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Headword:
Adler number: alpha,1
Translated headword: ah! ah!
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
In Aristophanes an adverb accompanying surprise and command. "Ah! ah! Don't get that torch near me!"[1]
'Ah! ah!' must be read separately, not elided; and they both have smooth breathing.[2]. For if they were read together as one word, there would be no need of two accent marks.[3] "Ah" marks surprise, but "ha ha" is for awe, as Agathias says in the Epigrams: "ha, a very daring wax it was that formed..."[4]
Aab.[5]
Greek Original:
#
Notes:
[1] Aristophanes, Plutus [Wealth] 1052 (web address 1). The first sentence is derived from scholia to this passage, and this may also be true of the rest of the entry.
[2] That is, it is "ah! ah!", not "ha! ha!" A difference registered in Greek by the orientation of a small breathing mark that is easily reversed in transcription, especially since by the time the Suda was compiled the initial 'h' had ceased to be pronounced.
[3] i.e. ἂ ἄ is two words, ἀά would be one.
[4] Greek Anthology 1.34.2; again (with slight variations) at mu 389 and sigma 664.
[5] This gloss-less addendum is actually a separate entry that occurs only in ms S. (In Adler's numbering system this is designated alpha 1b, while the main entry is alpha 1a.) Apparently this is a reference to the Hebrew month of Av, attested with this Greek spelling only in Joannes Lydus, De mensibus 3.22.
Associated internet address:
Web address 1
Keywords: chronology; comedy; dialects, grammar, and etymology; poetry
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 9 November 1999@09:47:43.
Vetted by:
Ross Scaife ✝ (raised vetting status) on 26 September 2000@14:01:40.
David Whitehead (added note and keywords; cosmetics) on 9 February 2001@04:21:58.
David Whitehead (augmented notes and keywords; cosmetics) on 9 April 2007@04:35:29.
William Hutton (modified translation, rearranged layout, added note and link, set status) on 19 August 2007@10:41:27.
Jennifer Benedict (typo) on 22 March 2008@17:08:15.
Catharine Roth (coding, typo) on 22 March 2008@19:48:38.
David Whitehead (tweaks) on 16 December 2011@05:43:10.
Catharine Roth (upgraded link) on 5 August 2013@01:21:19.

Headword: Ἀαγές
Adler number: alpha,2
Translated headword: unbroken, unbreakable
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
[Meaning something] unshattered,[1] strong.
Greek Original:
Ἀαγές: ἄθραυστον, ἰσχυρόν.
Notes:
= Apollonius Sophistes, Lexicon Homericum 2.4. Likewise in Hesychius alpha7; Photius, Lexicon alpha4 Theodoridis; Etymologicum Gudianum 1.12. This form of the adjective is the neuter nominative singular, as at Homer, Odyssey 11.575 (web address 1).
All but the last word of this entry is absent from ms M (= Marcianus 448), as are the last several words of alpha 1 (a and b).
[1] cf. alpha 750.
Associated internet address:
Web address 1
Keywords: definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; epic; poetry
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 20 August 1998@17:55:22.
Vetted by:
Ross Scaife ✝ (raised status) on 26 September 2000@13:50:00.
Ross Scaife ✝ (testing) on 22 June 2001@13:33:15.
Catharine Roth (added link and keywords) on 6 March 2002@00:09:12.
David Whitehead (added x-ref; cosmetics) on 22 July 2003@09:58:28.
William Hutton (modified translation, augmented notes, added keyword, set status) on 19 August 2007@10:53:47.
David Whitehead (restored lost keywords) on 19 August 2007@11:26:45.
William Hutton (augmented headword) on 20 August 2007@08:18:48.
Jennifer Benedict (cosmetics) on 25 March 2008@00:09:21.
David Whitehead (tweaks) on 16 December 2011@05:45:02.
Catharine Roth (upgraded link) on 16 December 2011@11:36:59.
David Whitehead on 16 August 2013@05:57:53.

Headword: Ἄαπτος
Adler number: alpha,5
Translated headword: irresistable, invulnerable
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
[Meaning someone/something] unharmed.
Herodianus[1] says about ἄαπτος that it comes from ἰάπτω ['I harm'], and after adding alpha-privative and dropping the 'i' [it becomes] ἄαπτος , "whom no one can harm." Or perhaps the 'a' is not to be taken as negative but as intensifying, so it would be "one who has great power to harm." Thus the first has a passive sense, the second an active. With the negative prefix it also means "one who is untouched."[2]
Greek Original:
Ἄαπτος: ἀβλαβής. Ἡρωδιανός φησι περὶ τοῦ ἄαπτος, ὅτι γίγνεται ἀπὸ τοῦ ἰάπτω τὸ βλάπτω, καὶ μετὰ τοῦ στερητικοῦ α καὶ κατ' ἔλλειψιν τοῦ ι ἄαπτος, ὃν οὐδεὶς δύναται βλάψαι. ἢ οὐχὶ κατὰ στέρησιν ἐκληπτέον τὸ α, ἀλλὰ κατ' ἐπίτασιν, ἵν' ᾖ ὁ μεγάλα δυνάμενος βλάπτειν. ὥστε τὸ μὲν πρῶτον δηλοῖ πάθος, τὸ δὲ δεύτερον ἐνέργειαν. λέγεται δὲ καὶ ἄαπτος κατὰ στέρησιν ὁ ἄψαυστος.
Notes:
This form of the headword, the nominative singular masculine/feminine, is unattested outside lexicography; however, plural forms occur frequently in hexameter poetry, in the formula χεῖρες ἄαπτοι or χεῖρας ἀάπτους (usually interpreted as 'irresistable hands'); e.g. Homer, Iliad 8.450 (web address 1).
[1] The etymological comments that follow occur only in mss G (= Parisinus 2623) and T (= Vaticanus 881); cf. Herodianus 3.2.30.
[2] This etymology, alpha-privative + ἅπτομαι ('touch'), is the one most commonly accepted nowadays. See LSJ s.v. (web address 2) and Schwyzer, DGE. Yet there is reason for doubt, and the correct Homeric form (attested already by Aristophanes of Byzantium) may actually be ἀεπτ- . See Chantraine s.v. ἄαπτος .
