alpha,3438
Translated headword: from a machine
Vetting Status: high
[sc. A proverbial phrase] in reference to unexpected and unbelievable things. For the tragic poets, when they brought onto the stage a bold move designed to make the spectators disturbed at the things that were said, and to lead them to take pity on those who seemed to have fallen afoul of fortune (since what they suffered was undeserved), or to hate the perpetrators [of injustice] and those who commit transgressions, were accustomed to bring on gods; not setting them out on the stage itself, but on high by means of some kind of machine. The spectators would see this machine beforehand, but at the appointed time he [the poet] would have it turned to reveal the mask of the god. And this was the climax of the play. It was called 'god from a machine.'[1]
Greek Original:
Ἀπὸ μηχανῆς: ἐπὶ τῶν παραδόξων καὶ παραλόγων. οἱ γὰρ τῶν τραγῳδιῶν ποιηταὶ, ὅταν εἰσήγαγον εἰς τὴν σκηνὴν ἢ τόλμαν ὥστε συγχυθῆναι τοὺς θεατὰς πρὸς τὰ εἰρημένα καὶ ἐλεεῖν τοὺς ἠτυχηκέναι δόξαντας, ὡς ἀνάξια πεπονθότας, ἢ μισῆσαι τοὺς πεποιηκότας ἢ παρανομήσαντας, εἰώθασι θεοὺς εἰσάγειν, οὐκ ἐπ' αὐτῆς τῆς σκηνῆς ὁρμωμένους, ἀλλ' ἐξ ὕψους ὑπό τινος μηχανῆς, ἣν ἔβλεπον μὲν πρότερον οἱ θεαταὶ, κατ' ἐκείνην δὲ τὴν ἡμέραν στρεφόμενος ἐδείκνυε τὸ τοῦ θεοῦ πρόσωπον. καὶ τοῦτο καταστολὴν εἶναι τοῦ δράματος. ἐλέγετο δὲ θεὸς ἀπὸ μηχανῆς.
cf. Diogenianus 2.84 and other paroemiographers; also the scholia to Plato, Clitophon 470A (and other scholia).
For the proverbiality of the phrase see also e.g. Demosthenes 40.59: "Timocrates alone, as if from a machine, testifies that..."
[1] cf. theta 181.
Keywords: architecture; biography; daily life; definition; ethics; philosophy; poetry; proverbs; religion; rhetoric; science and technology; stagecraft; tragedy
Translated by: William Hutton on 20 March 2002@18:17:36.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (added note and keywords; cosmetics) on 21 March 2002@03:38:01.
William Hutton (added keyword) on 10 January 2007@11:03:35.
David Whitehead (augmented notes and keywords; cosmetics) on 4 April 2012@03:26:42.

Headword: Ἀποσεμνύνει
Adler number: alpha,3517
Translated headword: glorifies
Vetting Status: high
[Used] with an accusative. [Meaning he/she/it] honours.[1]
But [sc. also attested is the middle voice, future] ἀποσεμνυνεῖται ["will put on airs"] [meaning he/she/it] Is quietly mad, has delusions of grandeur. For on account of his dignity, Aeschylus was silent when entering the theatres; and at the beginnings of his plays he used to have impressive effects. And [so] Aristophanes in Frogs [says]: "first he will put on airs, just as he used to have impressive effects in his tragedies."[2]
Greek Original:
Ἀποσεμνύνει: αἰτιατικῇ. γεραίρει. Ἀποσεμνυνεῖται δὲ ἀπονοεῖται σιωπῶν, ὑπερηφανεῖ. σεμνότητος γὰρ ἕνεκα ἐπιπολὺ ἐσιώπα Αἰσχύλος ἐν τοῖς θεάτροις εἰσιών: καὶ ἐν ταῖς ἀρχαῖς τῶν δραμάτων ἐτερατεύετο. καὶ Ἀριστοφάνης Βατράχοις: ἀποσεμνυνεῖται πρῶτον, ἅπερ ἑκάστοτε ἐν ταῖς τραγῳδίαις ἐτερατεύετο.
[1] Same or similar glossing in other lexica. The headword must be quoted from somewhere; there are numerous possibilities.
[2] Aristophanes, Frogs 833-4 (web address 1 below), with scholion.
Associated internet address:
Web address 1
Keywords: biography; comedy; daily life; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; ethics; stagecraft; tragedy
Translated by: Jennifer Benedict on 3 June 2001@18:25:12.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (modified translation; cosmetics) on 4 June 2001@05:05:06.
Elizabeth Vandiver (Added keyword) on 13 October 2005@21:00:37.
David Whitehead (augmented notes and keywords; betacode and other cosmetics) on 5 April 2012@05:03:24.
David Whitehead on 29 August 2015@08:58:12.
Catharine Roth (tweaks) on 21 September 2015@01:27:50.

Headword: Ἀρίων
Adler number: alpha,3886
Translated headword: Arion
Vetting Status: high
Of Methymna,[1] a lyric poet, son of Kykleus.[2] He was born in the 38th Olympiad.[3] Certain people recorded that he was even a pupil of Alkman.[4] He composed songs: [namely] preludes in 2000 verses.[5] It is claimed also that he was the inventor of the tragic style and that he was the first to establish a chorus,[6] to sing a dithyramb, to provide a name for what the chorus sang[7] and to introduce satyrs speaking in verse.
[The name] retains [omega] also in the genitive.[8]
Greek Original:
Ἀρίων, Μηθυμναῖος, λυρικὸς, Κυκλέως υἱὸς, γέγονε κατὰ τὴν λη# Ὀλυμπιάδα. τινὲς δὲ καὶ μαθητὴν Ἀλκμᾶνος ἱστόρησαν αὐτόν. ἔγραψε δὲ ᾄσματα: προοίμια εἰς ἔπη #22β#. λέγεται καὶ τραγικοῦ τρόπου εὑρετὴς γενέσθαι καὶ πρῶτος χορὸν στῆσαι καὶ διθύραμβον ᾆσαι καὶ ὀνομάσαι τὸ ᾀδόμενον ὑπὸ τοῦ χοροῦ καὶ Σατύρους εἰσενεγκεῖν ἔμμετρα λέγοντας. φυλάττει δὲ καὶ ἐπὶ γενικῆς
See generally Richard Seaford in OCD(3) 158 [now OCD(4) 152], under Arion [Author, Myth](2).
[1] On the E. Aegean island of Lesbos; cf. mu 898.
[2] cf. kappa 2643.
[3] 628-625 BCE. The words have also been interpreted to mean that "he flourished in the 38th Olympiad."
[4] For whom see alpha 1289, alpha 1290.
[5] Adler's '2' verses is corrected in her addenda and corrigenda
[6] Literally, "to set up a chorus". Pickard-Cambridge [p.97] translates "first composed a stationary chorus" and he notes on p.11 that "in late authors it means to 'make a chorus sing a stasimon'."
[7] Compare Herodotus 1.23 [web address 1]: Arion "was the first man we know to have composed the dithyramb and given it a name." According to Pickard-Cambridge [p.12 cf. Campbell pp. 11-12] the implication is that Arion made the chorus sing "a regular poem, with a definite subject from which it took its name," and not that Arion invented the name "dithyramb".
[8] The object 'omega' is an early editorial supplement omitted by Adler but incorporated by Bekker. The Suda frequently uses φυλάττει by itself to mean "keeps omega in the oblique cases."
D.A. Campbell, Greek Lyric [LCL] v.3, pp. 1-2, 16-25
O. Crusius , "Arion 5" in RE 2.1, cols.836-841
A.W. Pickard-Cambridge, Dithyramb, Tragedy and Comedy, 2nd ed. rev. T.B.L. Webster. Oxford, Clarendon Press, 1962, pp.10-12, 97-101
Associated internet address:
Web address 1
Keywords: biography; chronology; dialects, grammar, and etymology; epic; geography; meter and music; poetry; stagecraft; tragedy
Translated by: Tony Natoli on 7 December 2000@20:08:51.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (augmented notes; cosmetics) on 13 June 2001@06:34:38.
Catharine Roth (cosmetics) on 20 December 2001@00:07:13.
Catharine Roth (added link) on 20 December 2001@00:09:42.
Tony Natoli (Corrected typo in notes.) on 20 December 2001@15:40:50.
Catharine Roth (simplified link) on 20 December 2001@16:23:02.
David Whitehead (added keyword) on 20 December 2002@05:15:38.
Elizabeth Vandiver (Added keyword; cosmetics) on 14 October 2005@17:33:44.
David Whitehead (another keyword; cosmetics; raised status) on 12 April 2012@03:37:27.
David Whitehead (my typo) on 24 January 2014@07:40:57.
David Whitehead (tweaked tr; another note) on 24 January 2014@07:49:31.
Catharine Roth (coding, deleted link) on 2 January 2015@00:17:42.
Catharine Roth (expanded note) on 26 October 2015@11:43:42.

