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Headword: Ἀαρών
Adler number: alpha,6
Translated headword: Aaron
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
Proper name.
Greek Original:
Ἀαρών: ὄνομα κύριον.
Notes:
Same entry, according to Adler, in the Ambrosian Lexicon.
Hebrew אהרון, brother of Moses (mu 1348); Aaron is also mentioned in nu 1, omicron 68.
See web address 1 below for the entry in the Catholic Encyclopedia on Aaron.
Associated internet address:
Web address 1
Keywords: biography; definition; religion
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 21 August 1998@16:48:52.
Vetted by:
Samuel Huskey (added link to Catholic Encyclopedia entry "Aaron") on 15 July 2000@14:22:28.
David Whitehead (added keywords) on 27 February 2003@07:07:28.
David Whitehead (added a note) on 13 April 2004@09:17:08.
William Hutton (augmented note, set status) on 20 August 2007@04:30:20.
William Hutton (typo) on 20 August 2007@09:00:32.
Jennifer Benedict (added note (citation of link)) on 25 March 2008@00:12:22.
David Whitehead (another note) on 18 December 2011@10:16:36.

Headword: Ἀασάμην
Adler number: alpha,7
Translated headword: I was addled
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
[Meaning] I did wrong, I slipped up;[1] I was damaged,[2] in the sense of "I was overcome by folly."
Greek Original:
Ἀασάμην: ἥμαρτον, ἐσφάλην: ἐβλάβην, οἷον ἄτῃ περιέπεσον.
Notes:
The headword is the first person singular, aorist indicative middle/passive, of ἀάω (LSJ entry at web address 1). It is found frequently in epic poetry, e.g. Homer Iliad 9.116 (web address 2).
[1] Up to this point the entry = Synagoge (Codex B) alpha3 (Lexica Segueriana 3.8 Bachmann).
[2] From here on the entry is very similar to Apollonius Sophistes, Homeric Lexicon 1.19, and Hesychius alpha25.
Associated internet addresses:
Web address 1,
Web address 2
Keywords: definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; epic; ethics; poetry; religion
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 21 August 1998@16:50:10.
Vetted by:
William Hutton (Raised status, minor alterations to translation) on 17 October 2000@17:21:27.
William Hutton on 17 October 2000@17:22:15.
David Whitehead (modified headword and translation; cosmetics) on 9 February 2001@04:43:19.
William Hutton (modified translation, augmented notes, added links and keywords, set status) on 20 August 2007@04:52:46.
William Hutton (updated footnote) on 8 November 2007@06:02:11.
Jennifer Benedict (betacode typo) on 22 March 2008@17:15:55.
Jennifer Benedict (cosmetics) on 25 March 2008@00:13:03.
William Hutton on 22 July 2009@15:25:18.
Catharine Roth (upgraded link) on 17 December 2011@00:09:02.
David Whitehead on 16 August 2013@06:06:47.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 3 September 2014@10:30:04.

Headword: Ἀββᾶ
Adler number: alpha,10
Translated headword: Abba, Father
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
The ancients called God "Father" from a feeling of relationship. Moses said, "You have forsaken God who begot you."[1] And Malachi: "One God begot us and is our father."[2] They were in a state of grace, moved by the force of the Spirit. Just as there is the Spirit of wisdom by which fools have become wise (for this is clear from the teachings), and the Spirit of power by which they raised both the weak and the dead, and the Spirit of prophecy, and the Spirit of tongues, so also there is the Spirit of adoption.[3] And just as we know the Spirit of prophecy, through which one who has it is moved by grace to tell the future, so also the Spirit of adoption, through which one moved by the Spirit calls God "Father." One who wishes to show that this is most legitimate even used a Hebrew word. For he did not say "Father" but "Abba the Father." This is the word used especially by legitimate children for their father.[4]
Greek Original:
Ἀββᾶ: ὁ πατήρ. οἱ μὲν παλαιοὶ ἐκάλουν πατέρα τὸν θεὸν ἐξ οἰκείας διανοίας, ὡς Μωϋσῆς: θεὸν τὸν γεννήσαντά σε ἐγκατέλιπες: καὶ Μαλαχίας: ὁ θεὸς εἷς ἐγέννησεν ἡμᾶς καὶ πατήρ: οἱ δὲ ἐν χάριτι, ἀπὸ πνευματικῆς ἐνεργείας κινούμενοι. ὥσπερ πνεῦμα σοφίας εἶναι, καθ' ὃ σοφοὶ οἱ ἄσοφοι ἐγένοντο [καὶ δηλοῦται τοῦτο ἀπὸ τῆς διδασκαλίας] καὶ πνεῦμα δυνάμεως εἶναι, καθ' ὃ καὶ ἀσθενεῖς καὶ νεκροὺς ἤγειρον, καὶ πνεῦμα προφητείας, καὶ πνεῦμα γλωσσῶν, οὕτω καὶ πνεῦμα υἱοθεσίας. καὶ ὥσπερ ἴσμεν τὸ πνεῦμα τῆς προφητείας, ἀφ' ὧν ὁ ἔχων αὐτὸ λέγει τὰ μέλλοντα ὑπὸ τῆς χάριτος κινούμενος, οὕτω δὴ καὶ πνεῦμα υἱοθεσίας, ἀφ' οὗ ὁ λαβὼν πατέρα καλεῖ τὸν θεὸν, ὑπὸ πνεύματος κινούμενος. ὁ δὴ βουλόμενος δεῖξαι γνησιώτατον ὂν καὶ τῇ τῶν Ἑβραίων ἐχρήσατο γλώττῃ. οὐ γὰρ εἶπεν ὁ πατὴρ, ἀλλ' ἀββᾶ ὁ πατήρ: ὅπερ τῶν παίδων μάλιστά ἐστι τῶν γνησίων πρὸς πατέρα ῥῆμα.
Notes:
A paraphrase of St. John Chrysostom, Homily on the Epistle to the Romans PG 60.527.
(Entry placed after alpha 16, Adler reports, in mss GTMB.)
[1] Deuteronomy 32:18 LXX (web address 1).
[2] Malachi 2:10 LXX (web address 2).
[3] cf. Ep.Romans 8:15 (web address 3).
[4] On "Abba," see also alpha 12.
Associated internet addresses:
Web address 1,
Web address 2,
Web address 3
Keywords: children; Christianity; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; medicine; religion
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 21 August 1998@16:57:30.
Vetted by:
Samuel Huskey (added links to Bible, changed "sonship" to "filiation") on 15 July 2000@15:01:55.
Catharine Roth (Altered wording.) on 29 July 2000@23:15:23.
David Whitehead (added keyword; cosmetics) on 11 July 2003@08:51:36.
David Whitehead (another keyword) on 6 October 2005@08:51:18.
William Hutton (tweaked translation, augmented notes, fixed broken links, added keywords, set status) on 20 August 2007@10:15:40.
Catharine Roth (upgraded links) on 5 August 2013@01:15:24.
David Whitehead (another note; cosmetics) on 28 March 2014@06:14:49.
Catharine Roth (tweaked translation, added cross-reference) on 28 March 2014@12:15:01.
David Whitehead (coding) on 15 August 2015@07:24:11.

Headword: Ἀββακούμ
Adler number: alpha,12
Translated headword: Habakkuk, Avvakoum
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
[A name meaning] father of awakening. For the [word] abba means father,[1] and koum means awakening.[2] So also in the Holy Gospel: "Talitha, koum," that is, "young girl, get up."[3] From which [it is] clear that Abbakoum must be written with double b.[4]
Greek Original:
Ἀββακούμ: πατὴρ ἐγέρσεως. τὸ μὲν γὰρ ἀββᾶ σημαίνει πατήρ, τὸ δὲ κοὺμ ἔγερσις: ὡς καὶ παρὰ τῷ θείῳ εὐαγγελίῳ: ταληθὰ, κούμ, ἤγουν ἡ παῖς ἐγείρου. ὅθεν δῆλον, ὅτι διὰ τῶν δύο ββ γραπτέον τὸ Ἀββακούμ.
Notes:
An etymology for the name of the prophet Habakkuk (in the Septuagint, Ambakoum or Avvakoum), based on two Aramaic words found in the New Testament. The Suda is drawing from older onomastica; the same etymology is found in the Origenistic lexicon (see bibliography).
[1] See already alpha 10. The Hebrew/Aramaic אבּא abba means father.
[2] The Hebrew/Aramaic קום kūm means arise; it can also be used to mean awake.
[3] Mark 5:41 (web address 1); not in the other Gospels, but several times in patristic literature.
[4] The Suda is correct. The doubling of the בּ is indicated by its dot (dagesh); unlike Greek, Hebrew and Aramaic do not replicate doubled letters.
Reference:
Paul de Lagarde, Onomastica Sacra, p. 200, line 14-15
Associated internet address:
Web address 1
Keywords: children; Christianity; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; gender and sexuality; imagery; religion; women
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 21 August 1998@16:59:43.
Vetted by:
Catharine Roth (Altered wording.) on 29 July 2000@23:23:46.
Catharine Roth (Augmented note with information supplied by Lee Fields.) on 1 May 2001@19:02:40.
David Whitehead (added x-ref; cosmetics) on 22 July 2003@10:07:42.
Raphael Finkel (Added notes 2, 4, Hebrew.) on 12 August 2004@14:47:21.
Catharine Roth (added a keyword) on 8 October 2005@00:31:59.
William Hutton (cosmetics, added keywords and link, set status) on 21 August 2007@09:59:47.
Jennifer Benedict (cosmetics) on 24 March 2008@23:27:14.
Catharine Roth (upgraded link) on 17 December 2011@00:23:06.
David Whitehead (another keyword; typo and other cosmetics) on 18 December 2011@10:27:45.
Catharine Roth (typo) on 18 December 2011@10:53:04.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 5 August 2013@01:12:51.
Raphael Finkel (Converted Romanization of Hebrew to ISO 259.) on 7 August 2014@13:38:11.
David Whitehead (expanded a note; cosmetics) on 2 April 2015@08:48:00.
David Whitehead (coding) on 15 August 2015@06:56:57.

Headword: Ἀβαρνίς
Adler number: alpha,19
Translated headword: Abarnis
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
Name of a city.
Greek Original:
Ἀβαρνίς: ὄνομα πόλεως.
Notes:
Same entry, according to Adler, in the Ambrosian Lexicon (74), and cf. more generally the scholia to Apollonius Rhodius, Argonautica 1.932 (where the genitive case occurs), on which see further below.
Abarnis lay on the southern shore of the Propontis (Sea of Marmara), between Parion and Lampsakos; Barrington Atlas map 51 grid H4. According to Stephanus of Byzantium s.v. Ἄβαρνος (sic), Abarnos and Aparnis were also attested versions of its name.
A scholium to Apollonius Rhodius, Argonautica 1.932 (repeated in more legible form in Etymologicum Magnum 2.11-28) provides an etymological explanation of the origin of the name in Aphrodite's refusal (ἀπαρνήσασθαι ) to recognize her offspring Priapos, who was born in the region.
Keywords: children; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; gender and sexuality; geography; mythology; religion; women
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 22 August 1998@12:55:54.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (modified note) on 19 September 2000@03:59:17.
William Hutton (augmented note, added keywords, set status) on 24 August 2007@23:38:41.
David Whitehead (augmented and re-arranged note) on 19 December 2011@06:02:32.
Catharine Roth (coding, typo) on 5 August 2013@00:18:42.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 10 January 2015@22:46:51.