Associated internet addresses:
Web address 1,
Web address 2
Keywords: definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; epic; poetry
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 21 August 1998@16:48:12.
Vetted by:
William Hutton (Raised status; cosmetics) on 16 October 2000@15:10:37.
David Whitehead (added keyword; cosmetics) on 23 April 2002@07:40:44.
David Whitehead (betacoding and other cosmetics) on 9 November 2005@09:16:30.
William Hutton (Augmented notes, cosmetics, added keywords and links, set status) on 19 August 2007@18:31:56.
William Hutton (typo) on 20 August 2007@04:20:04.
William Hutton (augmented notes, tweaked headwords) on 20 August 2007@08:59:16.
Jennifer Benedict (cosmetics, consistency) on 25 March 2008@00:11:12.
Catharine Roth (cosmetics) on 16 December 2011@23:59:48.
David Whitehead (cosmetics) on 18 December 2011@10:14:21.
David Whitehead (cosmetics; note typo) on 2 April 2015@08:36:40.

Headword: Ἀασάμην
Adler number: alpha,7
Translated headword: I was addled
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
[Meaning] I did wrong, I slipped up;[1] I was damaged,[2] in the sense of "I was overcome by folly."
Greek Original:
Ἀασάμην: ἥμαρτον, ἐσφάλην: ἐβλάβην, οἷον ἄτῃ περιέπεσον.
Notes:
The headword is the first person singular, aorist indicative middle/passive, of ἀάω (LSJ entry at web address 1). It is found frequently in epic poetry, e.g. Homer Iliad 9.116 (web address 2).
[1] Up to this point the entry = Synagoge (Codex B) alpha3 (Lexica Segueriana 3.8 Bachmann).
[2] From here on the entry is very similar to Apollonius Sophistes, Homeric Lexicon 1.19, and Hesychius alpha25.
Associated internet addresses:
Web address 1,
Web address 2
Keywords: definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; epic; ethics; poetry; religion
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 21 August 1998@16:50:10.
Vetted by:
William Hutton (Raised status, minor alterations to translation) on 17 October 2000@17:21:27.
William Hutton on 17 October 2000@17:22:15.
David Whitehead (modified headword and translation; cosmetics) on 9 February 2001@04:43:19.
William Hutton (modified translation, augmented notes, added links and keywords, set status) on 20 August 2007@04:52:46.
William Hutton (updated footnote) on 8 November 2007@06:02:11.
Jennifer Benedict (betacode typo) on 22 March 2008@17:15:55.
Jennifer Benedict (cosmetics) on 25 March 2008@00:13:03.
William Hutton on 22 July 2009@15:25:18.
Catharine Roth (upgraded link) on 17 December 2011@00:09:02.
David Whitehead on 16 August 2013@06:06:47.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 3 September 2014@10:30:04.

Headword: Ἀάσαι
Adler number: alpha,8
Translated headword: to harm, to infatuate
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
has four meanings: to satisfy,[1] to go to sleep,[2] to harm, to cause pain.
Greek Original:
Ἀάσαι τέσσαρα σημαίνει: κορέσαι, καθυπνῶσαι, βλάψαι, λυπῆσαι.
Notes:
The headword is aorist active infinitive, glossed with four others. The entry = Photius, Lexicon alpha9 Theodoridis, and similar material can be found in Synagoge (Codex B) alpha4 (Lexica Segueriana 3.5-7). Compare also Etymologicum Gudianum 1.8. This particular form is unattested outside lexicography, though it appears as an entry in Apollonius Sophistes, Homeric Lexicon 2.5, and is presumably related to such Homeric forms as we find at alpha 7.
[1] This meaning is unattested for the verb ἀάω (LSJ entry at web address 1).
[2] In that one loses consciousness and control in sleep, as in Homer Odyssey 10.68 (web address 2).
Associated internet addresses:
Web address 1,
Web address 2
Keywords: definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; epic; poetry
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 21 August 1998@16:55:13.
Vetted by:
William Hutton (Translated headword, changed status) on 17 October 2000@17:24:27.
David Whitehead (augmented note; cosmetics) on 2 August 2004@09:47:05.
William Hutton (Augmented notes, added links and keywords, set status) on 20 August 2007@05:15:27.
William Hutton (typo) on 20 August 2007@09:12:24.
William Hutton on 8 November 2007@06:10:34.
Jennifer Benedict (cosmetics) on 25 March 2008@00:13:46.
Catharine Roth (upgraded link) on 17 December 2011@00:11:54.
David Whitehead on 16 August 2013@06:08:03.

Headword: Ἀάσχετος
Adler number: alpha,9
Translated headword: irresistible
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
[Something someone/something] uncontrollable.[1]
Greek Original:
Ἀάσχετος: ἀκράτητος.
Notes:
A word from epic poetry, e.g. Homer, Iliad 5.892 (web address 1), with metrical reduplication of the initial alpha (cf. LSJ s.v. ἄσχετος at web address 2). The headword and the gloss are both masculine/feminine nominative singular.
[1] A related but not identical word (ἀκατακράτητον ) is used to gloss the neuter form of the headword at Etymologicum Magnum 1.32.
Associated internet addresses:
Web address 1,
Web address 2
Keywords: definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; epic; meter and music; poetry
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 21 August 1998@16:55:57.
Vetted by:
William Hutton (Raised status) on 17 October 2000@17:25:25.
David Whitehead (modified headword, to differentiate it from gloss) on 9 February 2001@04:47:19.
William Hutton (modified headword, added notes, links and keywords) on 20 August 2007@08:09:43.
Jennifer Benedict (cosmeticule) on 22 March 2008@17:17:54.
David Whitehead (spelling) on 23 March 2008@05:06:11.
Jennifer Benedict (cosmeticule) on 24 March 2008@23:14:55.
Jennifer Benedict (another cosmeticule) on 24 March 2008@23:15:34.
Catharine Roth (upgraded link) on 17 December 2011@00:14:10.
David Whitehead (cosmetics) on 2 April 2015@08:39:22.