Headword: Ἀρίσταρχος
Adler number: alpha,3893
Translated headword: Aristarkhos, Aristarchos, Aristarchus
Vetting Status: high
Of Tegea,[1] a composer of tragedies, who was sick with some disease; then Asclepius cured him and required him to give a thanksgiving dedication for his health. The poet allotted him the drama that bears his name. But gods of health would never request payment nor accept it. How could that be? - when with a good, philanthropic spirit they offer us the greatest things free of charge: to see the sun and to share in the all-sufficing beam of such a great god for free, and the use of water and the myriad advantages of the similar art of fire, and various and cooperative aids, and to breathe the air and from that to have breath, the sustenance of life. In these small things they want us to be neither ungrateful nor unmindful, and in such things they prove us better men.
This Aristarchus was a contemporary of Euripides; he was the first to establish the length of play which is still current.[2] And he produced 70 dramas, won with 2, and lived over 100 years.
Greek Original:
Ἀρίσταρχος, Τεγεάτης, ὁ τῶν τραγῳδιῶν ποιητὴς, νοσεῖ τινα νόσον: εἶτα αὐτὸν ἰᾶται ὁ Ἀσκληπιὸς καὶ προστάσσει χαριστήρια τῆς ὑγείας. ὁ δὲ ποιητὴς τὸ δρᾶμα τὸ ὁμώνυμόν οἱ νέμει. θεοὶ δὲ ὑγείας μὲν οὐκ ἄν ποτε μισθὸν αἰτήσαιεν οὐδ' ἂν λάβοιεν. ἢ πῶς ἄν; εἴ γε τὰ μέγιστα ἡμῖν φρενὶ φιλανθρώπῳ καὶ ἀγαθῇ παρέχουσι προῖκα, ἥλιόν τε ὁρᾶν καὶ τοῦ θεοῦ τοῦ τοσούτου τῆς παναρκοῦς ἀμισθὶ μεταλαμβάνειν ἀκτῖνος, καὶ χρῆσιν ὕδατος καὶ πυρὸς συντέχνου μυρίας ἐπιγονὰς, καὶ ποικίλας ἅμα καὶ συνεργοὺς ἐπικουρίας, καὶ ἀέρος σπᾶν καὶ ἔχειν τροφὴν ζωῆς τὸ ἐξ αὐτοῦ πνεῦμα. ἐθέλουσι δὲ ἄρα ἐν τοῖσδε τοῖς μικροῖς μήτε ἀχαρίστους εἶναι μήτε ἀμνήμονας ἡμᾶς, καὶ ἐν τούτοις ἀμείνονας ἀποφαίνοντες. οὗτος δὲ ὁ Ἀρίσταρχος σύγχρονος ἦν Εὐριπίδῃ: ὃς πρῶτος εἰς τὸ νῦν αὐτῶν μῆκος τὰ δράματα κατέστησε. καὶ ἐδίδαξε μὲν τραγῳδίας ο#, ἐνίκησε δὲ β#, βιοὺς ὑπὲρ ἔτη ρ#.
C5 BCE; see generally OCD(4) p.154, under 'Aristarchus(3)'. The principal paragraph of the present entry derives from Aelian (fr. 104 Domingo-Forasté).
[1] In Arkadia (central Peloponnese).
[2] A.L. Brown in OCD s.v. notes that "no precise meaning can be attached" to this assertion.
Keywords: biography; chronology; economics; ethics; food; geography; medicine; religion; stagecraft; tragedy
Translated by: Jennifer Benedict on 21 November 2001@10:05:42.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (modified translation; added notes and keyword; cosmetics) on 21 November 2001@10:51:29.
David Whitehead (more keywords; cosmetics) on 12 April 2012@04:04:25.
Catharine Roth (updated reference) on 4 July 2014@01:07:32.
David Whitehead (updated a ref) on 31 July 2014@03:17:57.
Catharine Roth (another keyword) on 27 December 2018@01:52:10.