Headword: Ἄβατον
Adler number: alpha,23
Translated headword: inaccessible
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
[Meaning something] sacred, unapproachable, desolate;[1] also an 'inaccessible' road, [meaning] impassable.
Greek Original:
Ἄβατον: ἱερὸν, ἀπρόσιτον, ἔρημον: καὶ ὁδὸς ἄβατος, ἡ ἀπόρευτος.
Notes:
The headword is the neuter singular form of this adjective, which, as a substantive, can be used for the adyton of a temple or shrine.
[1] Up to this point the entry = Synagoge alpha5, and Photius, Lexicon alpha31 Theodoridis; cf. Hesychius alpha91 (where Latte confidently asserts that the headword is quoted from Euripides, Bacchae 10).
Keywords: architecture; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; geography; religion; tragedy
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 23 August 1998@16:21:29.
Vetted by:
William Hutton (Modified headword and translation, set keywords and status) on 20 January 2001@11:38:48.
David Whitehead (modified translation; added a keyword; typo and other cosmetics) on 13 April 2004@09:31:34.
Catharine Roth (augmented note, added keyword, raised status) on 3 October 2007@19:18:41.
Catharine Roth (deleted keyword) on 3 October 2007@19:29:24.
David Whitehead (another keyword) on 4 October 2007@03:40:05.
William Hutton (Modifed and updated notes.) on 11 November 2007@07:16:09.
David Whitehead (cosmetics) on 19 December 2011@06:14:37.
David Whitehead (expanded n.1; another keyword) on 1 February 2012@03:58:10.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 5 August 2013@00:52:27.
David Whitehead on 16 August 2013@06:33:19.
William Hutton (typo) on 21 August 2013@10:06:07.

Headword: Ἀβαχθανῆ
Adler number: alpha,24
Translated headword: abakhthani
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
A Hebrew expression.
Greek Original:
Ἀβαχθανῆ: λέξις Ἑβραϊκή.
Notes:
Strictly speaking the headword is a truncated Aramaic, rather than Hebrew, term. Its proper form in Greek transliteration is σαβαχθάνι and translates "you have forsaken me." The term occurs at Matthew 27:46 and Mark 15:34, where Jesus on the cross quotes Psalm 21:2 LXX (22:2 MT): "God, my God, ... why have you forsaken me?" (see eta 210). For the Hebrew, see Kohlenberger, 3.367. In Aramaic, "why have you forsaken me" is למא שבקתני lama šaḇaqtani. The Suda has carelessly disassociated the sigma, creating in effect "lamas aḇaqtani or ἀβαχθανη --a clear signal that the compiler was unfamiliar with Aramaic. The Psalmic Hebrew original is עזבתני 'azaḇtani, from עזב ʿazaḇ "forsake, forget". For the triliteral root citation, see Brown, Driver, and Briggs, 736ff. For šaḇaqtani (from שבק šeḇaq), see Perschbacher, 364; Danker, 909.
The Suda item has a circumflex accent on the final syllable. In the Hebrew עזבתני ʿazaḇtani, the accent falls on the penultimate syllable (-ta-), consistent with perfects suffixed with a first person singular pronoun; for this, see Kelley, 154.A; Gesenius, 155(58.1). So in the Aramaic, the accent falls on the penultimate syllable (-ta-). That said, the accent in Greek transliteration is inconsistent. Perschbacher places it over the final iota (σαβαχθανί ) in the headword; however, his citation from The Greek New Testament According to the Majority Text (1982) places the accent over the penultimate (σαβαχθάνι ). In addition, Perschbacher offers the transliteration σαβαχθανεί from The New Testament in the Original Greek (1881). Danker places the accent over the penultimate syllable.
Phonologically, the Aramaic shin (ש š /ʃ/) cannot be accommodated by Greek, which must substitute sigma. For a parallel instance, see omega 182 (note 47). Both chi (for Aramaic ק qaf) and theta (for Aramaic ת taw) function as aspirated plosives (equivalent to English "kit" and "top"). See Allen, 16-17. The theta is noteworthy insofar as its sound value parallels that of the taw (ת) in šaḇaqtani, hardened by silent shewa and dagesh lene. Moreover, the Aramaic in Greek transliteration bolsters the linguistic argument for the compound "chi-theta" as successive aspirated plosives. See Allen, 24-27. Aramaic taw, like its Hebrew counterpart, otherwise has a "th" (as in "both") value. See "Aramaic" in Encyclopaedia Judaica, 3.263; a modern descriptive approach is found in "Aramaic" (Kaufman). For theta as a fricative in Hebrew transliteration, see omega 182 (note 47).
That the Suda terminates the headword with eta rather than iota (paralleling the Aramaic khireq-yod or long "i") showcases a phonological shift in Greek. By the 3rd century CE, the Greek letters eta, and the digraph epsilon-iota (note the -ει alternative in Perschbacher) were sounded as long iota. See Allen, 74. The Suda compiler viewed eta as the more elegant solution. This feature bears directly on the Suda's own taxonomy: the homophones epsilon-iota, eta, and iota follow zeta in the Suda's "alphabetical" scheme. See "Suidas" in the Encyclopaedia Britannica, XXVI.51.
References:
Allen, W.S. Vox Graeca. Cambridge: Cambridge University, 1968
"Aramaic" in Encyclopaedia Judaica. Jerusalem: Encyclopaedia Judaica, 1973
Brown, F., Driver, S.R., and Briggs, C.A. A Hebrew and English Lexicon of the Old Testament. Oxford: Clarendon, 1951
Danker, F.W. A Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament and Other Early Christian Literature. Chicago: University of Chicago, 2000
Kautzsch, E. Gesenius' Hebrew Grammar. Oxford: Clarendon, 1910
Kelley, P.H. Biblical Hebrew: An Introductory Grammar. Grand Rapids: William B. Erdmans, 1992
Kohlenberger, J.R. The Interlinear Hebrew-English Old Testament. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1987
Kaufman, S.A. "Aramaic" in Hetzron, R. The Semitic Languages. New York: Routledge, 1997
Perschbacher, W.J. The New Analytical Greek Lexicon. Peabody: Hendrickson, 1996
"Suidas" in Encyclopaedia Britannica. Cambridge: Cambridge University, 1910
Keywords: Christianity; chronology; dialects, grammar, and etymology; poetry; religion
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 4 December 1999@16:23:20.
Vetted by:
Raphael Finkel on 9 December 1999@11:17:30.
Elizabeth Vandiver on 14 December 1999@16:17:44.
Craig Miller on 27 May 2002@01:29:46.
Craig Miller (Reformatted translation; modified/expanded notes; added bibliography; expanded keywords. Cosmetics pending by editor.) on 27 May 2002@01:58:58.
Craig Miller (Cosmetics) on 27 May 2002@15:48:11.
Craig Miller on 27 May 2002@16:11:44.
Catharine Roth (added cross-reference) on 4 October 2002@00:55:00.
Raphael Finkel (Added Hebrew and Aramaic characters.) on 31 October 2002@10:06:56.
Raphael Finkel (Minor fixes.) on 31 October 2002@12:39:23.
Elizabeth Vandiver (Added italics; cosmetics) on 12 February 2005@21:58:54.
Catharine Roth (cosmetics) on 1 March 2006@01:08:11.
David Whitehead (another keyword; tweaks and cosmetics) on 19 December 2011@06:21:33.
Catharine Roth (coding, typo) on 5 August 2013@00:57:53.
Raphael Finkel (Fixed translation of LXX; changed to ISO 259 Romanization of Hebrew and Aramaic.) on 7 August 2014@13:30:23.
Raphael Finkel (Standardized Romanization fonts.) on 7 August 2014@13:46:48.
David Whitehead (coding) on 15 August 2015@07:25:56.

Headword: Ἀβδέλυκτα
Adler number: alpha,25
Translated headword: unhateful [things]
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
[Meaning] those which do not cause pollution, at which one would not feel disgust or hatred. The word [is] somewhat tragic.[1] Aeschylus in Myrmidons [writes]: "indeed, for I love them, they are unhateful to me."[2]
Greek Original:
Ἀβδέλυκτα: τὰ μὴ μιαίνοντα, ἃ οὐκ ἄν τις βδελυχθείη καὶ δυσχεράνειε. τραγικωτέρα δὲ ἡ λέξις. Αἰσχύλος Μυρμιδόσι: καὶ μὴν, φιλῶ γὰρ, ἀβδέλυκτ' ἐμοὶ τάδε.
Notes:
The headword, presumably extracted from the quotation given, is neuter plural of this adjective.
cf. generally (by way of opposites) beta 197, beta 198, beta 199, beta 200, beta 201, etc.
= Photius, Lexicon alpha33 Theodoridis (Phrynichus, Praeparatio Sophistica fr. 40), and very similar to Synagoge (Codex B) alpha12; cf. Hesychius alpha94.
[1] cf. tau 659.
[2] Aeschylus fr. 137 Nauck.
Keywords: definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; ethics; religion; tragedy
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 23 August 1998@16:23:12.
Vetted by:
William Hutton (Cosmetics, added keywords, set status) on 20 January 2001@11:42:07.
David Whitehead (modified translation; augmnented notes; cosmetics) on 13 April 2004@09:40:31.
Catharine Roth (augmented note, raised status) on 3 October 2007@19:28:36.
David Whitehead (another keyword) on 4 October 2007@03:40:38.
William Hutton (Augmented and modified notes) on 11 November 2007@07:20:53.
David Whitehead (augmented notes; another keyword; tweaks) on 19 December 2011@06:28:05.
David Whitehead on 16 August 2013@06:35:08.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 3 September 2014@23:31:12.

Headword: Ἀβδιού
Adler number: alpha,27
Translated headword: Abdiou, Obadiah
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
Proper name.
Greek Original:
Ἀβδιού: ὄνομα κύριον.
Notes:
Same entry, according to Adler, in the Ambrosian Lexicon (30).
Accented as it is (oxytone), nominative. The book of the prophet Obadiah in the Septuagint has the title ΑΒΔΙΟΥ and Ὅρασις Ἀβδιου "Obadiah's Vision"; the name has no accent, as a Hebrew name, so its case cannot be determined. Hesychius gives the name as oxytone, with the gloss ἑρμηνεύεται δοῦλος ἐξομολογητός "it is interpreted as acknowledged servant."
Keywords: biography; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; religion
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 23 August 1998@16:25:23.
Vetted by:
William Hutton (Set status) on 20 January 2001@22:55:17.
David Whitehead (added note; changed keyword) on 21 January 2001@05:52:35.
Catharine Roth (augmented note) on 4 October 2007@01:17:58.
David Whitehead (another note; more keywords) on 19 December 2011@06:35:03.
David Whitehead (coding) on 15 August 2015@06:58:15.

Headword: Ἀβέβηλα
Adler number: alpha,29
Translated headword: inviolable [places]
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
[Meaning] places that must not be walked on, holy and sacred places. For βέβηλα meant what is not holy or sacred, where anyone may walk.
Also [sc. attested is] βέβηλοι , [meaning] those who do not have a share in sacred things.[1]
Also [sc. attested is the phrase] λόγοι ἀβέβηλοι , [meaning] words that may not be spoken.[2]
Also [sc. attested is] ἀβέβηλος , [meaning someone or something masculine] pure.[3]
Greek Original:
Ἀβέβηλα: τὰ μὴ βάσιμα χωρία, ἱερὰ δὲ καὶ ὅσια. βέβηλα γὰρ ἐλέγετο τὰ μὴ ὅσια μηδὲ ἱερὰ, παντὶ δὲ βάσιμα. καὶ Βέβηλοι, οἱ μὴ κεκοινωνηκότες ἱερῶν. καὶ Λόγοι ἀβέβηλοι, οἱ ἀπόρρητοι. καὶ Ἀβέβηλος, ὁ καθαρός.
Notes:
The closest parallel to the entry as a whole is Photius, Lexicon alpha34 Theodoridis. Various parts of it appear in other lexica, as noted below.
[1] This part is a paraphrase of what appears in Photius; cf. beta 218.
[2] This part of the entry is not paralleled in other lexica.
[3] This appears as the first gloss in Photius and constitutes the entire entry at Synagoge alpha6; cf. Hesychius alpha101, with neuter/accusative equivalents. Cyril of Alexandria uses the headword frequently in conjunction with καθαρός .
Keywords: Christianity; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; ethics; geography; religion
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 23 August 1998@16:27:02.
Vetted by:
William Hutton (Modified translation and keywords, set status) on 20 January 2001@23:11:04.
Catharine Roth (Added link.) on 21 January 2001@01:35:20.
David Whitehead (supplemented translation; added keyword; cosmetics) on 9 June 2003@07:15:41.
Catharine Roth (changed italics to betacode) on 8 October 2005@00:35:16.
Catharine Roth (augmented notes, deleted link, raised status) on 8 October 2007@00:22:04.
William Hutton (Augmented and rearranged notes) on 11 November 2007@07:30:53.
Jennifer Benedict (changed spelling of "Photios" so that it's linked in) on 25 March 2008@01:01:35.
David Whitehead (more keywords; cosmetics) on 19 December 2011@06:44:18.
David Whitehead on 16 August 2013@06:37:30.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 3 September 2014@23:32:38.
David Whitehead (another keyword; cosmetics) on 2 April 2015@09:11:39.