Headword: Ἀβάκησαν
Adler number: alpha,11
Translated headword: they kept quiet
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
[Meaning] they were unaware, they did not understand.
Greek Original:
Ἀβάκησαν: ἠγνόησαν, ἠσυνέτησαν.
Note:
The headword is the third person plural, aorist indicative active, of ἀβακέω . This form is found only in Homer, Odyssey 4.249 (web address 1), and the many lexicographical notices generated by it. Of those the most similar to this entry are Photius, Lexicon alpha22 Theodoridis, and Etymologicum Magnum 2.30-31. Compare also Apollonius Sophistes, Homeric Lexicon 2.16; Hesychius alpha54. The glosses offered here and elsewhere probably represent semantic extrapolation from the Homeric context: When Odysseus comes in disguise to Troy, Helen knows who he is but the rest of the people in Troy ἀβάκησαν . The translation of the headword, on the other hand, reflects the verb's probable etymological connection with the verb βάζω 'speak', and the adjective ἀβακής ('speechless', 'tranquil'). Cf. Chantraine s.v. ἀβακής , a connection that is sometimes mentioned as a possibility in the ancient scholarship.
Associated internet address:
Web address 1
Keywords: definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; epic; poetry
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 21 August 1998@16:58:43.
Vetted by:
Catharine Roth (Altered wording, added note and link.) on 29 July 2000@23:31:10.
David Whitehead (expanded note; cosmetics) on 22 July 2003@10:04:22.
Catharine Roth (modified link, added betacode, raised status) on 26 November 2006@23:52:21.
William Hutton (modified headword, augmented note) on 21 August 2007@09:45:37.
Jennifer Benedict (cosmeticule) on 24 March 2008@23:27:53.
Catharine Roth (upgraded link) on 17 December 2011@00:20:49.
David Whitehead on 16 August 2013@06:10:41.

Headword: Ἀβάλε
Adler number: alpha,13
Translated headword: would that
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
[Meaning] o that.[1] "Would that [...]."[2]
Greek Original:
Ἀβάλε: εἴθε ἀβάλε.
Notes:
For the headword see LSJ s.v. ἄβαλε (web address 1). The entry = Photius, Lexicon alpha26 Theodoridis, and, with the exception of the repetition of the headword within the entry (see note 2), also Synagoge alpha1 (Lexica Segueriana 3.10), Hesychius (s.v. ἄ βάλε , alpha60) and Apollonius Sophistes, Homeric Lexicon 2.15. The word does not occur in the extant text of Homer, but there are other literary attestations including Callimachus fr. 619 Pfeiffer, and Greek Anthology 7.583.1 (Agathias Scholasticus).
cf. generally alpha 14.
[1] For more on εἴθε see epsiloniota 55.
[2] Apparently the beginning of a quotation, perhaps from one of the works mentioned above; otherwise the repetition of the headword is hard to explain. See Theodoridis' note.
Associated internet address:
Web address 1
Keywords: definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; epic; poetry
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 22 August 1998@12:45:11.
Vetted by:
William Hutton (Cosmetics, raised status) on 18 January 2001@09:23:01.
David Whitehead (modified translation; supplied note) on 2 August 2004@10:13:43.
William Hutton (rearranged translation and notes, added link and keywords, set status) on 22 August 2007@11:14:02.
William Hutton on 22 August 2007@11:17:12.
William Hutton (augmented notes) on 23 August 2007@10:04:46.
William Hutton (corrected and updated references in footnote) on 8 November 2007@06:13:12.
Jennifer Benedict (cosmetics) on 24 March 2008@23:29:07.
David Whitehead (another keyword; cosmetics) on 18 December 2011@10:32:04.
Catharine Roth (cosmeticule) on 18 December 2011@10:54:34.
David Whitehead on 16 August 2013@06:14:01.
Ronald Allen (typo in n.2) on 13 August 2018@21:59:26.

Headword: Ἄβαλεν
Adler number: alpha,14
Translated headword: threw
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
[ἄβαλεν is found] meaning ἔβαλεν .
Greek Original:
Ἄβαλεν: ἀντὶ τοῦ ἔβαλεν.
Note:
Likewise in other lexica; see the references at Photius alpha27 Theodoridis. The headword variant -- for the aorist indicative active of βάλλω , third person singular -- is otherwise unattested.
Keyword: dialects, grammar, and etymology
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 22 August 1998@12:46:22.
Vetted by:
William Hutton (Cosmetics, modified note, raised status) on 18 January 2001@09:28:41.
Robert Dyer (Added a reference to the form of the Headword with a different accent, and another Keyword. Raised status.) on 9 February 2002@15:59:31.
David Whitehead (x-ref; cosmetics) on 2 August 2004@10:16:30.
Catharine Roth (tweaks) on 20 December 2010@22:16:54.
David Whitehead (tweaks) on 18 December 2011@10:33:55.
Catharine Roth (punctuation) on 18 December 2011@10:56:45.
David Whitehead (streamlined note) on 16 August 2013@06:21:47.

Headword: Ἀβάντειος
Adler number: alpha,15
Translated headword: Abanteios, Abantius, Abantian
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
The [house][1] of Abas.[2] Also [attested is] Abantiades.[3]
Greek Original:
Ἀβάντειος: ὁ τοῦ Ἄβαντος. καὶ Ἀβαντιάδης.
Notes:
Adler cites as a comparandum Lexicon Ambrosianum 22, 23, 28.
[1] This suppletion is suggested by the corresponding entry in the Lexicon of pseudo-Zonaras 5.1, which is identical to this entry apart from the headword phrase: vs. Ἀβάντειος here, ps.-Zonaras has Ἀβάντειος δόμος ('Abantian house'). The headword here could serve as a modifier for any substantive of the masculine gender, including a son or descendant, as is suggested by the subsequent reference to a patronymic form. The adjective is unattested outside of grammars and lexica, and ps.-Zonaras provides the only example of it modifying a specific substantive. Stephanus of Byzantium in his entry on 'Abantis', an early name for Euboea (cf. Hesiod fr. 296 Merkelbach-West), notes it as the possessive adjective relating to the Abantes or to their legendary founder Abas, whom Stephanos identifies either as the son of Lynkeus (see note 2 below) or a homonymous son of Poseidon. Cf. also Herodianus Peri orthographias 3.2.429.34 and 465.14.