Headword: Ἀσκὸς ἐν πάχνῃ
Adler number: alpha,4177
Translated headword: a wineskin in a frost
Vetting Status: high
David says: "I have become as a wineskin in a frost."[1] A wineskin when heated becomes porous and when inflated it swells, but in the frost it is hardened and frozen. Thus also the nature of the body becomes complacent with luxury and is swollen, but with ascetic training it is humbled and oppressed. And Paul is a witness to this, saying: "But I oppress my body and treat it as a slave, lest somehow I, having exhorted others should myself become disreputable."[2] For also the prophet [David], when he was pursued by Saul, was stronger than his sufferings, but after enjoying peace he was injured by the impulses [resulting] from luxury; he humbled his body and renewed his memory of the divine laws.
Also [sc. attested is the phrase] "Ktesiphon's wineskin;" Aristophanes [writes]: "according to our customs, at the trumpet signal drink your pitchers; whoever drains his first will win Ktesiphon's wineskin."[3] For in the Pitchers[4] there was a contest concerning who could drain his pitcher first, and the winner was crowned with a wreath of leaves and got a skin of wine. At a trumpet signal they would drink. Ktesiphon was ridiculed for being fat and paunchy. An inflated wineskin was set forth in the festival of the Pitchers, on which those drinking in the competition would stand. The first one to finish his drink won, and got a wineskin. They drank a certain measure, a choa, of wine.[5]
Also [sc. attested is the verb] "to bear a wineskin" [ἀσκοφορεῖν ]. In the Dionysiac processions, some things were done by the townspeople, but others had been assigned to the metics to do by the lawgivers. Accordingly the metics would put on chitons which had a crimson color and carry troughs;[6] wherefore they were called tray-bearers [σκαφηφόροι ]. The townspeople wore whatever clothing they wanted and carried wineskins on their shoulders, wherefore they were called "wineskin-bearers" [ἀσκοφόροι ].
And [there is] a proverb: "to be spooked by a little wineskin" [ἀσκῷ μορμολύττεσθαι ], in reference to those who are frightened absurdly and for no good reason.[7]
Also [sc. attested is the verb] ἀσκολιάζον ["they used to dance as at the Askolia"]; the Athenians had a festival, the Askolia[8], in which they would hop on wineskins to the honor of Dionysus.[9] The creature[10] appears to be a natural enemy of the vine. In any event an epigram appears addressed to a goat that goes like this: "devour me to the root, yet all the same I will bear fruit; enough to pour a libation for you, goat, as you are being sacrificed."[11] But "dance on a wineskin" means [dance] on the other [leg]; strictly ἀσκωλιάζειν is what they used to call hopping on wineskins to make people laugh. In the middle of the theatre they placed wineskins which were inflated and oiled and when they hopped onto these they slipped; just as Eubulus says in Damalia[12]: "and in addition to these things, they put wineskins in the middle and hopped and guffawed at those who fell off the track."
Also [sc. attested is the participle] ἀσκωλιάζοντες , [meaning] they who hop on one foot and who lag behind those [who move] according to nature.
"He, it seemed to me, came to his master in his rush from the [temple] of Asclepius hopping on one of his feet and when at daybreak the paean to Asclepius was sung, he showed up as one of the chorus dancers. He stood in the line as if he'd been given his stance by some chorus director, and as much as he was able he tried to sing along with the bird-like strain."[13]
Also [attested is] ἀσκωλιασμός [used] likewise, [meaning] going on one foot.
Wineskins smeared with salt become better.[14]
Greek Original:
Ἀσκὸς ἐν πάχνῃ: ὁ Δαβὶδ λέγει, ὅτι ἐγενήθην ὡς ἀσκὸς ἐν πάχνῃ. ὁ ἀσκὸς θερμαινόμενος χαυνοῦται καὶ φυσώμενος ἐξογκοῦται, ἐν δὲ τῇ πάχνῃ σκληρύνεται καὶ πήγνυται. οὕτω καὶ τοῦ σώματος ἡ φύσις χαυνοῦται μὲν τῇ τρυφῇ καὶ ἐξογκοῦται, τῇ δὲ ἀσκητικῇ ἀγωγῇ ταπεινοῦται καῖ πιέζεται. καὶ τούτου μάρτυς ὁ Παῦλος βοῶν: ἀλλ' ὑποπιέζω μου τὸ σῶμα καὶ δουλαγωγῶ, μή πως ἄλλοις κηρύξας αὐτὸς ἀδόκιμος γένωμαι. τοιγάρτοι καὶ ὁ προφήτης, ἐπειδὴ διωκόμενος ὑπὸ τοῦ Σαοὺλ κρείττων ἦν τῶν παθῶν, εἰρήνης δὲ ἀπολαύσας τοῖς ἀπὸ τῆς τρυφῆς ἐβλάβη σκιρτήμασι, ταπεινώσας τὸ σῶμα τῶν θείων νόμων τὴν μνήμην ἀνενεώσατο. καὶ Ἀσκὸς Κτησιφῶντος: Ἀριστοφάνης: κατὰ τὰ πάτρια τοὺς χοὰς πίνειν ὑπὸ τῆς σάλπιγγος: ὃς δ' ἂν ἐκπίῃ πρώτιστος, ἀσκὸν Κτησιφῶντος λήψεται. ἐν γὰρ ταῖς Χοαῖς ἀγὼν ἦν περὶ τοῦ ἐκπιεῖν πρῶτόν τινα χοᾶ, καὶ ὁ νικῶν ἐστέφετο φυλλίνῳ στεφάνῳ καὶ ἀσκὸν οἴνου ἐλάμβανε. πρὸς σάλπιγγας δὲ ἔπινον. ὁ δὲ Κτησιφῶν ὡς παχὺς καὶ προγάστωρ ἐσκώπτετο. ἐτίθετο δὲ ἀσκὸς πεφυσημένος ἐν τῇ τῶν Χοῶν ἑορτῇ, ἐφ' οὗ τοὺς πίνοντας πρὸς ἀγῶνας ἑστάναι, τὸν προπιόντα δὲ ὡς νικήσαντα λαμβάνειν ἀσκόν. ἔπινον δὲ μέτρον τι οἷον χοᾶ. καὶ Ἀσκοφορεῖν. ἐν ταῖς Διονυσιακαῖς πομπαῖς, τὰ μὲν ὑπὸ τῶν ἀστῶν ἐπράττετο, τὰ δὲ τοῖς μετοίκοις ποιεῖν ὑπὸ τῶν νομοθετησάντων προσετέτακτο. οἱ μὲν οὖν μέτοικοι χιτῶνας ἐνεδύοντο χρῶμα ἔχοντας φοινικοῦν καὶ σκάφος ἔφερον: ὅθεν σκαφηφόροι προσηγορεύοντο. οἱ δὲ ἀστοὶ ἐσθῆτα εἶχον, ἣν ἐβούλοντο, καὶ ἀσκοὺς ἐπ' ὤμων ἔφερον: ὅθεν ἀσκοφόροι ἐκαλοῦντο. καὶ παροιμία: Ἀσκῷ μορμολύττεσθαι, ἐπὶ τῶν εἰκῆ καὶ διακενῆς δεδιττομένων. καὶ Ἀσκωλίαζον: ἑορτὴν οἱ Ἀθηναῖοι ἦγον τὰ Σκώλια, ἐν ᾗ ἥλλοντο τοῖς ἀσκοῖς εἰς τιμὴν τοῦ Διονύσου. δοκεῖ δὲ ἐχθρὸν εἶναι τῇ ἀμπέλῳ τὸ ζῷον. ἀμέλει γοῦν καὶ ἐπίγραμμα φαίνεται πρὸς τὴν αἶγα οὕτως ἔχον: κἤν με φάγῃς ἐπὶ ῥίζαν, ὅμως δ' ἔτι καρποφορήσω, ὅσσον ἐπιλεῖψαι σοὶ, τράγε, θυομένῳ. Ἀσκωλίαζε δὲ ἀντὶ τοῦ ἅλλου: κυρίως ἀσκωλιάζειν ἔλεγον τὸ ἐπὶ τῶν ἀσκῶν ἅλλεσθαι ἕνεκα τοῦ γελωτοποιεῖν. ἐν μέσῳ δὲ τοῦ θεάτρου ἐτίθεντο ἀσκοὺς πεφυσημένους καὶ ἀληλιμμένους, εἰς οὓς ἐναλλόμενοι ὠλίσθαινον: καθάπερ Εὔβουλος ἐν Δαμαλίᾳ φησὶν οὕτως: καὶ πρός γε τούτοις ἀσκὸν ἐς μέσον καταθέντες ἐνάλλεσθε καὶ καγχάζετε ἐπὶ τοῖς καταρρέουσιν ἀπὸ κελεύσματος. καὶ Ἀσκωλιάζοντες, ἐφ' ἑνὸς ποδὸς ἐφαλλόμενοι, ὑστερούμενοι τῶν κατὰ φύσιν. ὃ δὲ ἐμοὶ δοκεῖν, ὁρμῇ τῇ παρὰ τοῦ Ἀσκληπιοῦ ἐς τὸν δεσπότην ἀσκωλιάζων θάτερον τῶν ποδῶν ἔρχεται, καὶ ὄρθριον ᾀδομένου τοῦ παιᾶνος τῷ Ἀσκληπιῷ ἑαυτὸν ἀποφαίνει τῶν χορευτῶν, ἕνα καὶ ἐν τάξει στὰς ὥσπερ οὖν παρά τινος λαβὼν χοροδέκτου τὴν στάσιν, ὡς οἷός τε ἦν συνᾴδειν ἐπειρᾶτο τῷ ὀρνιθείῳ μέλει. καὶ Ἀσκωλιασμὸς ὁμοίως, τὸ ἐφ' ἑνὸς ποδὸς βαίνειν. ὅτι οἱ ἀσκοὶ ἁλσὶ σμηχόμενοι βελτίονες γίνονται.
[1] Psalm 118.83 LXX. This first paragraph of the entry comes from Theodoret's commentary on it (PG 80, 1848bc).
[2] 1 Corinthians 9.27.
[3] Aristophanes, Acharnians 1000-2 (web address 1). What follows here derives from scholiastic comment on the line.
[4] The Khoes, the second day of the Anthesteria festival; see also chi 369.
[5] About three quarts, or 2.8 liters.
[6] Σκάφος here is in error for σκάφας , trays.
[7] cf. mu 1251.
[8] Scholia in three manuscripts provide the correction Ἀσκώλια for the erroneous Σκώλια .
[9] From the scholia to Aristophanes, Wealth [Plutus] 1129.
[10] Explained in the next sentence.
[11] Greek Anthology 9.75.
[12] Eubulus fr. 8 Kock, now 7 K.-A. -- from his Amaltheia, in fact.
[13] Aelian fr. 101b Domingo-Forasté, 98 Hercher (a man from Tanagra experiences a miracle cure); cf. sigma 1606, chi 407.
[14] From alpha 1409.
Associated internet address:
Web address 1
Keywords: biography; botany; Christianity; clothing; comedy; daily life; definition; ethics; food; imagery; law; medicine; meter and music; poetry; proverbs; religion; science and technology; stagecraft; zoology
Translated by: Jennifer Benedict on 30 March 2002@23:49:06.
Vetted by:
William Hutton (Modified translation, cosmetics, raised status) on 31 March 2002@13:19:27.
Catharine Roth (fixed typo) on 31 March 2002@14:07:03.
David Whitehead (modified translation; augmented notes and keywords; cosmetics) on 10 April 2002@07:30:46.
David Whitehead (betacoding and other cosmetics; augmented n.1) on 25 May 2004@08:58:32.
David Whitehead (another keyword) on 7 October 2005@08:21:58.
Elizabeth Vandiver (Added keyword) on 14 April 2007@23:36:07.
David Whitehead (tweaked tr) on 12 June 2009@03:45:52.
David Whitehead (more keywords; tweaks and cosmetics) on 24 April 2012@10:12:58.
Catharine Roth (upgraded link, updated reference, cosmetics) on 25 November 2012@12:14:47.
David Whitehead on 30 December 2014@07:56:32.
David Whitehead on 1 September 2015@08:52:40.
Catharine Roth (tweaks and cosmetics) on 17 December 2015@01:06:22.