Headword: Ἄβελ
Adler number: alpha,30
Translated headword: Abel
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
Son of Adam.[1] This man was chaste and just from the beginning and a shepherd of flocks; out of these he offered a sacrifice to God and was accepted, but was then killed because he was envied by his brother Cain.[2] Cain happened to be a farmer and after the judgement he lived worse, with groaning and trembling. For Abel, by dedicating the firstborn [of the flock] to God, recommended himself as more God-loving than self-loving,[3] and because this was a good choice, he was accepted. But Cain impiously kept his first-fruits for himself and gave the seconds to God, and for this reason was rightly rejected. For it says: "and after some days it happened that Cain offered from the fruits of the earth."[4] Cain was disgraced by the fact that the produce he offered was not the first-fruits but that which was some days old and second-best.
Greek Original:
Ἄβελ: υἱὸς Ἀδάμ. οὗτος παρθένος καὶ δίκαιος ὑπῆρχε καὶ ποιμὴν προβάτων: ἐξ ὧν καὶ θυσίαν τῷ θεῷ προσαγαγὼν καὶ δεχθεὶς ἀναιρεῖται, φθονηθεὶς ὑπὸ τοῦ ἀδελφοῦ αὐτοῦ Κάϊν. ὁ Κάϊν δὲ γεωργὸς τυγχάνων καὶ μετὰ τὴν δίκην χειρόνως βιώσας στένων καὶ τρέμων ἦν. ὁ γὰρ Ἄβελ τὰ πρωτότοκα τῷ θεῷ καθιερῶν φιλόθεον μᾶλλον ἢ φίλαυτον ἑαυτὸν συνίστη, ὅθεν καὶ διὰ τῆς ἀγαθῆς αὐτοῦ προαιρέσεως ἀπεδέχθη. ὁ δὲ Κάϊν δυσσεβῶς ἑαυτῷ ἀπονέμων τὰ πρωτογεννήματα, θεῷ δὲ τὰ δεύτερα, εἰκότως καὶ ἀπεβλήθη. φησὶ γάρ: καὶ ἐγένετο μεθ' ἡμέρας, προσήνεγκε Κάϊν ἀπὸ τῶν καρπῶν τῆς γῆς. ὥστε διὰ τοῦτο Κάϊν ἐλέγχεται, ὅτι μὴ τὰ ἀκροθίνια γεννήματα προσήνεγκε τῷ θεῷ, ἀλλὰ τὰ μεθ' ἡμέρας καὶ δεύτερα.
Notes:
George the Monk, Chronicon 6.10-7.16.
[1] alpha 425.
[2] kappa 27.
[3] Again at sigma 1580.
[4] Genesis 4:3.
Keywords: agriculture; biography; botany; Christianity; daily life; ethics; food; historiography; religion; zoology
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 20 August 1998@17:57:27.
Vetted by:
William Hutton (Modified translation, cosmetics, keywords, set status) on 27 January 2001@12:23:00.
David Whitehead (augmented notes and keywords) on 27 February 2003@08:28:31.
David Whitehead (another x-ref) on 8 September 2003@06:15:32.
David Whitehead (another keyword) on 2 October 2005@10:57:50.
David Whitehead (more keywords; cosmetics; raised status) on 22 June 2011@07:14:12.
David Whitehead (another keyword; tweaks) on 29 August 2012@10:24:09.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 5 August 2013@01:03:34.

Headword: Ἀβέλτερος
Adler number: alpha,32
Translated headword: thoughtless
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
[Meaning] mindless, stupid. For the intelligent man [is] βέλτερος ["thoughtful, superior"].[1]
"No, by Zeus, not the greedy and thoughtless fellow, but the mindless and conceitedly slow-witted."[2] Menander in Perinthia [writes]: "any servant who takes an idle and easy master and deceives him does not know what a great accomplishment it is to make a greater fool of one who is already thoughtless".[3] They also call ἀβελτηρία ["thoughtlessness"] an ἀβελτήριον ["thoughtless thing"]. Anaxandrides in Helen[4] [writes]: "[A:] an anchor, a little boat, - call it what vessel you want. [B:] O Heracles of the sacred precinct of thoughtlessness. [A:] But one could not estimate its size."
Also [sc. attested is] ἀβελτηρία , [meaning] stupidity.
Or mindlessness.
Menander [writes]: "their mind drove them to such thoughtlessness that they prayed for victory over each other rather than over the enemy."[5]
Greek Original:
Ἀβέλτερος: ἀνόητος, ἀσύνετος. βέλτερος γὰρ ὁ φρόνιμος. οὐ μὰ Δί' οὐχ ὁ πλεονέκτης καὶ ἀγνώμων, ἀλλ' ὁ ἀνόητος καὶ εὐήθης μετὰ χαυνότητος. Μένανδρος Περινθίᾳ: ὅστις παραλαβὼν δεσπότην ἀπράγμονα καὶ κοῦφον ἐξαπατᾷ θεράπων, οὐκ οἶδ' ὅ τι οὗτος μεγαλεῖόν ἐστι διαπεπραγμένος, ἐπαβελτερώσας τόν ποτε ἀβέλτερον. λέγουσι δὲ καὶ ἀβελτήριον τὴν ἀβελτηρίαν. Ἀλεξανδρίδης Ἑλένῃ: ἄγκυρα, λέμβος, σκεῦος ὅ τι βούλει λέγε. ὦ Ἡράκλεις ἀβελτηρίου τεμενικοῦ. ἀλλ' οὐδ' ἂν εἰπεῖν τὸ μέγεθος δύναιτό τις. καὶ Ἀβελτηρία, ἡ ἀφροσύνη. ἢ ἀνοησία. Μένανδρος: εἰς τοῦτο δὲ ἀβελτηρίας ἤλασεν αὐτοῖς ὁ νοῦς, ὥστε θάτερον μέρος τὴν κατὰ θατέρου μᾶλλον ἢ τὴν κατὰ τῶν πολεμίων εὔχεσθαι νίκην.
Notes:
On this headword, a comic formation literally meaning non-superior, see generally LSJ s.v. (web address 1 below); and cf. alpha 31, alpha 33.
[1] These glosses are paralleled in a variety of other lexica (and in the scholia to Aristophanes, Clouds 1201 and Ecclesiazusae 768).
[2] Quotation (an illustration of the first of the glossing words, not the headword) unidentifiable; also in Photius and Aelius Dionysius.
[3] Menander fr. 393 Kock.
[4] Anaxandrides [see generally alpha 1982] fr. 12 Kock (and K.-A.). But note that Adler prints the manuscript reading "Alexandrides", on the strength of the (apparent) mention of such a playwright in alpha 3824. On the emendation to Anaxandrides, see Toup vol. 1 p. 9; Adler attributes the emendation to 'Iunius' (probably Adriaan de Jonghe, 1511-1575, author of a Greek/Latin Lexicon).
[5] Not M. the comic poet, quoted above, but the C6 CE historian Menander Protector [mu 591]: his fr. 28 Blockley.
Reference:
Toup, Jonathan, and Richard Porson. Emendationes in Suidam Et Hesychium, Et Alios Lexicographos Graecos. Oxford 1790
Associated internet address:
Web address 1
Keywords: comedy; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; ethics; historiography; history; military affairs; religion
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 25 August 1998@19:02:21.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (augmented notes; added keywords; cosmetics) on 9 February 2001@05:52:19.
Jennifer Benedict (betacoding) on 23 March 2008@13:05:56.
David Whitehead (modified headword; augmented notes and keywords; tweaks and cosmetics) on 24 March 2008@04:34:27.
Jennifer Benedict (added link) on 25 March 2008@11:17:06.
Catharine Roth (fixed note number, augmented note, added bibliography, tweaked link) on 15 May 2008@15:34:15.
David Whitehead (typo) on 16 May 2008@07:55:44.
Catharine Roth (augmented note) on 20 May 2008@11:50:13.
David Whitehead (tweaks) on 16 December 2011@05:38:00.
David Whitehead (updated a reference; cosmetics) on 3 January 2012@04:21:06.
David Whitehead (updated a ref) on 22 December 2014@04:27:32.
David Whitehead (tweaks and cosmetics) on 2 April 2015@09:15:50.

Headword: Ἀβεσαλώμ
Adler number: alpha,35
Translated headword: Abesalom, Absalom
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
Proper name.[1]
[The man] who rose up against his own father David and was destroyed by him in the war.[2]
Greek Original:
Ἀβεσαλώμ: ὄνομα κύριον. ὃς τοῦ ἰδίου πατρὸς Δαβὶδ κατεξανέστη καὶ ἀνῃρέθη ὑπ' αὐτοῦ ἐν τῷ πολέμῳ.
Notes:
[1] So too, according to Adler, in the Ambrosian Lexicon.
[2] See generally 2 Samuel 15-18 LXX.
Keywords: biography; children; definition; ethics; history; military affairs; religion
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 26 August 1998@18:50:03.
Vetted by:
Catharine Roth (Added keywords.) on 30 July 2000@22:45:00.
David Whitehead (added keywords; cosmetics) on 9 June 2003@07:27:13.
David Whitehead on 1 August 2011@07:34:26.
David Whitehead (augmented notes; another keyword) on 19 December 2011@06:57:32.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 7 August 2013@23:28:44.
David Whitehead (coding) on 15 August 2015@07:26:43.

Headword: Ἀβειρών
Adler number: alpha,36
Translated headword: Abeiron
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
Proper name.
Greek Original:
Ἀβειρών: ὄνομα κύριον.
Notes:
Same entry, according to Adler, in the Ambrosian Lexicon.
See Numbers 16 LXX; son of Eliab.
Keywords: biography; definition; religion
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 26 August 1998@18:50:39.
Vetted by:
William Hutton (Cosmetics, set status) on 26 January 2001@23:14:21.
David Whitehead (augmented keywords) on 27 February 2003@08:29:56.
David Whitehead on 1 August 2011@07:34:50.
David Whitehead (another note) on 19 December 2011@06:58:47.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 7 August 2013@23:29:32.
David Whitehead on 15 August 2015@07:27:40.

Headword: Ἀβιά
Adler number: alpha,39
Translated headword: Abia, Abijah
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
Proper name.
Greek Original:
Ἀβιά: ὄνομα κύριον.
Notes:
(Entry lacking, Adler reports, in ms S.)
1 Kings 15:1-8 LXX, Matthew 1.7. Son of Rehoboam and father of Asaph (Asa); king of Judah. See also alpha 42, Ἀβίας , a different transliteration of the name, but the same figure.
Keywords: biography; Christianity; definition; religion
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 26 August 1998@18:52:26.
Vetted by:
William Hutton (Cosmetics, set status) on 26 January 2001@23:18:53.
David Whitehead (augmented keywords) on 27 February 2003@08:32:42.
Jennifer Benedict (Added headword, expanded note) on 23 March 2008@14:11:16.
Jennifer Benedict (added x-ref, more expansion of note) on 23 March 2008@14:15:19.
Catharine Roth (tweaked betacode) on 24 March 2008@00:09:30.
David Whitehead on 1 August 2011@07:35:19.
David Whitehead (another keyword; cosmetics) on 19 December 2011@07:04:03.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 7 August 2013@23:32:01.
David Whitehead (another note) on 28 March 2014@06:28:33.
David Whitehead (coding) on 15 August 2015@07:28:24.