[2] Not the Abas of alpha 20, but one of the mythological figures of that name; in fact almost certainly A. the son of Lynkeus, king of Argos [Myth, Place] after Danaos and father of the twins Akrisios and Proitos (Pausanias 2.16.2 (web address 1); Apollodorus, Library 2.2.1 (web address 2)).
[3] This term is used by (e.g.) Ovid both for an actual son of Abas (Metamorphoses 4.607 (Acrisius): web address 3) and in the sense of a more distant descendant (4.673 (Perseus, great-grandson of Abas; cf. pi 1372): web address 4).
Associated internet addresses:
Web address 1,
Web address 2,
Web address 3,
Web address 4
Keywords: biography; dialects, grammar, and etymology; geography; mythology; poetry
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 22 August 1998@12:47:27.
Vetted by:
William Hutton (Entered headword, modified note, added keywords, raised status) on 18 January 2001@09:34:40.
David Whitehead (augmented and modified note; added keyword) on 27 February 2003@07:23:08.
David Whitehead (tweaked tr; augmented notes and keywords; raised status) on 23 August 2007@07:12:31.
William Hutton (augmented notes, tweaked translation) on 23 August 2007@13:11:02.
William Hutton (tweaks and typos) on 24 August 2007@02:44:20.
Jennifer Benedict (cosmetics) on 24 March 2008@23:38:57.
Catharine Roth (upgraded links) on 5 August 2013@01:08:34.

Headword: Ἄβαρις
Adler number: alpha,18
Translated headword: Abaris, Avars
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
Scythian, son of Seuthes. He wrote the so-called Scythinian Oracles[1] and Marriage of the river Hebros and Purifications and a Theogony in prose and Arrival of Apollo among the Hyperboreans in meter. He came from Scythia to Greece.
The legendary arrow belongs to him, the one he flew on from Greece to Hyperborean Scythia. It was given to him by Apollo.[2]
Gregory the Theologian mentioned this man in his Epitaphios for Basil the Great.[3]
They say[4] that once, when there was a plague throughout the entire inhabited world, Apollo told the Greeks and barbarians who had come to consult his oracle that the Athenian people should make prayers on behalf of all of them. So, many peoples sent ambassadors to them, and Abaris, they say, came as ambassador of the Hyperboreans in the third Olympiad.[5]
[Note] that the Bulgarians thoroughly destroyed the Avars[6] by force.
[Note] that these Avars drove out the Sabinorians, when they themselves had been expelled by peoples living near the shore of the Ocean, who left their own land when a mist formed in the flood of the Ocean and a crowd of griffins appeared; the story was that they would not stop until they had devoured the race of men. So the people driven away by these monsters invaded their neighbors. As the invaders were stronger, the others submitted and left, just as the Saragurians, when they were driven out, went to the Akatziri Huns.[7]
The declension is Abaris, Abaridos [genitive singular], Abaridas [accusative plural], and with apocope Abaris [nominative plural].
See about these things under 'Bulgarians'.[8]
Greek Original:
Ἄβαρις: Σκύθης, Σεύθου υἱός. συνεγράψατο δὲ χρησμοὺς τοὺς καλουμένους Σκυθινοὺς καὶ Γάμον Ἕβρου τοῦ ποταμοῦ καὶ Καθαρμοὺς καὶ Θεογονίαν καταλογάδην καὶ Ἀπόλλωνος ἄφιξιν εἰς Ὑπερβορέους ἐμμέτρως. ἧκε δὲ ἐκ Σκυθῶν εἰς Ἑλλάδα. τούτου ὁ μυθολογούμενος ὀϊστὸς, τοῦ πετομένου ἀπὸ τῆς Ἑλλάδος μέχρι τῶν Ὑπερβορέων Σκυθῶν: ἐδόθη δὲ αὐτῷ παρὰ τοῦ Ἀπόλλωνος. τούτου καὶ Γρηγόριος ὁ Θεολόγος ἐν τῷ εἰς τὸν μέγαν Βασίλειον Ἐπιταφίῳ μνήμην πεποίηται. φασὶ δὲ ὅτι λοιμοῦ κατὰ πᾶσαν τὴν οἰκουμένην γεγονότος ἀνεῖλεν ὁ Ἀπόλλων μαντευομένοις Ἕλλησι καὶ βαρβάροις τὸν Ἀθηναίων δῆμον ὑπὲρ πάντων εὐχὰς ποιήσασθαι. πρεσβευομένων δὲ πολλῶν ἐθνῶν πρὸς αὐτοὺς, καὶ Ἄβαριν ἐξ Ὑπερβορέων πρεσβευτὴν ἀφικέσθαι λέγουσι κατὰ τὴν γ# Ὀλυμπιάδα. ὅτι τοὺς Ἀβάρις οἱ Βούλγαροι κατὰ κράτος ἄρδην ἠφάνισαν. ὅτι οἱ Ἀβάρις οὗτοι ἐξήλασαν Σαβίνωρας, μετανάσται γενόμενοι ὑπὸ ἐθνῶν οἰκούντων μὲν τὴν παρωκεανῖτιν ἀκτήν, τὴν δὲ χώραν ἀπολιπόντων διὰ τὸ ἐξ ἀναχύσεως τοῦ Ὠκεανοῦ ὁμιχλῶδες γινόμενον, καὶ γρυπῶν δὲ πλῆθος ἀναφανέν: ὅπερ ἦν λόγος μὴ πρότερον παύσασθαι πρὶν ἢ βορὰν ποιῆσαι τὸ τῶν ἀνθρώπων γένος. διὸ δὴ ὑπὸ τῶνδε ἐλαυνόμενοι τῶν δεινῶν τοῖς πλησιοχώροις ἐνέβαλλον: καὶ τῶν ἐπιόντων δυνατωτέρων ὄντων οἱ τὴν ἔφοδον ὑφιστάμενοι μετανίσταντο, ὥσπερ καὶ οἱ Σαράγουροι ἐλαθέντες πρὸς τοῖς Ἀκατίροις Οὔννοις ἐγένοντο. κλίνεται δὲ Ἄβαρις, Ἀβάριδος, τοὺς Ἀβάριδας, καὶ κατὰ ἀποκοπὴν Ἀβάρις. ζήτει περὶ τῶν αὐτῶν ἐν τῷ Βούλγαροι.