Headword: Αἰγείρου θέα
Adler number: alphaiota,35
Translated headword: poplar
Vetting Status: high
The white [sc. variety].[1] A type of plant.
Poplar's view: there was a poplar in Athens near to the shrine; there they used to set up the benches before the theater existed.[2]
From this poplar those who did not have a place used to watch. But Aigiros [is] a name of a city.[3]
Greek Original:
Αἴγειρος: ἡ λεύκη. εἶδος φυτοῦ. Αἰγείρου θέα: αἴγειρος ἦν Ἀθήνησι πλησίον τοῦ ἱεροῦ: ἔνθα πρὶν γενέσθαι θέατρον, τὰ ἰκρία ἐπήγνυον. ἀφ' ἧς αἰγείρου οἱ μὴ ἔχοντες τόπον ἐθεώρουν. Αἴγιρος δὲ ὄνομα πόλεως.
NB: the online headword is incorrect; it should be αἴγειρος , not the subsidiary lemma αἰγείρου θέα .
[1] i.e. populus alba. Note, however, LSJ's belief that this term refers to the black variety, populus nigra.
[2] See already under alpha 2952. (For benches cf. iota 275.) The Suda's 'near to the shrine' looks incomplete or otherwise faulty, but it is already in Hesychius alpha1695. Modern scholarship would suggest that the hieron in question is that of Lenaean Dionysus; see Pickard-Cambridge/Gould/Lewis 37-38.
[3] See alphaiota 58.
A.W. Pickard-Cambridge, The Dramatic Festivals of Athens, 2nd edition with new supplement, revised J. Gould & D.M. Lewis (Oxford: Clarendon Press 1988)
Keywords: architecture; botany; comedy; daily life; geography; history; proverbs; religion; stagecraft; tragedy
Translated by: William Hutton on 22 May 2003@21:51:11.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (added note and keyword; cosmetics) on 23 May 2003@04:32:14.
Elizabeth Vandiver (Added keyword) on 17 October 2005@18:44:47.
David Whitehead (augmented notes; tweaks and cosmetics) on 10 May 2012@08:53:58.
David Whitehead (cosmetics) on 4 August 2015@03:19:47.
David Whitehead (expanded n.2) on 22 November 2015@06:33:36.