Headword: Ἀβιάθαρ
Adler number: alpha,41
Translated headword: Abiathar
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
Proper name.
Greek Original:
Ἀβιάθαρ: ὄνομα κύριον.
Notes:
In Mark 2.26, Abiathar is a priest who gives sacred food to David and his men.
In 1 Samuel 21.4-8, the priest is Ahimilech, and Abiathar is his son; cf. 1 Samuel 22.20.
Keywords: biography; Christianity; definition; food; religion
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 26 August 1998@18:53:54.
Vetted by:
William Hutton (Added headword, set status.) on 26 January 2001@23:22:05.
David Whitehead (augmented keywords) on 27 February 2003@08:34:57.
David Whitehead on 1 August 2011@07:36:15.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 7 August 2013@23:37:32.

Headword: Ἀβιέζερ
Adler number: alpha,44
Translated headword: Abiezer
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
Proper name.
Greek Original:
Ἀβιέζερ: ὄνομα κύριον.
Notes:
Same entry, according to Adler, in the Ambrosian Lexicon (15).
For A., ancestor of Gideon, see Judges 6:34, 8:2, etc.
Keywords: biography; definition; religion
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 26 August 1998@18:57:51.
Vetted by:
William Hutton (Added headword, keyword, set status) on 27 January 2001@11:45:30.
David Whitehead (added note and keyword) on 27 February 2003@08:41:51.
David Whitehead (augmented notes and keywords) on 19 December 2011@07:14:38.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 7 August 2013@23:41:01.

Headword: Ἀβιμέλεχ
Adler number: alpha,45
Translated headword: Abimelech
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
Proper name.[1]
The son of Gideon.[2] He smote his brothers, seventy sons of Gideon's wives,[3] upon a single stone, and none of them was left except Jotham the youngest son,[4] who ran away. As Abimelech was passing through with his people, Jotham went up to the top of the mountain and, raising his voice, told the following parable. "Listen to me, men of Shechem, and God will listen to you. The trees set out[5] to anoint a king over themselves. And they said to the olive, 'Rule over us.' And the olive said to them, 'Should I give up my rich oil, by which -- through me -- God[6] and men receive honor,[7] and go rule over trees?' Then the trees said to the fig, 'Come, rule over us.' And the fig said to them, 'Should I give up my sweetness, my excellent product, and go to rule over the trees?' And the trees said to the vine, 'Come, rule over us.' And the vine said to them, 'Should I give up my wine, merriment for men, and go to rule over the trees?' And all the trees said to the thornbush, 'Come, you rule over us.' And the thornbush said to the trees, 'If you are truly anointing me to rule over you, come stand under[8] my shade. But if not, may fire come from me and consume the cedars of Lebanon.' Now, if you have dealt with my father and his family truthfully and in an upright way, and have made his concubine's son Abimelech king over the men of Shechem, then may you rejoice in him and may he indeed rejoice in you. But if not, may fire issue from Abimelech and consume your leaders and their families. And may fire issue from the men of Shechem and consume Abimelech." And Jotham ran from the presence of Abimelech his brother. But Abimelech ruled over Israel for three years. Then God sent an evil spirit between[9] Abimelech and the men of Shechem. And the men of Shechem dealt treacherously[10] with the house of Abimelech so to lay at Abimelech's feet[11] the blood of Gideon's seventy sons. And so Abimilech set out to beseige the tower.[12] As he approached the tower gate to burn it, a woman threw a piece of a millstone onto his head and crushed his skull. He at once called out to his armor bearer[13], saying, "Draw your sword and kill me, so they can never say I was killed by a woman." So the young man took up his sword and ran him through. And God recompensed the wickedness Abimelech had done to his father in killing his seventy brothers. God also recompensed[14] all the wickedness of the men of Shechem, in accord with the message and parable of Jotham.
Greek Original:
Ἀβιμέλεχ: ὄνομα κύριον. υἱὸς Γεδεών. οὗτος ἐπάταξε τοὺς ἀδελφοὺς αὐτοῦ ἐκ τῶν ἐλευθέρων ἄνδρας ἐβδομήκοντα ἐπὶ λίθον ἕνα, ἐξ ὧν οὐκ ἀπελείφθη πλὴν Ἰωάθαμ τοῦ νεωτέρου διαδράντος. ὃς καὶ παραπορευομένου τοῦ Ἀβιμέλεχ μετὰ τοῦ λαοῦ ἀνῆλθεν ἐπὶ τὴν κορυφὴν τοῦ ὄρους, καὶ ἐπάρας τὴν φωνὴν αὐτοῦ ἔφη πρὸς αὐτοὺς παραβολὴν τοιαύτην. ἀκούσατέ μου, ἄνδρες Σικίμων, καὶ ἀκούσει ὑμῶν ὁ θεός. πορευόμενα ἐπορεύθησαν τὰ ξύλα τοῦ χρίσαι βασιλέα ἐφ' ἑαυτῶν. καὶ εἶπαν τῇ ἐλαίᾳ: βασίλευσον ἐφ' ἡμῶν. καὶ εἶπεν αὐτοῖς ἡ ἐλαία: ἀφεῖσα τὴν πιότητά μου, ἣν ἐδόξασεν ἐν ἐμοὶ ὁ θεὸς καὶ οἱ ἄνθρωποι, πορευθῶ ἄρχειν τῶν ξύλων; καὶ εἶπον τὰ ξύλα τῇ συκῇ: δεῦρο, βασίλευσον ἐφ' ἡμᾶς. καὶ εἶπεν αὐτοῖς ἡ συκῆ: ἀφεῖσα τὴν γλυκύτητά μου καὶ τὸ γέννημά μου τὸ ἀγαθὸν πορευθῶ ἄρχειν τῶν ξύλων; καὶ εἶπον τὰ ξύλα πρὸς τὴν ἄμπελον: δεῦρο, βασίλευσον ἐφ' ἡμῶν. καὶ εἶπεν αὐτοῖς ἡ ἄμπελος: ἀφεῖσα τὸν οἶνόν μου καὶ τὴν εὐφροσύνην τῶν ἀνθρώπων πορευθῶ ἄρχειν τῶν ξύλων; καὶ εἶπον πάντα τὰ ξύλα τῇ ῥάμνῳ: δεῦρο, σὺ βασίλευσον ἐφ' ἡμᾶς. καὶ εἶπεν ἡ ῥάμνος πρὸς τὰ ξύλα: εἰ ἐν ἀληθείᾳ χρίετέ με ὑμεῖς τοῦ βασιλεύειν ἐφ' ὑμᾶς, δεῦτε, ὑποστῆτε ἐν τῇ σκιᾷ μου, καὶ εἰ μὴ, ἐξέλθοι πῦρ ἀπ' ἐμοῦ καὶ καταφάγῃ τὰς κέδρους τοῦ Λιβάνου. καὶ νῦν εἰ ἐν ἀληθείᾳ καὶ ὁσιότητι ἐποιήσατε μετὰ τοῦ πατρός μου καὶ μετὰ τοῦ οἴκου αὐτοῦ καὶ ἐβασιλεύσατε τὸν Ἀβιμέλεχ υἱὸν τῆς παιδίσκης αὐτοῦ ἐπὶ τοὺς ἄνδρας Σικίμων, εὐφρανθείητε ἐν αὐτῷ, καὶ εὐφρανθείη καί γε αὐτὸς ἐν ὑμῖν: εἰ δὲ μὴ, ἐξέλθοι πῦρ ἐξ Ἀβιμέλεχ καὶ καταφάγοι τοὺς ἄρχοντας ὑμῶν καὶ τοὺς οἴκους αὐτῶν: καὶ ἐξέλθοι πῦρ ἐκ τῶν ἀνδρῶν Σικίμων καὶ καταφάγοι τὸν Ἀβιμέλεχ. καὶ ἀπέδρα Ἰωάθαμ ἀπὸ προσώπου Ἀβιμέλεχ ἀδελφοῦ αὐτοῦ. ὁ δὲ Ἀβιμέλεχ ἦρξεν ἐπὶ τὸν Ἰσραὴλ ἔτη τρία. καὶ ἐξαπέστειλεν ὁ θεὸς πνεῦμα πονηρὸν ἀνὰ μέσον Ἀβιμέλεχ καὶ ἀνὰ μέσον ἀνδρῶν Σικίμων. καὶ ἠθέτησαν οἱ ἄνδρες Σικίμων ἐν τῷ οἴκῳ Ἀβιμέλεχ τοῦ ἐπαγαγεῖν ἀδικίαν καὶ τὸ αἷμα τῶν ο# υἱῶν Γεδεὼν ἐπὶ τὴν κεφαλὴν Ἀβιμέλεχ. καὶ γὰρ ἀπελθὼν πολεμῆσαι πύργον καὶ προσεγγίσας τῇ θύρᾳ τοῦ πύργου ἐμπρῆσαι αὐτὴν, ἔρριψε γυνὴ κλάσμα μύλου ἐπὶ τὴν κεφαλὴν αὐτοῦ καὶ συνέτριψε τὸ κράνιον αὐτοῦ. καὶ ἐπιβοήσας ταχὺ εἶπε πρὸς τὸν αἴροντα αὐτοῦ τὰ σκεύη: σπάσον τὴν ῥομφαίαν σου καὶ θανάτωσόν με, μή ποτε εἴπωσιν: γυνὴ αὐτὸν ἀπέκτεινε. καὶ κεντῆσαν αὐτὸν τὸ παιδάριον ἀνεῖλε. καὶ ἐπέστρεψεν ὁ θεὸς τὴν πονηρίαν Ἀβιμέλεχ, ἣν ἐποίησε τῷ πατρὶ αὐτοῦ ἀποκτείνας τοὺς ο# ἀδελφοὺς αὐτοῦ. καὶ πᾶσαν τὴν πονηρίαν ἀνδρῶν Σικίμων ἐπέστρεψεν ὁ θεὸς εἰς τὴν κεφαλὴν αὐτῶν κατὰ τὸν λόγον καὶ τὴν παροιμίαν Ἰωάθαμ.
Notes:
Source for the main paragraph (after the initial gloss): George the Monk, Chronicon 148.2-149.20.
[1] Hebrew: אבימלך "my father is king." Used derogatorily and incessantly (31 times) throughout the Abimelech episode in Judges 9 (Boling, NSRV at Judges 9:1).
[2] Literally, "by his wives." The use of ἐλευθέρων here indicates "married women/wives" (see L-S-J). The Massoretic Text (MT) (Judges 8:30; Kohlenberger, Vol. 2, 101) shows נשים našīm, which here means "wives" (Brown, Driver, Briggs {BDB}, 61). The term is to be distinguished from that for Abimelech's mother — פלגש pilegeš "concubine" in the sense of a legitimate wife of secondary rank (Kohlenberger for the suffixed MT form; Boling, NRSV at Judges 8:31).
[3] Literally, "upon a single stone." MT: על אבן אחת ʿal ʾeḇen ʾeḥat (Judges 9:5). See Boling, Judges (Anchor), 171.5. A direct transference from the Hebrew to the LXX.
[4] (Cf. iota 478.) The Greek νεώτερου , comparative understood for the superlative (Smyth, 1082.a) from Hebrew הקטן haqqaton, the "young(est) one" (Judges 9:5).
[5] The Suda's πορεύομενα ἐπορεύθησαν parallels the MT at Judges 9:5 (but not the LXX, which singularizes the finite verb) in its fuller anthropomorphism via the plural finite verb. The participle plus finite verb mimics, but does not parallel, MT usage, which gives infinitive absolute plus finite verb (הלוך הלכו haloḵ halēḵū) (Kautzsch, 342 {113o(1)}; Boling, Judges (Anchor), 173.8). For this genre of fable, see also 2 Kings 14:9-10 and its shadow at 2 Chronicles 25:18-19. the motif bears only general resemblance to Aesop's frog fable. For related motifs, see the source summary in Brown (The New Jerome), 140; Boling, Judges (Anchor), 173.
[6] The Suda singularizes (ὁ θεός ), whereas the MT contains אלהים elohīm to be interpreted as "gods" — not "God." That the translation warrants a plural is supported by the antiquity of the original motif (Boling, Judges (Anchor), 173-74.15; 175.20). The plural is the norm in modern Bible translation.
[7] The standard translation of the MT אשר-בי יכבדו אלהים ואנשים ʾašer-bī yeḵaḇdū ʾelohīm waʾanašīm (Judges 9:9) and the Suda's ἣν...ἄνθρωποι is "by which/whereby gods and men are honored." The Hebrew syntax merits reevaluation. The Jotham parable is a poetic fable cast in prose (Boling, Judges (Anchor) 166, 172-73.8-15, 173.15; for an uncritical opposing view, see Brown (The New Jerome), 140). However, Boling (173.9) and others read the Pi'el active yeḵaḇdū ("ykbdw" in Boling) as a Niph'al passive (are honored). Boling also cites the "kbd" root as Niph'al reflexive in Exodus 14:4, perhaps intending an alternative (but unlikely) reading for Judges 9:9 as "gods and men honor themselves." This approach overlooks the fable's poetic form — a medium that allows the Pi'el to operate intransitively (Kautzsch, 142 {52k}). Relatedly, Kautzsch (Gesenius, in accord with T.K Cheyne) assigns Niph'al senses to Pi'el forms in the poetry of Isaiah 48:8 and 60:11, which just as easily may be read intransitively as "your ear has not opened (responded) [to new things]" and "your gates shall always stand open." In Judges 9:9, the intransitive result is "(by) which, through me, gods and men receive honor." The preposition "bi" (Greek: ἐν ἐμοὶ ), which in Boling's syntax is left "unexplained", provides an instrumental dative (BDB, 89, III.2): "through me." Boling asserts "bi" to be "a third-person suffix" without further discussion; BDB (citing George F. Moore) suggests the third-person "bo" (by/through it) for the "bi" form. Boling does cite the LXX Vaticanus reading "by it"; however, Vaticanus works a simplified solution: ἐν ἧι δοξάσουσι τὸν θεὸν ἄνδρες , "by which men shall honor God" (Brenton, 329). In a near parallel to the MT, the Suda records ἐδόξασεν for a Hebraicized-intransitive ἐδόξασαν (yeḵaḇdū): literally, "regarding which (oil), through my agency, God and men receive honor."
[8] The verb ὑπόστητε also carries the meaning "submit"; the Hebrew at Judges 9:15 (imperative hasū) carries only the sense "take refuge" (BDB, 340).
[9] The duplicated ἀνὰ μέσον is a Hebraism paralleling Judges 9:22 (בין אבימלך ובין בעלי שכם bēn ʾAḇimeleḵ uḇēn baʿalē šeḵem). See also the MT and LXX at Genesis 1:4. For model Greek syntax, see LXX Genesis 32:16 (Brenton, 43)— with the MT (Genesis 32:17) showing the duplicate pattern (Kohlenberger, Vol 1, 88).
[10] For ἀθετέω (deal treacherously), see Lust, Pt. I, 9.
[11] Literally, "to lay upon Abimelech's head his injustice and the blood of Gideon's seventy sons."
[12] For Abimelech's ill-fated siege of the Thebez tower, see Judges 9:50-57.
[13] The term παιδάριον reprises the MT נערו naʿarō (his servant or retainer) at Judges 9:54. Translations render the word as "armor bearer." Boling in his Judges (146.10; 182.54) prefers "squire."
[14] Literally, "turned about onto their head."
References:
Boling, R.G. Judges (The Anchor Bible). New York: Doubleday, 1975.
Boling, R.G. Judges in the Harper Collins Study Bible (NRSV). New York: Harper Collins, 1993.
Brenton, C.L.B. The Septuagint with Apocrypha. Peabody: Hendrickson, 1991 (reprint of 1851 ed.).
Brown, F. Driver, S.R., Briggs, C.A. A Hebrew and English Lexicon of the Old Testament. Oxford: Clarendon, 1951.
Brown, R.E. The New Jerome Biblical Commentary. New Jersey: Prentice Hall, 1990.
Kautzsch, E. Gesenius' Hebrew Grammar. Oxford: Clarendon, 1910.
Kohlenberger, J.R. The Interlinear NIV Hebrew-English Old Testament. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1987.
Lust, J. A Greek-English Lexicon of the Septuagint, Part I. Stuttgart: Deutsche Bibelgesellschaft, 1992.
Smyth, H.W. Greek Grammar. Cambridge: Harvard University, 1984.
Keywords: biography; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; gender and sexuality; history; military affairs; poetry; religion; women
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 22 August 1998@13:01:24.
Vetted by:
William Hutton (Cosmetics, added keywords, set status) on 27 January 2001@12:09:36.
Craig Miller (Modified translation, notes and bibliography to follow.) on 5 March 2002@09:51:09.
Craig Miller on 5 March 2002@12:40:52.
Craig Miller (Modified and expanded notes, expanded keywords. Bibliography pending.) on 5 March 2002@15:02:20.
Catharine Roth (corrected typos) on 5 March 2002@16:49:22.
Craig Miller on 5 March 2002@23:39:58.
Craig Miller (Bibliography added, cosmetics.) on 6 March 2002@07:38:16.
Craig Miller on 6 March 2002@12:49:31.
Craig Miller on 6 March 2002@14:59:18.
Craig Miller on 1 April 2002@19:33:02.
Raphael Finkel (Added Hebrew texts.) on 31 October 2002@10:19:01.
David Whitehead (added initial note; added x-ref; cosmetics) on 9 June 2003@07:55:20.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 7 August 2013@23:53:33.
Catharine Roth (cosmetics) on 8 August 2013@16:40:29.
Raphael Finkel (Converted Romanization of Hebrew to ISO 259.) on 7 August 2014@14:15:44.
David Whitehead (coding) on 15 August 2015@07:31:59.