Notes:
See generally A.H. Griffiths in OCD(4) p.1: "legendary devotee of Apollo from the far north, a shamanistic missionary and saviour-figure like Aristeas [alpha 3900]". Adler credits this part of the entry to the Epitome Onomatologi Hesychii Milesii.
[1] Or in one manuscript, 'Skythian'.
[2] Perhaps from a scholion on the passage about to be cited (so Adler). Cf. Herodotos 4.36.1 (web address 1).
[3] Gregory of Nazianzus PG 36.524b.
[4] This material is from Harpokration s.v. Ἄβαρις
[5] 768-765 BCE. Harpokration (see preceding note) cites Hippostratos (FGrH 568 F4) to this effect, but adds that there were later alternatives: the twenty-first Olympiad (696-693) or "the time of Croesus, king of Lydia" (so Pindar, fr.270 Snell-Maehler), i.e. c.560-546.
[6] The word used for the Avars here, Ἀβάρις , is a homograph for the name of the Hyperborean wise man Abaris, so this separate section on the Avars is included in this entry. There is no indication that the lexicographer sees any connection between the two topics.
[7] Priscus fr.30 FHG (4.104), still 30 Bornmann. The final part reappears at alpha 820 and sigma 111.
[8] beta 423.
References:
RE Abaris (1) I.16-17
Macartney, C.A. "On the Greek Sources for the History of the Turks in the Sixth Century." BSOAS 11 (1944): 266-275
Associated internet address:
Web address 1
Keywords: biography; Christianity; dialects, grammar, and etymology; geography; historiography; history; mythology; philosophy; poetry; religion; rhetoric
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 21 August 1998@17:03:41.
Vetted by:
William Hutton (Modified translation and notes, added keywords, set status.) on 19 January 2001@14:57:43.
David Whitehead (augmented notes and bibliography; cosmetics) on 9 February 2001@05:20:43.
David Whitehead (added note) on 14 February 2001@06:09:48.
Mihai Olteanu (The only thracian item concerning Abaris is his father's name. Everything else pledes for his sythian ('hyperborean') origin. This is why I suppose we deal here with a copist mistake, and I propose the emendation: ́Αβαρις: Σκύθης, *Σκύθου υἱός (for Σκύθης as mythological character, see for example Herodotos 4,10).) on 22 January 2002@21:55:20.
David Whitehead (augmented notes and keywords; cosmetics) on 23 January 2002@03:11:25.
David Whitehead (augmented n.6 and added a keyword) on 5 October 2004@03:21:13.
William Hutton (augmented notes, added link and keywords, set status) on 24 August 2007@11:05:00.
Jennifer Benedict (cosmeticule) on 25 March 2008@00:16:43.
David Whitehead (another note; cosmetics) on 28 March 2014@06:23:27.
David Whitehead (updated a ref) on 29 July 2014@12:06:21.
David Whitehead (updated a ref) on 31 January 2015@09:22:24.

Headword: Ἀβαχθανῆ
Adler number: alpha,24
Translated headword: abakhthani
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
A Hebrew expression.
Greek Original:
Ἀβαχθανῆ: λέξις Ἑβραϊκή.
Notes:
Strictly speaking the headword is a truncated Aramaic, rather than Hebrew, term. Its proper form in Greek transliteration is σαβαχθάνι and translates "you have forsaken me." The term occurs at Matthew 27:46 and Mark 15:34, where Jesus on the cross quotes Psalm 21:2 LXX (22:2 MT): "God, my God, ... why have you forsaken me?" (see eta 210). For the Hebrew, see Kohlenberger, 3.367. In Aramaic, "why have you forsaken me" is למא שבקתני lama šaḇaqtani. The Suda has carelessly disassociated the sigma, creating in effect "lamas aḇaqtani or ἀβαχθανη --a clear signal that the compiler was unfamiliar with Aramaic. The Psalmic Hebrew original is עזבתני 'azaḇtani, from עזב ʿazaḇ "forsake, forget". For the triliteral root citation, see Brown, Driver, and Briggs, 736ff. For šaḇaqtani (from שבק šeḇaq), see Perschbacher, 364; Danker, 909.
The Suda item has a circumflex accent on the final syllable. In the Hebrew עזבתני ʿazaḇtani, the accent falls on the penultimate syllable (-ta-), consistent with perfects suffixed with a first person singular pronoun; for this, see Kelley, 154.A; Gesenius, 155(58.1). So in the Aramaic, the accent falls on the penultimate syllable (-ta-). That said, the accent in Greek transliteration is inconsistent. Perschbacher places it over the final iota (σαβαχθανί ) in the headword; however, his citation from The Greek New Testament According to the Majority Text (1982) places the accent over the penultimate (σαβαχθάνι ). In addition, Perschbacher offers the transliteration σαβαχθανεί from The New Testament in the Original Greek (1881). Danker places the accent over the penultimate syllable.
Phonologically, the Aramaic shin (ש š /ʃ/) cannot be accommodated by Greek, which must substitute sigma. For a parallel instance, see omega 182 (note 47). Both chi (for Aramaic ק qaf) and theta (for Aramaic ת taw) function as aspirated plosives (equivalent to English "kit" and "top"). See Allen, 16-17. The theta is noteworthy insofar as its sound value parallels that of the taw (ת) in šaḇaqtani, hardened by silent shewa and dagesh lene. Moreover, the Aramaic in Greek transliteration bolsters the linguistic argument for the compound "chi-theta" as successive aspirated plosives. See Allen, 24-27. Aramaic taw, like its Hebrew counterpart, otherwise has a "th" (as in "both") value. See "Aramaic" in Encyclopaedia Judaica, 3.263; a modern descriptive approach is found in "Aramaic" (Kaufman). For theta as a fricative in Hebrew transliteration, see omega 182 (note 47).