Headword: Αἲ αἴ
Adler number: alphaiota,91
Translated headword: ai ai!
Vetting Status: high
"Ai ai! Who ever would have thought that my appellation would provide a name my sufferings this way?" Aias says [this].[1] "And now it is fitting even to cry 'aiai!' twice for me and thrice."[2] This is in the manner of the ancients, the producing of calamities in accordance with the namings [of characters]. If he were doing well he would not have mentioned his name, but only in the midst of calamity.
Greek Original:
Αἲ αἴ: αἲ αἴ, τίς ἄν ποτ' ᾤεθ' ὧδ' ἐπώνυμον τοὐμὸν ξυνοίσειν ὄνομα τοῖς ἐμοῖς κακοῖς; ὁ Αἴας φησίν. νῦν γὰρ πάρεστι καὶ δὶς αἰάζειν ἐμοὶ καὶ τρίς. τοῦτο ἀρχαιότροπόν ἐστι, τὸ πρὸς τὰς ὀνομασίας ἐκφέρειν τὰς συμφοράς. καλῶς μὲν οὖν πράττων οὐκ ἂν ἐμνήσθη τοῦ ὀνόματος, ἐν συμφορᾷ δὲ ὤν.
cf. alphaiota 1.
[1] Sophocles, Ajax 430-431 (web address 1), with comment from the scholia there; cf. delta 1701.
[2] Sophocles, Ajax 432-433 (web address 1).
Associated internet address:
Web address 1
Keywords: aetiology; dialects, grammar, and etymology; ethics; mythology; poetry; stagecraft; tragedy
Translated by: William Hutton on 22 May 2003@11:02:40.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (added x-ref; cosmetics) on 23 May 2003@03:39:29.
David Whitehead (cosmetics) on 11 May 2012@07:46:38.
Catharine Roth (tweaked link) on 12 May 2012@01:37:21.

Headword: Αἰόλαν
Adler number: alphaiota,244
Translated headword: undulating; leaping in undulating circles; of intricate, dazzling, multicoloured design
Vetting Status: high
[Meaning] leaping/hopping. "We croaked an undulating[1] dance-chorus brekekex."
Greek Original:
Αἰόλαν: πηδητικήν. αἰόλαν χορείαν ἐφθεγξάμεθα βρεκεκέξ.
For this headword, feminine accusative singular, see also alphaiota 245. The gloss, also in Aristophanic scholia (cf. below), is an adjective applied to the hopping, leaping motion of locusts, fleas, grasshoppers and satyrs advancing (LSJ), and here of a dance (choreia) of frogs.
The quotation -- from Aristophanes, Frogs 247-250 (web address 1) -- is here modified, for it begins with the chorus of frogs, reversing the positions of noun and adjective, omitting the octosyllabic word πομφολυγοπαφλάσμασιν (line 249, nicely translated by J. Henderson in the 2002 Loeb edition as "with bubbly ploppification") and concludes with the (truncated) first word of the following speaker (Dionysus, to be taken both as a mockery of their cry and a fart to match the frogs' bubbles, perhaps with the chorus accompanying). It clearly contains an allusion to the choreography of the chorus in the play, but we are handicapped by our uncertainty over the precise sense of the headword; cf. alphaiota 253, alphaiota 246, alphaiota 251, alphaiota 249, alphaiota 247, kappa 2122. Perhaps the choreography of the human dancers had them on all fours in bright frog costumes leaping in one or more undulating circles, in the visual rise and fall common to a line of moving snakes, worms, frogs or fleas. Alternatively it was a lively, intricate, whirling, twisting dance in dazzling costumes; or any other combination of the word's meanings.
[1] Or: intricate, dazzling.
Associated internet address:
Web address 1
Keywords: botany; comedy; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; meter and music; stagecraft; zoology
Translated by: Robert Dyer on 24 February 2003@10:30:24.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (added x-ref; cosmetics) on 25 February 2003@03:26:35.
Elizabeth Vandiver (Added keyword) on 17 October 2005@18:49:49.
David Whitehead (another keyword; tweaking) on 15 May 2012@07:41:20.
Catharine Roth (restored link) on 26 May 2012@01:03:46.
David Whitehead (cosmetics) on 29 November 2015@04:39:33.