Headword: Ἀβιούδ
Adler number: alpha,48
Translated headword: Abioud, Abihud
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
Proper name.
Greek Original:
Ἀβιούδ: ὄνομα κύριον.
Notes:
Exodus 6:23 (etc.): a son of Aaron.
cf. the genealogy of Christ at Matthew 1:13 (son of Zorobabel, father of Eliakim).
Keywords: biography; Christianity; definition; religion
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 26 August 1998@19:00:24.
Vetted by:
William Hutton (Added headword, set status) on 28 January 2001@20:47:42.
William Hutton (Added note and keyword) on 29 January 2001@19:34:27.
David Whitehead (added keywords; cosmetics) on 27 February 2003@08:44:09.
Catharine Roth (cosmetic, keyword) on 17 November 2009@18:43:35.
David Whitehead (expanded notes) on 19 December 2011@07:26:26.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 8 August 2013@00:39:08.

Headword: Ἀβισάκ
Adler number: alpha,51
Translated headword: Abisak, Abishag
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
Proper name.
Greek Original:
Ἀβισάκ: ὄνομα κύριον.
Notes:
Same entry, according to Adler, in the Ambrosian Lexicon.
Abishag the Shunammite (sigma 796 = sigma 836) took care of King David in his old age: 1 Kingdoms 1.3 (1 Kings 1.3) etc.
Keywords: biography; definition; religion; women
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 26 August 1998@19:04:25.
Vetted by:
William Hutton on 29 January 2001@19:16:05.
David Whitehead (added keywords) on 30 January 2001@03:43:08.
Catharine Roth (added note and keyword) on 15 September 2002@16:49:04.
David Whitehead (added x-refs) on 25 April 2003@06:43:33.
David Whitehead on 1 August 2011@07:38:24.
David Whitehead (another note) on 19 December 2011@07:48:10.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 8 August 2013@00:41:58.

Headword: Ἄβιτος
Adler number: alpha,53
Translated headword: Abitos, Abitus
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
Proper name.
"Abitos built himself an ascetic's cell."[1]
Greek Original:
Ἄβιτος: ὄνομα κύριον. Ἄβιτος τὴν ἀσκητικὴν καλύβην ἐπήξατο.
Note:
[1] Quotation not identified by Adler, but a TLG search reveals it to be Theodoret, Historia religiosa, Vita 3.12 (lightly abridged). See on this Theodoridis' Photius edition, vol.II p.LXXXI.
Keywords: biography; Christianity; definition; ethics; religion
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 26 August 1998@19:05:27.
Vetted by:
William Hutton (Added headword, keyword, set status) on 30 January 2001@08:07:35.
David Whitehead (added note and keyword) on 31 January 2001@03:56:53.
David Whitehead (modified note, with source identification; more keywords) on 18 February 2011@06:43:58.
David Whitehead (expanded note) on 11 October 2011@03:32:47.
David Whitehead on 19 December 2011@07:49:57.