That the Suda terminates the headword with eta rather than iota (paralleling the Aramaic khireq-yod or long "i") showcases a phonological shift in Greek. By the 3rd century CE, the Greek letters eta, and the digraph epsilon-iota (note the -ει alternative in Perschbacher) were sounded as long iota. See Allen, 74. The Suda compiler viewed eta as the more elegant solution. This feature bears directly on the Suda's own taxonomy: the homophones epsilon-iota, eta, and iota follow zeta in the Suda's "alphabetical" scheme. See "Suidas" in the Encyclopaedia Britannica, XXVI.51.
References:
Allen, W.S. Vox Graeca. Cambridge: Cambridge University, 1968
"Aramaic" in Encyclopaedia Judaica. Jerusalem: Encyclopaedia Judaica, 1973
Brown, F., Driver, S.R., and Briggs, C.A. A Hebrew and English Lexicon of the Old Testament. Oxford: Clarendon, 1951
Danker, F.W. A Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament and Other Early Christian Literature. Chicago: University of Chicago, 2000
Kautzsch, E. Gesenius' Hebrew Grammar. Oxford: Clarendon, 1910
Kelley, P.H. Biblical Hebrew: An Introductory Grammar. Grand Rapids: William B. Erdmans, 1992
Kohlenberger, J.R. The Interlinear Hebrew-English Old Testament. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1987
Kaufman, S.A. "Aramaic" in Hetzron, R. The Semitic Languages. New York: Routledge, 1997
Perschbacher, W.J. The New Analytical Greek Lexicon. Peabody: Hendrickson, 1996
"Suidas" in Encyclopaedia Britannica. Cambridge: Cambridge University, 1910
Keywords: Christianity; chronology; dialects, grammar, and etymology; poetry; religion
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 4 December 1999@16:23:20.
Vetted by:
Raphael Finkel on 9 December 1999@11:17:30.
Elizabeth Vandiver on 14 December 1999@16:17:44.
Craig Miller on 27 May 2002@01:29:46.
Craig Miller (Reformatted translation; modified/expanded notes; added bibliography; expanded keywords. Cosmetics pending by editor.) on 27 May 2002@01:58:58.
Craig Miller (Cosmetics) on 27 May 2002@15:48:11.
Craig Miller on 27 May 2002@16:11:44.
Catharine Roth (added cross-reference) on 4 October 2002@00:55:00.
Raphael Finkel (Added Hebrew and Aramaic characters.) on 31 October 2002@10:06:56.
Raphael Finkel (Minor fixes.) on 31 October 2002@12:39:23.
Elizabeth Vandiver (Added italics; cosmetics) on 12 February 2005@21:58:54.
Catharine Roth (cosmetics) on 1 March 2006@01:08:11.
David Whitehead (another keyword; tweaks and cosmetics) on 19 December 2011@06:21:33.
Catharine Roth (coding, typo) on 5 August 2013@00:57:53.
Raphael Finkel (Fixed translation of LXX; changed to ISO 259 Romanization of Hebrew and Aramaic.) on 7 August 2014@13:30:23.
Raphael Finkel (Standardized Romanization fonts.) on 7 August 2014@13:46:48.
David Whitehead (coding) on 15 August 2015@07:25:56.

Headword: Ἀβιμέλεχ
Adler number: alpha,45
Translated headword: Abimelech
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
Proper name.[1]
The son of Gideon.[2] He smote his brothers, seventy sons of Gideon's wives,[3] upon a single stone, and none of them was left except Jotham the youngest son,[4] who ran away. As Abimelech was passing through with his people, Jotham went up to the top of the mountain and, raising his voice, told the following parable. "Listen to me, men of Shechem, and God will listen to you. The trees set out[5] to anoint a king over themselves. And they said to the olive, 'Rule over us.' And the olive said to them, 'Should I give up my rich oil, by which -- through me -- God[6] and men receive honor,[7] and go rule over trees?' Then the trees said to the fig, 'Come, rule over us.' And the fig said to them, 'Should I give up my sweetness, my excellent product, and go to rule over the trees?' And the trees said to the vine, 'Come, rule over us.' And the vine said to them, 'Should I give up my wine, merriment for men, and go to rule over the trees?' And all the trees said to the thornbush, 'Come, you rule over us.' And the thornbush said to the trees, 'If you are truly anointing me to rule over you, come stand under[8] my shade. But if not, may fire come from me and consume the cedars of Lebanon.' Now, if you have dealt with my father and his family truthfully and in an upright way, and have made his concubine's son Abimelech king over the men of Shechem, then may you rejoice in him and may he indeed rejoice in you. But if not, may fire issue from Abimelech and consume your leaders and their families. And may fire issue from the men of Shechem and consume Abimelech." And Jotham ran from the presence of Abimelech his brother. But Abimelech ruled over Israel for three years. Then God sent an evil spirit between[9] Abimelech and the men of Shechem. And the men of Shechem dealt treacherously[10] with the house of Abimelech so to lay at Abimelech's feet[11] the blood of Gideon's seventy sons. And so Abimilech set out to beseige the tower.[12] As he approached the tower gate to burn it, a woman threw a piece of a millstone onto his head and crushed his skull. He at once called out to his armor bearer[13], saying, "Draw your sword and kill me, so they can never say I was killed by a woman." So the young man took up his sword and ran him through. And God recompensed the wickedness Abimelech had done to his father in killing his seventy brothers. God also recompensed[14] all the wickedness of the men of Shechem, in accord with the message and parable of Jotham.