Headword: Αἰόλος
Adler number: alphaiota,253
Translated headword: undulating, wavelike, advancing in a winding or rolling fashion, agile in turning side to side; multicoloured, discoloured, black or chestnut with white markings; easily moved, changeable, wily, quick-witted, liable to metamorphosis, disturbed in mind; whirling; self-generating in movement, ever-turning; lively, flashing, shimmering
Vetting Status: high
[Meaning] easily-moved/agile, multicoloured [or: intricate, or: changeable].[1]
Or swift; [so called] from the whirlwind [hurricane or tornado],[2] which comes from ‘to blow’[3] and ‘to wind/roll up’.[4]
Greek Original:
Αἰόλος: εὐκίνητος, ποικίλος. ἢ ταχύς: παρὰ τὴν ἄελλαν, ἥτις ἀπὸ τοῦ ἄειν καὶ εἱλεῖν.
None of the etymologies advanced is adequate on its own to explain the many diverse uses and translations of this adjective (see LSJ entry at web address 1; cf. alphaiota 244, alphaiota 245, alphaiota 247), with its related verb αἰόλλω (alphaiota 246), its compounds (alphaiota 249, alphaiota 250, alphaiota 251, kappa 2122), and the related but differently accentuated proper name Aiolos (alphaiota 252, cf. alphaiota 248). We can distinguish two different words, corresponding to the first two definitions here. A poetic phenomenon, exploiting ambiguity, intervenes in Homer and other poetry and greatly confuses the issue of which translation to use at any given point.
The first two definitions are also found in Hesychius (alpha2034) and the Synagoge λέξεων χρησίμων (Anecdota Graeca, ed. Bekker, 1.356.21; ed. L. Bachmann 45.1; Photius, Lexicon alpha614, 52.19 Reitzenstein), scholia to Homer, Iliad 7.222, and to Odyssey 22.300; cf. Apion (de glossis Hom., fr. 74.214.16, but with πολυκίνητον ), and, with ταχύς for εὐκίνητος , Hesychius alpha2020, Eustathius on Odyssey 10.2 and many Homeric scholia (see Mette under *σχ ). Modern dictionaries such as LSJ assign these as the two primary meanings of a single word 'mobile, nimble, agile; multicoloured' (cf. Page in bibliography).
In the third century AD, Porphyry [OCD(4) s.v., pp.1190-1; pi 2098] had advanced the third definition. He rejected the meaning 'multicoloured' (hence the Suda's "or"), and explained all instances in Homer from the base of 'whirlwind' (see note 2 below) as 'swift, whirling' (Zet. 284 col. 1 - 286 col. 1.9; Liber 1; on Odyssey 20.27; cf. Etymologicum Magnum 37.3 and the exceptional scholion B to Iliad 22.509, εὔστροφοι καὶ ποικίλοι ). He correctly took ἄελλα from the same root of rolling or turning as εἱλέω . Modern etymologists question the presence of the root of blowing (although a "blow-twister" is a possible colloquial compound) in favour of alpha intensive.
At the same time Methodius [OCD(4) s.v., p.942; mu 432], as reported by Etymologicum Genuinum 15 and Etymologicum Magnum 37.4f., took the adjective, when used of motion or reflected light, to designate the "self-generating movement" (ἀνυπόστατον κίνησιν ) of a snake, and derived it from a verb αἴειν (apparently hypothetical, probably from αἰεί, ἀεί , 'always'), together with ἀΐσσειν 'to dart, flash (of light)'. Thus αἰόλη νύξ might be 'night in perpetual motion' (cf. alphaiota 247). In 1937 Émile Benveniste, perhaps independently, advanced a similar etymology and sense from the IE root for 'life-force', aiw-, seen in αἰών, αἰεί , Latin aevum, Vedic ayu- 'lively, mobile'. Those who followed him saw in the use of the headword for inanimate objects such as bronze helmets (kappa 2122), shields and mitres (alphaiota 250) a sense of vital force, to translate as 'shimmering, flashing' (see Mette in LfgrE), exciting to translators but unacceptable to archaeologists (see Page, note 97) and to etymologists, as having no analogy or explanation for the ending ̣ολος , "which may seem embarrassing for the theory" (Chantraine).
In 1950 Ernst Fraenkel advanced the most persuasive etymology. The word, originally *fαιfολος , is from the IE root uel-, seen in ἄελλα, εἰλέω (as Porphyry saw), Latin volvo and English wheel, meaning 'roll, undulate, turn'. The reduplication in ai is intensifying and parallel to that in δαίδαλος, δαιδάλλειν, παιπάλη, παιπάλλειν = σείειν . Fraenkel explained the loss of initial digamma in Homeric verse as dissimilation. This history suits a snake (Iliad 12.208; Paean Delph. i in Apoll. 1.19 Powell, Coll. Alex.; Callimachus fr. 575.1 Pfeiffer; Nicander, Theriaca 155, alphaiota 246), the undulating body of Echidna (Hesiod, Theogony 300, cf. scholia, πολυέλικτον ), and a mass of flesh-eating worms (Iliad 22.509), and might apply visually to the shapes of a wasp (Iliad 12.167) and a Mycenaean figure-of-eight shield (alphaiota 250), both pinched at the "waist". This etymology did not, however, explain, any more than Porphyry, the uses glossed as ποικίλος ('multicoloured, intricate') or σκοτεινός ('dark, shadowy': alphaiota 245), or the use of the related verb (alphaiota 246) of ripening grapes and livid flesh.
These latter meanings are now explained as from a Mycenaean word, a3-wo-ro on a Linear B tablet from Cnossos, almost certainly for mingled colours (cf. alphaiota 252). The tablet lists two bulls or horses by name or colour; cf. the use of a colour word as the name of Achilles' horse Xanthus. One is "Black" from the adjective κελαινός . Ours is then, almost certainly, either "Roan" (of patchwork colouring; cf. the word’s use for a tortoise shell at Homeric Hymn to Mercury 33) or "Piebald" (black and white). Now this name cannot come from the same root as *fαιfολος , i.e. uel-, for Mycenaean does not lose initial digamma, as Geiss points out. It belongs to a distinct word.
Concerning Homer, the odd thing is that one can take any of these four or five interpretations of the basic meaning and, with a certain ingenuity, apply it to most or all of the instances in the two epics. An Homeric shield (Iliad 7.222, 16.107) may be imagined and explained as 'easy to turn or move, multicoloured, intricately worked, with its bronze or gold outer coating vibrantly shimmering or flashing in the sun, wave-like in its shape'. When Pandarus falls from his chariot dead (Iliad 5.294-96) and his gleaming armour clangs on top of him, is it also multicoloured, discoloured by blood, rolling, well-crafted or (unlike its owner) still flashing with life? Which of these does Homer mean? The answer is all, or at least some. The British poet William Empson has explained the ways in which poets exploit the various meanings and intertextual echoes of given words, giving them a resonant richness of reference (see bibliography; cf. Dyer). Who cares what colour Hector’s helmet may really have been, if it danced to and fro or its crest trailed undulating behind like a hoopoe's, if it was of bronze and flashed in the sun or contained the force of life (kappa 2122)? The poet wants the mind of each hearer to travel out into his own imaginary world in a sequence of images not necessarily related to some historical or religious truth. Of a yellow-jacket wasp (Iliad 12.167) we see simultaneously the motion in the air, the colours and the wasp waist. To most it does not matter what colour the feet of Achilles' horse Xanthos [Myth, Place] (Iliad 19.404) were; the description πόδας αἰόλος interacts with ἄελλα and suggests that the horse's feet went like a hurricane in speed, noise and rolling motion. Yet Homer probably expected a horseman to take the name as the colour chestnut, sorrel or bay and 'multicoloured' in the adjectival phrase to conjure up a handsome sorrel with white "socks".
The same technique of deliberate ambiguity is found in Athenian theatre and perhaps elsewhere: e.g. Aeschylus, Seven against Thebes 494 (of smoke, the sister accompanying fire and twisting in an intricate design of mingled colours, brilliant and sombre); Sophocles, Ajax 1025 (where the point of Ajax's two-edged sword is no longer flashing or whirling with life but multicoloured, stained with his drying blood), Trachiniae 94 (alphaiota 247, of the colours of night, but also night as ‘ever-turning’); Aristophanes, Frogs 248 (of the flashy choreography and colours of the frogs' dance, alphaiota 244), Thesmophoriazusae 1055 (a pastiche of Euripides on the dark journey to Hades, alphaiota 245).
Outside the Homeric tradition, the headword means primarily 'changeable' (see LSJ at web address 1; cf. εὐκίνητος in the definition here), of music of varied modes, of gods and heroes capable of metamorphosis, chiefly in the Orphic Hymns (alphaiota 249), or of unreliable people, whose words and opinions cannot be trusted; it may also 'wily, quick-witted' in a positive sense. The sense of Mycenaean 'multicoloured' is also enduring, e.g. of fine clothes at Callimachus, Aetia 7.11.
[1] The adjective ποικίλος , used so often of the headword, has several distinct meanings (web address 2), all deriving ultimately from the craftsmanship of intricate weaving or objects, often inlaid; cf. pi 3082, tau 435, alphaiota 10, delta 106, delta 107, eta 386, etc. We should beware of thinking that it always means 'multicoloured', even if that appears to be the intention in the definitions here (but note Eustathius on Iliad 7.222, δαιδαλθέν , 'crafted'). The sense 'changing colour' is not documented, although a known sense of αἰόλος .
[2] See alpha 545, alpha 546, alpha 547; and the discussion in Porphyry.
[3] The verb ἄειν is very rarely used in the sense of ἀῆναι (for ἀfῆναι ) 'to blow', required here; it means 'to sleep' (or other homonymous meanings: see LSJ).
[4] For the various homonyms of this verb see LSJ εἴλω (web address 3). See "C" εἱλέω , used here, and "D". Our text of Porphyry sometimes uses the smooth breathing.
É. Benveniste, 'L’expression indo-européenne de l’éternité,' in Bulletin de la Société Linguistique 38 (1937) 107f.
P. Chantraine, Dictionnaire étymologique de la langue grecque 1.37.
R.R. Dyer, 'On describing some Homeric glosses,' Glotta 42 (1964) 121-31, esp. 127-29, 125-27.
W. Empson, Seven Types of Ambiguity (London, 1930, often reprinted).
Ernst Fraenkel, Gnomon 22 (1950) 239.
H. Geiss, Αἴολος in LfgrE = Lexikon des frühgriechischen Epos 1.330-31.
G. Markward, κορυθαίολος in LfgrE 2.1490-92.
H.J. Mette, αἰόλος in LfgrE 1.329-30.
D.L. Page, History and the Homeric Iliad (Berkeley, 1959) 288-89, nn. 93, 97.
Porphyry, ad Od. = Porphyrii Quaestionum Homericarum ad Odysseam pertinentium reliquiae, ed. H. Schrader (Teubner, 1890).
Porphyry, Liber 1 = Porphyrii quaestionum Homericarum liber i, ed. A.R. Sodano (Naples 1970).
Porphyry, Zet. = 'Zetemata codicis Vaticani' in Porphyrii Quaestionum Homericarum ad Iliadem pertinentium reliquiae, ed. H. Schrader (fasc. 2, Teubner, 1882) 281-335.
Associated internet addresses:
Web address 1,
Web address 2,
Web address 3
Keywords: comedy; daily life; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; epic; military affairs; meter and music; mythology; poetry; stagecraft; tragedy; zoology
Translated by: Robert Dyer on 3 March 2003@07:37:26.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (cosmetics) on 3 March 2003@08:47:54.
Elizabeth Vandiver (Added keyword) on 20 January 2006@18:00:31.
David Whitehead (cosmetics) on 15 May 2012@08:51:20.
Catharine Roth (cosmetics) on 26 May 2012@22:58:17.
David Whitehead (updated 2 refs) on 30 July 2014@09:10:13.
Catharine Roth (cosmetics) on 16 December 2014@23:42:41.
Catharine Roth (upgraded links) on 18 December 2014@22:45:12.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 20 March 2015@23:52:46.
David Whitehead (coding) on 29 November 2015@06:14:15.