Headword: Ἀβραάμ
Adler number: alpha,69
Translated headword: Abraham
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
The first among patriarchs; [it was he] in whom the Hebrew people took pride at first, before they rebelled against God, became estranged from Him, and shed upon themselves the blood of His Only-Begotten Son.[1] This man came out of the land of the Chaldeans, who devoted their entire lives to the stars and heavenly bodies. Trained, therefore, as was their ancestral custom, to observe the motions of the heavenly bodies[2] he surmised that the masterwork underlying this visible creation was not to be found in such objects, but had a Creator who set them in motion, gave harmony to their paths, and ordered the entire universe. Because of the greatness and beauty of the things He had made, Abraham, as it was likely, ceased devoting himself to gazing out into the heavens nor did he squander his passion in their pursuit. Instead, by surmounting the celestial vaults and transcending all the intelligible realm beyond the cosmos, Abraham no longer stood apart from the One sought, until finally the Creator for whom he yearned manifested Himself to Abraham in likenesses[3] and forms. And in this way the Unseen and Invisible revealed Himself. And [God] sent him forth from his own land as a wanderer and settled him in the land of the Canaanites. There he dwelled, now being in about his ninety-ninth year.[4] Until this time, he was childless; then [God] made him the father of the miraculous and blessed Isaac that he might have a first-born, only-begotten son[5] -- prefiguring the mystical image of the First-Born, Only-Begotten Son.[6] This was an exceedingly singular[7] honor bestowed upon Abraham, for the Creator favored him with the titles Servant, Beloved, and Father by flesh of the Only Begotten Son of Him who fashioned the entire universe.[8] Abraham invented sacred writing and devised the language of which Hebrew children used to have a command, as they were this man's disciples and descendants. Moreover, the Greek alphabet received its impetus from this script,[9] even if Greeks amused themselves by forming the letters differently. Proof of this is in the pronunciation of the first and preeminent letter "alpha" because it derives its name from the Hebrew "aleph" by way of the Blessed, First, and Eternal Name.[10] So too, the Greeks through Abraham came to possess books on dream interpretation. Witness to this is Joseph, the truly wondrous descendant of Abraham, who interpreted Pharoah's dreams as they were going to turn out in fact. In this, Philo, the Jewish philosopher, will be my confirmation via his work Life of the Statesman.[11] About Philo it is said "Philo platonizes and Plato philonizes."[12]
The practice of idolatry extended from Serug[13] to the time of Abraham's father Tharron.[14] Thus, when Abraham was 14 years old[15] and deemed worthy of divine knowledge, he upbraided his father, "Why do you lead the people astray for harmful gain (that is, with idols)? There is no other God but the One in heaven, the Creator of the entire universe." Yet seeing the people serving earthly things, he embarked on a tireless quest, seeking out with his pious heart the Truly Existing God.[16] But seeing that the sky is sometimes light and sometimes dark, he said to himself, "That is not God." Observing similarly the sun and the moon, the one obscured and eclipsed and the other waning and occluded, he said, "Those are not gods either." True, he was trained in astronomy by his father, but Abraham all the same was puzzled by the motions of the stars and scornful of them. But God appeared to him and said, "Go out of your land and leave your kinsmen."[17] Abraham took his father's idols, smashing some and incinerating others. Then he went away with his father out of the land of the Chaldeans. And they came to Haran,[18] where his father died. He left there, obeying the Lord's word, with his wife Sarah and his nephew Lot[19] and all their possessions, and came to the promised land Canaan, which the Canaanites had seized and settled in. When a famine arose, Abraham left the land of the Canaanites and went into Egypt, where Abimelech[20] the king took his wife Sarah. God struck terror into Abimelech and paralysed his limbs, saying "Give this man back his wife, because he is a prophet and will pray for you, and you will live. But if you do not give her back, know that you and your entire household will die." When Abraham got his wife back, undefiled, he prayed, and Abimelech and his household were cured of the paralysis.[21] After this the king, honoring Abraham and devoting himself to his sayings, became a pious and expert teacher to the Egyptians. The same Abraham, upon returning from war,[22] was considered worthy of blessing by Melchisedek, king of Salem, who brought bread and wine out to him. Melchisedek was a priest of the Most High, and Abraham gave to Him a tenth of all he had. Melchisedek was without father, mother, or lineage, like the Son of God.[23]
When Abram[24] lamented to God about his childlessness, God revealed to him through a dream that his descendants would be as numerous as the stars. And he believed God, and God reckoned it to him as righteousness.[25] Now Sarah, who was barren, gave Abraham permission to father a child with her maidservant, and she bore Ismael.[26] And when Abram was 99 years old, God appeared to him and altered his name to Abraham, for until then he had been called Abram. Similarly, Sarah became Sarrah with another "r".[27] And Abraham circumcised Ismael and all his descendants. Moreover, when the Lord was being shown the hospitality of Abraham's house, He promised Abraham that Sarrah would bear him a son. But Sarrah smiled; and the one who was begotten was called Isaac, by the Hebrew name that means "laughter with delight."[28]
Also [sc. attested is the adjective] Αβραμιαῖος : [meaning] descendant of Abraham, or towering, revered.[29]
Greek Original:
Ἀβραάμ: ὁ πρῶτος ἐν πατριάρχαις: εἰς ὃν ἀπεσεμνύνετο δῆμος ὁ τῶν Ἑβραίων τὸ πρότερον, πρὶν ἢ θεοῦ ἀποσκιρτῆσαι καὶ γενέσθαι τούτου ἀλλότριοι καὶ τὸ τοῦ μονογενοῦς υἱοῦ αὐτοῦ αἷμα ἐφ' ἑαυτοὺς ἐπισπάσασθαι. οὗτος ἐκ μὲν τῆς Χαλδαίων γῆς ὑπῆρχεν ὁρμώμενος, τῶν περὶ τὰ μετέωρα καὶ τοὺς ἀστέρας τὸν βίον ὅλον καταναλισκόντων. ἀσκηθεὶς οὖν κατὰ τὸν πάτριον νόμον τὰς τῶν ἐπουρανίων ἀστέρων κινήσεις καὶ στοχασάμενος ὡς οὐκ ἐν τούτοις ἵσταται τὸ μεγαλουργὸν τῆς φαινομένης ταυτησὶ κτίσεως, ἀλλ' ἔχει τινὰ τὸν δημιουργὸν τὸν καὶ κινοῦντα καὶ διευθύνοντα τὴν ἐναρμόνιον τῶν ἀστέρων πορείαν καὶ τοῦ κόσμου παντὸς τὴν κατάστασιν, καὶ διὰ τοῦ μεγέθους καὶ τῆς καλλονῆς τῶν κτισμάτων τὸν γενεσιουργὸν αὐτῶν, ὡς ἐνῆν, θεωρήσας οὐκ ἔστη μέχρι τούτων, οὐδὲ τὴν ἔφεσιν εἰς ταῦτα κατεδαπάνησεν, ἀλλὰ τῶν οὐρανίων ἁψίδων ὑπεραρθεὶς καὶ πᾶσαν διαβὰς τὴν νοητήν τε καὶ ὑπερκόσμιον σύμπηξιν οὐκ ἀπέστη τοῦ ζητουμένου, ἕως οὗ ὁ ποθούμενος ἑαυτὸν αὐτῷ ἐφανέρωσε τύποις τε καὶ μορφώμασιν, οἷς ἑαυτὸν ἐμφανίζει ὁ ἀφανὴς καὶ ἀόρατος. καὶ μετανάστην αὐτὸν ἐκ τῆς πατρίδος λαβὼν ἐπὶ τὴν Χανανῖτιν κατέστησε, τὸν ἐνενηκοστόν που καὶ ἔνατον ἤδη χρόνον παρέλκοντα: καὶ ἄπαιδα μέχρι τότε τυγχάνοντα γεννήτορα τοῦ θαυμασίου καὶ μάκαρος κατέ- στησεν Ἰσαὰκ, ἵν' ἔχοι μονογενῆ υἱὸν καὶ πρωτότοκον, τοῦ μονογενοῦς καὶ πρωτοτόκου μυστικὴν εἰκόνα προδιαγράφοντα: τοῦτο γέρας αὐτῷ κατ' ἐξαίρετον χαρισάμενος, τὸ δοῦλον καὶ φίλον καὶ πατέρα χρηματίσαι τοῦ μονογενοῦς υἱοῦ κατὰ σάρκα, τοῦ τὸν κόσμον ὅλον δημιουργήσαντος. οὗτος εὗρε μὲν ἱερὰ γράμματα καὶ γλῶσσαν ἐμηχανήσατο, ἧς Ἑβραίων παῖδες ἐν ἐπιστήμῃ ἐτύγχανον, ὡς ὄντες τούτου μαθηταὶ καὶ ἀπόγονοι. ἐκ τούτου καὶ τὰ Ἑλλήνων γράμματα τὰς ἀφορμὰς ἔλαβον, κἂν ἄλλως καὶ ἄλλως ἑαυτοὺς διαπαίζοντες ἀναγράφωσιν Ἕλληνες. καὶ τούτου μαρτύριον ἡ τοῦ Ἄλφα φωνὴ τοῦ πρώτου στοιχείου καὶ ἄρχοντος, ἀπὸ τοῦ Ἄλεφ Ἑβραίου λαβόντος τὴν ἐπίκλησιν τοῦ μακαρίου καὶ πρώτου καὶ ἀθανάτου ὀνόματος. ἐκ τούτου καὶ τὰ ὀνείρων βιβλία ἐσφετερίσαντο Ἕλληνες. καὶ μάρτυς Ἰωσὴφ ὁ πανθαύμαστος ὁ τούτου ἀπόγονος, ὁ τοῦ Φαραὼ τὰ ἐνύπνια ὡς ἔμελλον ἀποβήσεσθαι διηγούμενος. τοῦτό μοι καὶ Φίλων, ἐξ Ἑβραίων φιλόσοφος, ἐν τῷ τοῦ Πολιτικοῦ βίῳ συνεπιμαρτυρήσεται, Φίλων, περὶ οὗ ἐρρήθη, Φίλων πλατωνίζει, καὶ Πλάτων φιλωνίζει. ὅτι ἤρξατο ἡ εἰδωλολατρεία ἀπὸ Σεροὺχ ἕως τῶν χρόνων Θάρρα τοῦ πατρὸς Ἀβραάμ. ὃς Ἀβραὰμ ὑπάρχων ἐτῶν ιδ# καὶ θεογνωσίας ἀξιωθεὶς ἐνουθέτει τὸν πατέρα αὐτοῦ, λέγων: τί πλανᾷς τοὺς ἀνθρώπους διὰ κέρδος ἐπιζήμιον [τουτέστι τὰ εἴδωλα]; οὐκ ἔστιν ἄλλος θεὸς εἰ μὴ ὁ ἐν τοῖς οὐρανοῖς, ὁ καὶ πάντα τὸν κόσμον δημιουργήσας. ὁρῶν γὰρ τοὺς ἀνθρώπους κτισματολατροῦντας διήρχετο διαπονούμενος καὶ τὸν ὄντως ὄντα θεὸν ἐκζητῶν ἐκ φιλοθέου καρδίας. ὁρῶν δὲ τὸν οὐρανὸν ποτὲ μὲν λαμπρὸν, ποτὲ δὲ σκοτεινὸν, ἔλεγεν ἐν ἑαυτῷ: οὐκ ἔστιν οὗτος θεός. ὁμοίως καὶ τὸν ἥλιον καὶ τὴν σελήνην, τὸν μὲν ἀποκρυπτόμενον καὶ ἀμαυρούμενον, τὴν δὲ φθίνουσαν καὶ ἀπολήγουσαν, ἔφησεν: οὐδ' οὗτοί εἰσι θεοί. καὶ μέντοι καὶ τὴν τῶν ἀστέρων κίνησιν, ἐκ τοῦ πατρὸς γὰρ ἐπαιδεύετο τὴν ἀστρονομίαν, καὶ ἀπορῶν ἐδυσχέραινεν. ὤφθη δὲ αὐτῷ ὁ θεὸς καὶ λέγει αὐτῷ: ἔξελθε ἐκ τῆς γῆς σου καὶ ἐκ τῆς συγγενείας σου. καὶ λαβὼν τὰ εἴδωλα τοῦ πατρὸς καὶ τὰ μὲν κλάσας τὰ δὲ ἐμπυρίσας ἀνεχώρησε μετὰ τοῦ πατρὸς ἐκ γῆς Χαλδαίων: καὶ ἐλθόντος εἰς Χαρρὰν, ἐτελεύτησεν ὁ πατὴρ αὐτοῦ. καὶ ἐξελθὼν ἐκεῖθεν ἐν λόγῳ Κυρίου ἦλθε σὺν τῇ γυναικὶ Σάρρᾳ καὶ τῷ ἀνεψιῷ Λὼτ μετὰ πάσης αὐτῶν τῆς ἀποσκευῆς εἰς τὴν ὀφειλομένην γῆν Χαναὰν, ἣν οἱ Χαναναῖοι τυραννικῶς ἀφελόμενοι ᾤκησαν. λιμοῦ δὲ γενομένου καταλιπὼν τὴν Χαναναίων γῆν εἰς Αἴγυπτον ἀπῄει, οὗ τὴν γυναῖκα Σάρραν Ἀβιμέλεχ ἥρπασεν ὁ βασιλεύς. τοῦτον ὁ θεὸς ἐκδειματώσας καὶ πάρεσιν τῶν μελῶν ἐπάξας, ἀπόδος, ἔφη, τὴν γυναῖκα τῷ ἀνθρώπῳ, ὅτι προφήτης ἐστὶ καὶ προσεύξεται περὶ σοῦ καὶ ζήσεις. εἰ δὲ μὴ ἀποδῷς, γνῶθι ὅτι ἀποθανῇ σὺ καὶ τὰ σὰ πάντα. καὶ οὕτως ἀπολαβὼν τὴν γυναῖκα ἀμίαντον καὶ προσευξάμενος ἰαθῆναι ἐποίησε τῆς παρέσεως Ἀβιμέλεχ καὶ τὸν οἶκον αὐτοῦ. ἔκτοτε τιμῶν αὐτὸν ὁ βασιλεὺς καὶ προσέχων τοῖς ὑπ' αὐτοῦ λεγομένοις, διδάσκαλος εὐσεβείας καὶ πολυπειρίας Αἰγυπτίοις ἐγένετο. ὁ αὐτὸς Ἄβραμ ὑποστρέφων ἐκ τοῦ πολέμου τῆς εὐλογίας τοῦ Μελχισεδὲκ κατηξίωται, τοῦ βασιλέως Σαλὴμ, ὃς ἐξήνεγκεν αὐτῷ ἄρτους καὶ οἶνον. ἦν δὲ καὶ ἱερεὺς τοῦ Ὑψίστου. καὶ ἔδωκεν αὐτῷ Ἄβραμ δεκάτην ἀπὸ πάντων. ἦν δὲ ὁ Μελχισεδὲκ ἀπάτωρ, ἀμήτωρ, ἀγενεαλόγητος, ἀφωμοιωμένος τῷ υἱῷ τοῦ θεοῦ. τῷ δὲ Ἄβραμ ἀτεκνίαν ὀλοφυρομένῳ καθ' ὕπνους ἐπιδείξας ὁ θεὸς τοὺς ἀστέρας κατὰ τὸ πλῆθος αὐτῶν ἔσεσθαί οἱ τὸ σπέρμα προεδήλου. ὁ δὲ ἐπίστευσε τῷ θεῷ, καὶ ἐλογίσθη αὐτῷ εἰς δικαιοσύνην. ἡ δὲ Σάρρα στεῖρα οὖσα συνεχώρησεν Ἄβραμ ἀπὸ τῆς παιδίσκης παιδοποιήσασθαι: καὶ ἴσχει τὸν Ἰσμαήλ. ἐνενήκοντα δὲ καὶ ἐννέα ἐτῶν ὄντι τῷ Ἄβραμ ἐπιφανεὶς ὁ θεὸς Ἀβραὰμ μετωνόμασεν: Ἄβραμ γὰρ πρώην ὠνομάζετο: ὁμοίως καὶ τὴν Σάραν Σάρραν, προσθεὶς καὶ ἕτερον ρ. καὶ περιέτεμε τὸν Ἰσμαὴλ καὶ πάντας τοὺς ἐξ αὐτοῦ. Κύριος δὲ τῷ Ἀβραὰμ ἐπιξενωθεὶς ἐπηγγείλατο τέξεσθαι Σάρραν αὐτῷ παῖδα. ἡ δὲ ἐμειδίασε, καὶ Ἰσαὰκ τὸ γεννηθὲν προσηγορεύθη, φερωνύμως τῷ μεθ' ἡδονῆς γέλωτι κατὰ τὴν Ἑβραί̈δα διάλεκτον. καὶ Ἀβραμιαῖος: ὁ ἀπόγονος Ἀβραὰμ, ἢ γιγαντιαῖος, ἱεροπρεπής.