Greek Original:
Ἀβιμέλεχ: ὄνομα κύριον. υἱὸς Γεδεών. οὗτος ἐπάταξε τοὺς ἀδελφοὺς αὐτοῦ ἐκ τῶν ἐλευθέρων ἄνδρας ἐβδομήκοντα ἐπὶ λίθον ἕνα, ἐξ ὧν οὐκ ἀπελείφθη πλὴν Ἰωάθαμ τοῦ νεωτέρου διαδράντος. ὃς καὶ παραπορευομένου τοῦ Ἀβιμέλεχ μετὰ τοῦ λαοῦ ἀνῆλθεν ἐπὶ τὴν κορυφὴν τοῦ ὄρους, καὶ ἐπάρας τὴν φωνὴν αὐτοῦ ἔφη πρὸς αὐτοὺς παραβολὴν τοιαύτην. ἀκούσατέ μου, ἄνδρες Σικίμων, καὶ ἀκούσει ὑμῶν ὁ θεός. πορευόμενα ἐπορεύθησαν τὰ ξύλα τοῦ χρίσαι βασιλέα ἐφ' ἑαυτῶν. καὶ εἶπαν τῇ ἐλαίᾳ: βασίλευσον ἐφ' ἡμῶν. καὶ εἶπεν αὐτοῖς ἡ ἐλαία: ἀφεῖσα τὴν πιότητά μου, ἣν ἐδόξασεν ἐν ἐμοὶ ὁ θεὸς καὶ οἱ ἄνθρωποι, πορευθῶ ἄρχειν τῶν ξύλων; καὶ εἶπον τὰ ξύλα τῇ συκῇ: δεῦρο, βασίλευσον ἐφ' ἡμᾶς. καὶ εἶπεν αὐτοῖς ἡ συκῆ: ἀφεῖσα τὴν γλυκύτητά μου καὶ τὸ γέννημά μου τὸ ἀγαθὸν πορευθῶ ἄρχειν τῶν ξύλων; καὶ εἶπον τὰ ξύλα πρὸς τὴν ἄμπελον: δεῦρο, βασίλευσον ἐφ' ἡμῶν. καὶ εἶπεν αὐτοῖς ἡ ἄμπελος: ἀφεῖσα τὸν οἶνόν μου καὶ τὴν εὐφροσύνην τῶν ἀνθρώπων πορευθῶ ἄρχειν τῶν ξύλων; καὶ εἶπον πάντα τὰ ξύλα τῇ ῥάμνῳ: δεῦρο, σὺ βασίλευσον ἐφ' ἡμᾶς. καὶ εἶπεν ἡ ῥάμνος πρὸς τὰ ξύλα: εἰ ἐν ἀληθείᾳ χρίετέ με ὑμεῖς τοῦ βασιλεύειν ἐφ' ὑμᾶς, δεῦτε, ὑποστῆτε ἐν τῇ σκιᾷ μου, καὶ εἰ μὴ, ἐξέλθοι πῦρ ἀπ' ἐμοῦ καὶ καταφάγῃ τὰς κέδρους τοῦ Λιβάνου. καὶ νῦν εἰ ἐν ἀληθείᾳ καὶ ὁσιότητι ἐποιήσατε μετὰ τοῦ πατρός μου καὶ μετὰ τοῦ οἴκου αὐτοῦ καὶ ἐβασιλεύσατε τὸν Ἀβιμέλεχ υἱὸν τῆς παιδίσκης αὐτοῦ ἐπὶ τοὺς ἄνδρας Σικίμων, εὐφρανθείητε ἐν αὐτῷ, καὶ εὐφρανθείη καί γε αὐτὸς ἐν ὑμῖν: εἰ δὲ μὴ, ἐξέλθοι πῦρ ἐξ Ἀβιμέλεχ καὶ καταφάγοι τοὺς ἄρχοντας ὑμῶν καὶ τοὺς οἴκους αὐτῶν: καὶ ἐξέλθοι πῦρ ἐκ τῶν ἀνδρῶν Σικίμων καὶ καταφάγοι τὸν Ἀβιμέλεχ. καὶ ἀπέδρα Ἰωάθαμ ἀπὸ προσώπου Ἀβιμέλεχ ἀδελφοῦ αὐτοῦ. ὁ δὲ Ἀβιμέλεχ ἦρξεν ἐπὶ τὸν Ἰσραὴλ ἔτη τρία. καὶ ἐξαπέστειλεν ὁ θεὸς πνεῦμα πονηρὸν ἀνὰ μέσον Ἀβιμέλεχ καὶ ἀνὰ μέσον ἀνδρῶν Σικίμων. καὶ ἠθέτησαν οἱ ἄνδρες Σικίμων ἐν τῷ οἴκῳ Ἀβιμέλεχ τοῦ ἐπαγαγεῖν ἀδικίαν καὶ τὸ αἷμα τῶν ο# υἱῶν Γεδεὼν ἐπὶ τὴν κεφαλὴν Ἀβιμέλεχ. καὶ γὰρ ἀπελθὼν πολεμῆσαι πύργον καὶ προσεγγίσας τῇ θύρᾳ τοῦ πύργου ἐμπρῆσαι αὐτὴν, ἔρριψε γυνὴ κλάσμα μύλου ἐπὶ τὴν κεφαλὴν αὐτοῦ καὶ συνέτριψε τὸ κράνιον αὐτοῦ. καὶ ἐπιβοήσας ταχὺ εἶπε πρὸς τὸν αἴροντα αὐτοῦ τὰ σκεύη: σπάσον τὴν ῥομφαίαν σου καὶ θανάτωσόν με, μή ποτε εἴπωσιν: γυνὴ αὐτὸν ἀπέκτεινε. καὶ κεντῆσαν αὐτὸν τὸ παιδάριον ἀνεῖλε. καὶ ἐπέστρεψεν ὁ θεὸς τὴν πονηρίαν Ἀβιμέλεχ, ἣν ἐποίησε τῷ πατρὶ αὐτοῦ ἀποκτείνας τοὺς ο# ἀδελφοὺς αὐτοῦ. καὶ πᾶσαν τὴν πονηρίαν ἀνδρῶν Σικίμων ἐπέστρεψεν ὁ θεὸς εἰς τὴν κεφαλὴν αὐτῶν κατὰ τὸν λόγον καὶ τὴν παροιμίαν Ἰωάθαμ.
Notes:
Source for the main paragraph (after the initial gloss): George the Monk, Chronicon 148.2-149.20.
[1] Hebrew: אבימלך "my father is king." Used derogatorily and incessantly (31 times) throughout the Abimelech episode in Judges 9 (Boling, NSRV at Judges 9:1).