Headword: Αἰώρημα
Adler number: alphaiota,263
Translated headword: halter, hanging-cord, sling
Vetting Status: high
[no gloss]
Greek Original:
cf. generally epsilon 1899; alphaiota 262, alphaiota 264, alphaiota 265. The present headword, a poetic neuter noun, is used by (e.g.) Euripides and Lycophron.
See also epsilon 1897.
Keywords: dialects, grammar, and etymology; poetry; science and technology; stagecraft; tragedy
Translated by: Catharine Roth on 3 February 2003@00:56:30.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (augmented note; modified keywords) on 3 February 2003@03:05:51.
David Whitehead (x-ref; more keywords) on 1 March 2006@05:03:01.
David Whitehead (tweaked note; another keyword) on 16 May 2012@04:11:06.

Headword: Αἰσχίνης
Adler number: alphaiota,348
Translated headword: Aeschines, Aischines, Aiskhines
Vetting Status: high
Of Athens; son of the elementary teacher Atrometus and Leucothea[1] the priestess. He himself was an actor, then a secretary, then an orator; he was a traitor, who betrayed Cersobleptes[2] and the Phocians. He indicted Ctesiphon for violating the constitution when he proposed that Demosthenes be crowned;[3] he lost the case, and went into exile in Rhodes, where he became a teacher.
Greek Original:
Αἰσχίνης, Ἀθηναῖος, Ἀτρομήτου γραμματοδιδασκάλου καὶ Λευκοθέας τῆς τελεστρίας, αὐτὸς ὑποκριτής, εἶτα γραμματεύς, εἶτα ῥήτωρ, προδότης, ὁ Κερσοβλέπτην καὶ Φωκέας προδούς. γραψάμενος δὲ παρανόμων Κτησιφῶντα, στεφανοῦν γράψαντα Δημοσθένην, ἡττήθη καὶ ἔφυγεν εἰς Ῥόδον καὶ ἐπαίδευσεν ἐκεῖ.
C4 BC. The same Aeschines as alphaiota 347, q.v.
[1] Glaukothea, rather: see alphaiota 347.
[2] See kappa 1421.
[3] cf. kappa 2524.
Keywords: biography; constitution; daily life; dialects, grammar, and etymology; ethics; geography; history; law; politics; religion; rhetoric; stagecraft; women
Translated by: Malcolm Heath on 10 February 2001@13:29:53.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (added notes; cosmetics) on 26 March 2001@06:31:40.
Catharine Roth (typo identified by Andrew Smith; cosmetics) on 10 October 2004@19:02:42.
David Whitehead (another keyword) on 10 October 2005@08:43:57.
David Whitehead (another keyword) on 18 November 2005@09:49:51.
Elizabeth Vandiver (Added keyword) on 20 January 2006@19:12:49.
David Whitehead (another note) on 14 June 2011@07:01:41.
David Whitehead (more keywords; cosmetics) on 17 May 2012@05:35:32.

Headword: Αἰσχύλος
Adler number: alphaiota,357
Translated headword: Aiskhylos, Aischylos, Aeschylus
Vetting Status: high
Athenian, tragic poet, son of Euphorion and brother of Ame[i]nias, Euphorion, and Kynageiros, who [all] fought bravely at Marathon together with him.[1] He also had two sons who were tragedians, Euphorion[2] and Euaion. He competed in the 9th Olympiad[3] when he was 25 years old. This man was the first to invent the practice of actors having masks painted wondrously with colors and wearing felt half-boots known as embatai. He wrote both elegiac poetry and 90 tragedies. He won 28 times, though some say[4] 13. Exiled to Sicily following a collapse of the stage during a performance of his, a tortoise was dropped on his head by an eagle that had been carrying it, and he died at the age of 58.[5]
Greek Original:
Αἰσχύλος, Ἀθηναῖος, τραγικός, υἱὸς μὲν Εὐφορίωνος, ἀδελφὸς δὲ Ἀμενίου, Εὐφορίωνος καὶ Κυναιγείρου, τῶν εἰς Μαραθῶνα ἀριστευσάντων ἅμα αὐτῷ. ἔσχε δὲ καὶ υἱοὺς τραγικοὺς δύο, Εὐφορίωνα καὶ Εὐαίωνα. ἠγωνίζετο δὲ αὐτὸς ἐν τῇ θ# Ὀλυμπιάδι ἐτῶν ὢν κε#. οὗτος πρῶτος εὗρε προσωπεῖα δεινὰ χρώμασι κεχρισμένα ἔχειν τοὺς τραγικοὺς καὶ ταῖς ἀρβύλαις τοῖς καλουμένοις ἐμβάταις κεχρῆσθαι. ἔγραψε δὲ καὶ ἐλεγεῖα καὶ τραγῳδίας #4#: νίκας δὲ εἷλεν η# καὶ κ#, οἱ δὲ τρισκαίδεκά φασι. φυγὼν δὲ εἰς Σικελίαν διὰ τὸ πεσεῖν τὰ ἰκρία ἐπιδεικνυμένου αὐτοῦ, χελώνης ἐπιρριφείσης αὐτῷ ὑπὸ ἀετοῦ φέροντος κατὰ τῆς κεφαλῆς, ἀπώλετο ἐτῶν νη# γενόμενος.
c.525/4-456/5. See generally OCD(4) s.v. (pp.26-28).
[1] In 490. Ameinias was probably not a relation, because he came from a different deme (Herodotus 8.84): see M.R. Lefkowitz, The Lives of the Greek Poets (London 1981) 69.
[2] See epsilon 3800.
[3] So the transmitted numeral, equating to 744-741 BCE; suggested emendations produce the 69th (504-501) or the 70th (500-497). For this first try at competition (actually in 499) cf. pi 2230.
[4] More correctly.
[5] Repeated at the end of chi 191. This age does not conform to the generally accepted dates for Aeschylus' life (see above).
Keywords: biography; chronology; clothing; ethics; geography; military affairs; poetry; proverbs; stagecraft; trade and manufacture; tragedy; zoology
Translated by: Ross Scaife ✝ on 22 March 2002@09:17:12.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (added notes and keywords; cosmetics) on 10 April 2002@12:18:54.
Ross Scaife ✝ (corrected reference to Hdt following note from David Sansone) on 22 May 2002@14:26:46.
Elizabeth Vandiver (Added keyword; augmented note; added italics) on 20 January 2006@19:22:13.
David Whitehead (tweaks and cosmetics) on 17 May 2012@06:18:03.
David Whitehead (expanded n.3) on 31 March 2014@08:14:20.
David Whitehead (updated a ref) on 1 August 2014@04:49:19.
David Whitehead (more keywords) on 1 December 2015@04:30:48.