Notes:
This long entry is derived in part directly from George the Monk, in part indirectly from Philo of Alexandria; see further in the notes below.
[1] cf. Matthew 27:25 (web address 1).
[2] The Suda's attention to Chaldean astrology derives from Philo, On Abraham, (Colson, Philo Vol VI: XV.69-70).
[3] Use of τύπος here is twofold: 1) To assert that God's appearance to Abraham was indirect (echoing Philo, On Abraham, XVII.79-80); 2) To impart, as if a corollary of τύπος in Romans 5:14, that God's manifestation to Abraham was a type or prefiguration of Christ.
[4] Abraham is 100 years old at Isaac's birth (Genesis 21:5); however, the Suda follows Josephus, Antiquities of the Jews 1.191-93 (web address 2 below) in assuming Abraham's age as 99 at the time of God's promise.
[5] The Suda here omits Ishmael, born to Abraham by the Egyptian slave Hagar when he was 86 years old (Genesis 16:1-16). The Suda's omission tacitly acknowledges a covenantal and legal distinction clearly drawn in Genesis. In Isaac, God establishes an "everlasting covenant" for his progeny, whereas God blesses Ishmael and makes him "fruitful and exceedingly numerous" (Genesis 17:19-20). Isaac's filial status is made explicit by God in identifying him as Abraham's "only son" (Genesis 22:12) through whom "offspring shall be named" for Abraham, whereas Ishmael, although destined to father a nation, is identified by God as "the son of the slave woman" (Genesis 21:12-13). Ishmael is, however, mentioned later in the entry.
[6] Christological imagery links Isaac to the personage of Jesus (Matthew 1:1-2 at web address 3 below). See also delta 94, notes 1 and 14.
[7] The Suda underscores the magnitude of the honor with a hyperbolic κατ' before ἐξαίρετον .
[8] The statement, rooted in a paternalistic-filial model that originates in Abraham and culminates in the figure of Christ, approximates the transcendental premise: Abraham is to Joseph as Isaac is to Christ.
[9] The Suda confuses Mosaic and Abrahamic lore. The 2nd century BCE Jewish writer Eupolemus claimed for Moses the invention and propagation of writing: "Moses was the first wise man, the first who imparted the alphabet to the Jews; the Phoenicians received it from the Jews, and the Greeks from the Phoenicians." The 2nd century BCE Egyptian Jewish writer Artapanus attributed hieroglyphics to Moses. According to the 2nd century BCE Samaritan writer Ps.-Eupolemus and Artapanus, astrology and astronomy originated with Abraham, who taught these disciplines and other tools of culture to the Jews, Phoenicians, and Egyptians. They, in turn, transmitted these arts to the Greeks. Philo in On Abraham stresses Abraham's expertise as a teacher. (Encyc. Judaica, Vol 6.964-65; Gruen, 146-51, 157, 294; Grant, 77; Philo, XI.52) At sigma 295, Seth is credited with the invention of the alphabet; Greek legend named Cadmus or Linus as the one who introduced the alphabet to Greece (gamma 416, kappa 21, kappa 22, lambda 568). See also phi 787.
[10] The reference recalls א aleph as the initial letter of ʾelohīm, the most frequent generic name for God in the OT, used about 2,500 times--but a distant second to the unspoken covenant name YHWH (Yahweh), which occurs some 6,800 times (Perdue, 685-86). Cf. alpha 1445.
[11] A reference to Philo's Βίος πολιτικοῦ ὅπερ ἐστι περὶ Ἰωσήφ (Colson, Philo Vol VI, 140ff.)
[12] Adapted from Jerome's On Illustrious Men (11): ἢ Πλάτων φιλωνίζει ἢ Φίλων πλατωνίζει ("Either Plato philonizes or Philo platonizes.") Cf. phi 448 and Photius, Bibliotheca 86b 25.
[13] Abraham's grandfather (Genesis 11:22). Seruch in the LXX, שרוג śerūḡ in Hebrew. See also sigma 253.
[14] Abraham's father (Genesis 11:24). Tharra (Θάρρα , Θαρρά ) or Tharrha (Θάῤῥα ) (Hatch, Concordance, Appendix 1, 71; Brenton, 13); in Hebrew תרח Teraḥ. From the Chronicon of George the Monk, 92.11-12; cf. Malalas 55.5-6.
[15] The Midrash sets Abraham's rejection of idolatry at age 13 (Encyc. Judaica, 4.244). From here to "teacher to the Egyptians," the Suda's source is the Chronicon of George the Monk, 93.16 - 95.17.
[16] On God as "He who is," see omicron 438, omega 105.
[17] cf. Philo, On Abraham XIV.62.
[18] The call in Genesis 12:1-5 brings Abraham from Haran (חרן) to Canaan (כנען). The Suda adheres to Philo, On Abraham, XIV. 67: μετανίσταται...ἀπὸ τῆς Χαλδαίων γῆς...ἐις τὴν Χαρραίων γῆν .
[19] Philo shows ἀδελφιδοῦς , as at On Abraham, XXXVII.212, rather than the Suda's potentially ambiguous ἀνεψιός for nephew (see LSJ s.v. at web address 4).
[20] On Abimelech, see alpha 45.
[21] The affliction cured in Genesis 20:17-18 is unspecified for Abimelech, but clearly is sterility for the female members of his house. Josephus, Antiquities of the Jews 1.208 (web address 5) relates that a "dangerous distemper" (Whiston trans.) afflicted Abimelech. For other traditions, see EncycJudaica, 2.76.
[22] Genesis 14:14-18; the Suda's source is the Chronicon of George the Monk, 100.17-26; 101.5-7.
[23] See Hebrews 7:3 (web address 6). In the Suda, see mu 544, mu 545, mu 546.
[24] The Greek mainly uses Abraam (אברהם ʾAḇraham) to this point, but here Abram (אברם), his pre-covenant name (Genesis 17:5).
[25] Genesis 15:5-6. The statement "and he believed God and God reckoned it to him as righteousness" appears also in Romans 4:3 (web address 7), Galatians 3:6 (web address 8), and James 2:23 (web address 9). A more idiomatic and semantically precise translation of the Hebrew (והאמין בה' ויחשבה לו צדקה weheʾemīn bah' wayyaḥšeḇeha lō ṣedaqah) reads: "And because he put his trust in the Lord, He reckoned it to his merit" (Plaut, 146). This version takes into interpretive account the imperfective waw consecutive (consequential) (Kautzsch, 111.l).
[26] Ismael (Ishmael) appears in the Suda at iota 644, but with a gloss that belongs to Isaak.
[27] Genesis 17:15. Also as Σάῤῥα or Sarrha (Brenton, 18). The Hebrew covenant name change is Sarai to Sarah (both meaning Princess).
[28] Isaac (יצחק yiṣḥaq) from the Hebrew meaning "he (Abraham) laughed" in Genesis 17:17, and puns Sarah's תצחק tiṣḥaq ("she laughed") in Genesis 18:12. (Kohlenberger, Vol 1, 37, 39; Anderson, 182) In the Suda, see iota 606 (mostly taken from this entry).
[29] This adjectival derivative of Abraham's name appears in 4 Maccabees 9:21 LXX. The gloss replicates, apart from word order, one in Photius; cf. Synagoge alpha17, Hesychius alpha181.
References:
Anderson, A.W. Understanding the Old Testament. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall, 1966
Attridge, H.W. "The Letter to the Hebrews" in The HarperCollins Study Bible (NRSV). New York: HarperCollins, 1993
Brenton, L.C.L. The Septuagint with Apocrypha. Peabody: Henrickson, 1999 (reprint of 1851 edn.)
Colson F.H., Philo (Vol VI), Loeb Classical Library. Cambridge: Harvard University, 1994
Encyclopaedia Judaica. Jerusalem: Encyclopaedia Judaica, 1973
Grant, M. From Alexander to Cleopatra: The Hellenistic World. New York: Charles Scribners' Sons, 1982
Gruen, E.S. Heritage and Hellenism: The Reinvention of Jewish Tradition. Berkeley: University of California, 1998
Hatch, E., Redpath, H.A., and Muraoka, T. A Concordance to the Septuagint. Grand Rapids: Baker Books, 1998
Kautzsch, E. Gesenius' Hebrew Grammar. Oxford: Clarendon, 1910
Keck, L.E. "The Letter of Paul to the Romans" in The HarperCollins Study Bible (NRSV). New York: HarperCollins, 1993
Kohlenberger, J.R. The Interlinear NIV Hebrew-English Old Testament. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1987
Perdue, L.G. "Names of God in the Old Testament" in Harper's Bible Dictionary. San Francisco: Harper & Row, 1985
Plaut, W.G. The Torah: Genesis, A Modern Commentary. New York: Union of American Hebrew Congregations, 1972
Smyth, H.W. Greek Grammar. Cambridge: Harvard University, 1984
Whiston, W. The Works of Josephus. Peabody: Hendrickson, 1987 (reprint of 1736 edn.)
Associated internet addresses:
Web address 1,
Web address 2,
Web address 3,
Web address 4,
Web address 5,
Web address 6,
Web address 7,
Web address 8,
Web address 9
Keywords: aetiology; biography; children; Christianity; chronology; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; dreams; food; gender and sexuality; geography; historiography; history; law; medicine; religion; science and technology; women
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 20 August 1998@17:54:17.
Vetted by:
Craig Miller (Under editorial review as of this date) on 6 January 2002@08:24:02.
Craig Miller (Modified translation) on 24 January 2002@19:18:31.
Craig Miller on 25 January 2002@00:26:38.
Craig Miller (Notes added. Additional work pending.) on 25 January 2002@00:29:41.
Craig Miller on 25 January 2002@01:17:54.
Craig Miller (Added bibliography, keywords; changed status) on 25 January 2002@22:21:22.
Craig Miller (Cosmetics) on 25 January 2002@22:51:36.
Craig Miller on 25 January 2002@22:54:34.
Craig Miller on 25 January 2002@23:13:26.
Craig Miller on 4 June 2002@20:45:55.
Craig Miller on 19 June 2002@19:13:42.
Raphael Finkel (Added Hebrew words; minor cosmetics.) on 31 October 2002@10:38:39.
Raphael Finkel (More Hebrew, cosmetics.) on 18 December 2002@10:58:21.
Craig Miller (Additional cosmetics) on 17 May 2003@19:07:49.
David Whitehead (another keyword) on 2 October 2005@08:20:23.
David Whitehead (another keyword) on 16 November 2005@07:49:08.
Jennifer Benedict (added 15 links) on 25 March 2008@11:50:57.
Catharine Roth (references, cosmetics) on 10 April 2008@16:09:00.
Catharine Roth (cosmetics) on 10 April 2008@20:15:09.
Catharine Roth (tweaked translation, pruned notes, added cross-references) on 11 April 2008@12:30:02.
Catharine Roth (adjusted note numbers; more tweaks) on 11 April 2008@14:18:11.
William Hutton (augmented n. 29) on 17 July 2009@17:14:18.
David Whitehead (tweaks and cosmetics) on 21 December 2011@07:16:50.
Catharine Roth (upgraded links, other tweaks) on 22 December 2011@19:00:49.
Catharine Roth (tweaked note and links) on 11 November 2013@01:26:27.
Raphael Finkel (Converted Romanization of Hebrew to ISO 259.) on 7 August 2014@14:27:02.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 11 August 2014@00:14:27.
David Whitehead (coding) on 15 August 2015@07:33:55.
Catharine Roth (betacode typo) on 2 October 2018@02:07:40.

Headword: Ἀβρεττηνή
Adler number: alpha,75
Translated headword: Abrettene
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
A territory, the one [sc. also] called Mysia.
Greek Original:
Ἀβρεττηνή: χώρα, ἡ λεγομένη Μυσία.
Notes:
Comparably, according to Adler, in the Ambrosian Lexicon.
Abrettene is mentioned by Strabo and Arrian, amongst others. Its name is derived from the nymph Brettia (according to Stephanus of Byzantium s.v.), and it lay between the Rhyndakos and Makestos rivers in Asian Mysia (present-day Turkey): Barrington Atlas map 62 grid A2.
For Mysia see also mu 1472 and further cross-references there.
Keywords: definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; geography; religion
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 26 August 1998@19:30:35.
Vetted by:
William Hutton (Added headword, cosmetics, set status) on 31 January 2001@13:04:28.
David Whitehead (augmented note; added keywords) on 24 April 2002@03:33:13.
Nicholas Fincher (added note) on 23 July 2003@01:55:35.
David Whitehead (added x-ref; cosmetics) on 23 July 2003@03:35:24.
David Whitehead (tweaks) on 1 August 2011@07:45:16.
David Whitehead (augmented note) on 6 March 2016@09:05:36.

Headword: Ἀβρόμιος
Adler number: alpha,84
Translated headword: Bromios-less, Bromius-less
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
[Meaning] without wine.
"If I escape through the wave of destructive fire, I tell you I will drink for one hundred suns from dewy streams, Bromios-less[1] and wine-less." In the Epigrams.[2]
Greek Original:
Ἀβρόμιος: χωρὶς οἴνου. ἢν ὀλοοῦ διὰ κῦμα φύγω πυρὸς, εἰς ἑκατόν σοι ἠελίους δροσερᾶν πίομαι ἐκ λιβάδων, ἀβρόμιος καὶ ἄοινος. ἐν Ἐπιγράμμασιν.
Notes:
The headword is presumably extracted from the epigram quoted, its only attestation outside lexicography.
[1] Bromios is a name frequently given to Dionysos (delta 1185): see beta 547.
[2] Greek Anthology 6.291.3-5 (author unknown), the vow of a wine-loving woman, should her fever break; cf. Gow and Page (vol. I, 74-77), mu 1022, and sigma 955. This epigram appears twice in the Anthologia Palatina (AP). In the first instance, it is attributed to Antipater of Thessalonica. But in the second instance (inserted after 9.164), and following redaction by the AP scribe designated C (the Corrector), it is noted to be ἀδέσποτον , anonymous (ibid. and vol. II, 100-101)
References:
A.S.F. Gow and D.L. Page, eds., The Greek Anthology: The Garland of Philip and Some Contemporary Epigrams, vol. I, (Cambridge, 1968)
A.S.F. Gow and D.L. Page, eds., The Greek Anthology: The Garland of Philip and Some Contemporary Epigrams, vol. II, (Cambridge, 1968)
Keywords: definition; ethics; food; imagery; medicine; poetry; religion; women
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 26 August 1998@19:37:23.
Vetted by:
William Hutton (Modified headword and translation, added note and keywords, set status) on 1 February 2001@09:40:10.
David Whitehead (modified headword; tweaked translation; x-refs; cosmetics) on 3 January 2005@10:37:13.
David Whitehead (more keywords; tweaks) on 20 December 2011@04:12:25.
Catharine Roth (cosmeticule) on 21 December 2011@01:49:18.
David Whitehead (expanded primary note; cosmetics) on 2 April 2015@11:06:04.
Ronald Allen (expanded n.2, added bibliography, added cross-references, added keywords) on 23 October 2018@18:32:39.
Ronald Allen (typo n.2 second cross-reference) on 23 October 2018@18:40:26.
Ronald Allen (corrected epigram attribution in n.2, added bibliography entry) on 29 October 2018@13:29:47.

Headword: Ἄβυσσον
Adler number: alpha,104
Translated headword: abyss
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
[Meaning] that which not even a deep [βυθός ] can contain; but Ionians pronounce βυθός as βυσσός .[1]
From which also βυσσοδομεύειν ["to build in the deep"] appears to be said,[2] from the verb δύνω ["I sink"] [meaning] I enter upon secretly, with a change [of initial consonant] [giving] βύω , βύσω , βέβυσμαι , βέβυσαι , [and the nouns] βυσός and ἀβύσσος [meaning] where no-one enters because of its depth.[3]
Aristophanes in Frogs [writes]: "for immediately you will come to a huge lake, an absolute abyss."[4] And he also uses the word in the neuter: "they shall not make peace while the measureless [ἄβυσσον ] silver is with the goddess on the Acropolis." For 1,000 talents were stored on the Acropolis.[5]
"Abyss" is what the Holy Scripture calls the watery substance. So since the land is surrounded on all sides by waters [and] by great and small seas, David naturally called this [i.e., abyss] the earth's surrounding garment.[6] Also, "abyss calls to abyss", the same prophet says,[7] meaning figuratively military divisions and the excessive size of the multitude.[8]
"I was under water as [if] in a kind of abyss."[9]
So an abyss [is] a great amount of water.
Greek Original:
Ἄβυσσον: ἣν οὐδὲ βυθὸς χωρῆσαι δύναται: Ἴωνες δὲ τὸν βυθὸν βυσσόν φασιν. ὅθεν δοκεῖ λέγεσθαι καὶ βυσσοδομεύειν, παρὰ τὸ δύνω, τὸ ὑπεισέρχομαι, κατὰ τροπὴν βύω, βύσω, βέβυσμαι, βέβυσαι, βυσὸς καὶ ἀβύσσος, οὗ οὐδεὶς εἰσέρχεται διὰ τὸ βάθος. Ἀριστοφάνης Βατράχοις: εὐθὺς γὰρ ἐπὶ λίμνην μεγάλην ἥξεις πάνυ ἄβυσσον. καὶ οὐδετέρως φησὶν ὁ αὐτός: ἕως ἂν ᾖ τὸ ἀργύριον τὸ ἄβυσσον παρὰ τῇ θεῷ, οὐκ εἰρηνεύσουσιν. ἐν γὰρ τῇ ἀκροπόλει χίλια τάλαντα ἀπέκειτο. Ἄβυσσον καλεῖ τὴν ὑγρὰν οὐσίαν ἡ θεία γραφή. ἐπεὶ οὖν ἡ γῆ πανταχόθεν ὕδασι περιέχεται μεγάλοις καὶ μικροῖς πελάγεσιν, εἰκότως περιβόλαιον αὐτῆς εἴρηκεν ὁ Δαβίδ. καὶ, ἄβυσσος ἄβυσσον ἐπικαλεῖται, ὁ αὐτὸς προφήτης φησίν: τὰ στρατιωτικὰ λέγων τάγματα καὶ τὴν τοῦ πλήθους ὑπερβολὴν τροπικῶς. ὡς ἐν ἀβύσσῳ τινὶ ὑποβρύχιος ἐγενόμην. Ἄβυσσος οὖν ὑδάτων πλῆθος πολύ.
Notes:
See also alpha 105.
[1] This comment on Ionian pronunciation comes from the scholiast on Aristophanes, Frogs 138, quoted later in the entry.
[2] In Homer, Odyssey, where βυσσοδομεύω occurs most frequently, it has the sense "brood over."
[3] cf. Etymologicum Magnum 4.44. These are principal parts of the verb βύω , which means "to stuff," followed by βυσός , which does not exist according to LSJ. Probably this is a mistake for βυσσός , "depth of the sea" (cf. beta 598, βυσσόν ). The Suda generally has little concern for the distinction between single and double consonants. The author thus seems to propose a very dubious etymology: that ἀ-βυσσος literally means "unstuffable" -- i.e., unable to be entered. [Ms M (= Marcianus 448) omits this sentence.]
[4] Aristophanes, Frogs 137-8 (web address 1).
[5] "Silver" [ἀργύριον ] is a neuter noun in Greek, while lake [λίμνη ] in the previous sentence is feminine; the point is that the same form ἄβυσσον is used with both. The sentence quoted here is actually part of a scholion to Aristophanes, Lysistrata 173 (web address 2); Aristophanes uses the phrase τὸ ἀργύριον τὸ ἄβυσσον in that line itself.
[6] Psalm 103:6 LXX. See again under pi 1083.
[7] Psalm 41:8 LXX.
[8] Referring to the continuation of Psalm 41:8 LXX, "all thy waves and thy billows are gone over me" (KJV).
[9] From Theodoret's commentary (PG 80.1173) on Psalm 41:8 LXX.
Associated internet addresses:
Web address 1,
Web address 2
Keywords: Christianity; comedy; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; economics; epic; geography; history; imagery; military affairs; proverbs; religion
Translated by: Elizabeth Vandiver on 21 November 1998@17:02:02.
Vetted by:
William Hutton (Cosmetics, augmented note, added keywords, set status) on 5 February 2001@11:48:31.
David Whitehead (added note; cosmetics) on 9 February 2001@08:11:37.
David Whitehead (added x-ref; cosmetics) on 4 July 2003@08:14:49.
Elizabeth Vandiver (Added links; cosmetics) on 14 December 2003@15:22:17.
David Whitehead (modified translation and notes 6-9) on 28 April 2004@11:16:41.
Jennifer Benedict (betacoding) on 26 March 2008@00:15:00.
Catharine Roth (cosmetics) on 19 April 2011@18:23:25.
David Whitehead (more keywords) on 25 April 2011@04:11:52.
Catharine Roth (tweaked translation and note, after consulting with the translator) on 26 April 2011@17:14:37.
David Whitehead (augmented notes and keywords; tweaks and cosmetics) on 22 December 2011@03:45:27.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 21 November 2014@10:58:29.
David Whitehead (cosmetics) on 21 November 2014@11:44:30.
David Whitehead (coding) on 15 August 2015@07:36:21.

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