Headword: Βαβακατρεῦ
Adler number: beta,2
Translated headword: babakatreu
Vetting Status: high
It is a barbarian word; the barbarian god is agreeing. For the meaningless words stand for assent.
Greek Original:
Βαβακατρεῦ: βάρβαρός ἐστι φωνή: συγκατατίθεται δὲ ὁ βάρβαρος θεός. αἱ γὰρ ἄσημοι φωναὶ ἀντὶ συγκαταθέσεώς εἰσιν.
Variant reading for the enigmatic utterance of Triballos in Aristophanes, Birds 1615 (web address 1), with comments from the scholia thereto. Other variants include βαβαί σατρεῦ, μαβαισατρεῦ, ναβαισατρεῦ . Following L. Bayard, RPh 44 (1920) 30, Dunbar (below) prints να Βαισατρευ , which Bayard interprets as "yes, Peisetairos", but she notes (pp. 724-5) two other possibilities: that Baisatreu is the name of a barbarian god or that the whole phrase is deliberate gibberish.
Aristophanes. Birds. Ed. Nan Dunbar (Oxford 1995)
Associated internet address:
Web address 1
Keywords: comedy; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; geography; religion; stagecraft
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 6 September 1998@18:43:03.
Vetted by:
Catharine Roth (Augmented note, added link, raised status.) on 13 January 2001@16:46:54.
David Whitehead (modified translation and note; added bibliography) on 14 January 2001@09:13:19.
William Hutton (expanded notes, cosmetics, set status) on 29 August 2007@11:44:06.
David Whitehead (cosmetics) on 18 May 2012@03:34:03.
Catharine Roth (upgraded link) on 29 May 2012@23:45:34.
David Whitehead on 30 May 2012@03:31:57.

Headword: Βατράχειον
Adler number: beta,189
Translated headword: frog-green
Vetting Status: high
A type of color. From this also [comes] the frog-green coat. They used to color their faces with frog-green before masks were invented.[1] Also [sc. attested is] 'frog-green [coat]', a type of brightly-colored clothing, similar to the name of the [frog?] that has this color.[2]
Also [sc attested is the phrase] 'frog-green fate'.[3]
Greek Original:
Βατράχειον: εἶδος χρώματος. ἀπὸ τούτου καὶ βατραχὶς ἱμάτιον. ἐχρίοντο δὲ τῷ βατραχείῳ τὰ πρόσωπα πρὶν ἐπινοηθῆναι τὰ προσωπεῖα. καὶ Βατραχίς, εἶδος ἐσθῆτος ἀνθίνης, ὅμοιον τῷ ὀνόματι ἐχούσης τὸ χρῶμα. καὶ Βατράχειος μοῖρα.
[1] From the scholia to Aristophanes, Knights 522, where the headword occurs; cf. mu 20.
[2] From the scholia to Aristophanes, Knights 1406, where the word occurs.
[3] This (proverbial?) phrase is not otherwise attested.
Keywords: chronology; clothing; comedy; daily life; definition; imagery; proverbs; stagecraft; tragedy; zoology
Translated by: Craig Gibson on 20 June 2002@16:02:08.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (added notes; cosmetics) on 24 June 2002@05:24:56.
Elizabeth Vandiver (Added keyword) on 25 January 2006@20:58:24.
David Whitehead (more keywords) on 26 January 2006@03:18:53.
David Whitehead (more keywords; cosmetics) on 23 May 2012@08:09:52.

Headword: Βροντή
Adler number: beta,549
Translated headword: thunder
Vetting Status: high
Noise of clouds [resulting] from friction or bursting.[1]
There is also a particular [stage-]device, which used to be called a thunderbox [bronteion]. Beneath the stage building was a pitcher full of small pebbles from the beach; and there was a bronze cauldron, into which the pebbles were poured and by their rolling around produced a sound like thunder.[2]
Greek Original:
Βροντή: νεφῶν ψόφος ἐκ παρατρίψεως ἢ ῥήξεως. ἔστι δὲ καὶ μηχάνημά τι, ὃ ἐκαλεῖτο βροντεῖον. ὑπὸ τὴν σκηνὴν δὲ ἦν ἀμφιφορεὺς ψηφῖδας ἔχων θαλαττίας: ἦν δὲ λέβης χαλκοῦς, εἰς ὃν αἱ ψῆφοι κατήγοντο καὶ κυλιόμεναι ἦχον ἀπετέλουν ἐοικότα βροντῇ.
See also beta 550.
[1] A Stoic definition from Diogenes Laertius 7.153.
[2] From the scholia to Aristophanes, Clouds 294 (cf. 292), where thunder is mentioned; cf. Pollux 4.130.
Keywords: comedy; daily life; definition; history; philosophy; science and technology; stagecraft; trade and manufacture; tragedy
Translated by: Sean M. Redmond on 8 October 2001@11:58:59.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (augmented notes and keywords; cosmetics) on 9 October 2001@03:36:12.
David Whitehead (more keywords) on 13 June 2011@09:32:48.
David Whitehead (tweaking) on 4 June 2012@03:45:16.
David Whitehead on 23 September 2015@11:05:17.


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