[2] Literally, "by his wives." The use of ἐλευθέρων here indicates "married women/wives" (see L-S-J). The Massoretic Text (MT) (Judges 8:30; Kohlenberger, Vol. 2, 101) shows נשים našīm, which here means "wives" (Brown, Driver, Briggs {BDB}, 61). The term is to be distinguished from that for Abimelech's mother — פלגש pilegeš "concubine" in the sense of a legitimate wife of secondary rank (Kohlenberger for the suffixed MT form; Boling, NRSV at Judges 8:31).
[3] Literally, "upon a single stone." MT: על אבן אחת ʿal ʾeḇen ʾeḥat (Judges 9:5). See Boling, Judges (Anchor), 171.5. A direct transference from the Hebrew to the LXX.
[4] (Cf. iota 478.) The Greek νεώτερου , comparative understood for the superlative (Smyth, 1082.a) from Hebrew הקטן haqqaton, the "young(est) one" (Judges 9:5).
[5] The Suda's πορεύομενα ἐπορεύθησαν parallels the MT at Judges 9:5 (but not the LXX, which singularizes the finite verb) in its fuller anthropomorphism via the plural finite verb. The participle plus finite verb mimics, but does not parallel, MT usage, which gives infinitive absolute plus finite verb (הלוך הלכו haloḵ halēḵū) (Kautzsch, 342 {113o(1)}; Boling, Judges (Anchor), 173.8). For this genre of fable, see also 2 Kings 14:9-10 and its shadow at 2 Chronicles 25:18-19. the motif bears only general resemblance to Aesop's frog fable. For related motifs, see the source summary in Brown (The New Jerome), 140; Boling, Judges (Anchor), 173.
[6] The Suda singularizes (ὁ θεός ), whereas the MT contains אלהים elohīm to be interpreted as "gods" — not "God." That the translation warrants a plural is supported by the antiquity of the original motif (Boling, Judges (Anchor), 173-74.15; 175.20). The plural is the norm in modern Bible translation.
[7] The standard translation of the MT אשר-בי יכבדו אלהים ואנשים ʾašer-bī yeḵaḇdū ʾelohīm waʾanašīm (Judges 9:9) and the Suda's ἣν...ἄνθρωποι is "by which/whereby gods and men are honored." The Hebrew syntax merits reevaluation. The Jotham parable is a poetic fable cast in prose (Boling, Judges (Anchor) 166, 172-73.8-15, 173.15; for an uncritical opposing view, see Brown (The New Jerome), 140). However, Boling (173.9) and others read the Pi'el active yeḵaḇdū ("ykbdw" in Boling) as a Niph'al passive (are honored). Boling also cites the "kbd" root as Niph'al reflexive in Exodus 14:4, perhaps intending an alternative (but unlikely) reading for Judges 9:9 as "gods and men honor themselves." This approach overlooks the fable's poetic form — a medium that allows the Pi'el to operate intransitively (Kautzsch, 142 {52k}). Relatedly, Kautzsch (Gesenius, in accord with T.K Cheyne) assigns Niph'al senses to Pi'el forms in the poetry of Isaiah 48:8 and 60:11, which just as easily may be read intransitively as "your ear has not opened (responded) [to new things]" and "your gates shall always stand open." In Judges 9:9, the intransitive result is "(by) which, through me, gods and men receive honor." The preposition "bi" (Greek: ἐν ἐμοὶ ), which in Boling's syntax is left "unexplained", provides an instrumental dative (BDB, 89, III.2): "through me." Boling asserts "bi" to be "a third-person suffix" without further discussion; BDB (citing George F. Moore) suggests the third-person "bo" (by/through it) for the "bi" form. Boling does cite the LXX Vaticanus reading "by it"; however, Vaticanus works a simplified solution: ἐν ἧι δοξάσουσι τὸν θεὸν ἄνδρες , "by which men shall honor God" (Brenton, 329). In a near parallel to the MT, the Suda records ἐδόξασεν for a Hebraicized-intransitive ἐδόξασαν (yeḵaḇdū): literally, "regarding which (oil), through my agency, God and men receive honor."
[8] The verb ὑπόστητε also carries the meaning "submit"; the Hebrew at Judges 9:15 (imperative hasū) carries only the sense "take refuge" (BDB, 340).
[9] The duplicated ἀνὰ μέσον is a Hebraism paralleling Judges 9:22 (בין אבימלך ובין בעלי שכם bēn ʾAḇimeleḵ uḇēn baʿalē šeḵem). See also the MT and LXX at Genesis 1:4. For model Greek syntax, see LXX Genesis 32:16 (Brenton, 43)— with the MT (Genesis 32:17) showing the duplicate pattern (Kohlenberger, Vol 1, 88).
[10] For ἀθετέω (deal treacherously), see Lust, Pt. I, 9.
[11] Literally, "to lay upon Abimelech's head his injustice and the blood of Gideon's seventy sons."
[12] For Abimelech's ill-fated siege of the Thebez tower, see Judges 9:50-57.
[13] The term παιδάριον reprises the MT נערו naʿarō (his servant or retainer) at Judges 9:54. Translations render the word as "armor bearer." Boling in his Judges (146.10; 182.54) prefers "squire."
[14] Literally, "turned about onto their head."
References:
Boling, R.G. Judges (The Anchor Bible). New York: Doubleday, 1975.
Boling, R.G. Judges in the Harper Collins Study Bible (NRSV). New York: Harper Collins, 1993.
Brenton, C.L.B. The Septuagint with Apocrypha. Peabody: Hendrickson, 1991 (reprint of 1851 ed.).
Brown, F. Driver, S.R., Briggs, C.A. A Hebrew and English Lexicon of the Old Testament. Oxford: Clarendon, 1951.
Brown, R.E. The New Jerome Biblical Commentary. New Jersey: Prentice Hall, 1990.
Kautzsch, E. Gesenius' Hebrew Grammar. Oxford: Clarendon, 1910.
Kohlenberger, J.R. The Interlinear NIV Hebrew-English Old Testament. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1987.
Lust, J. A Greek-English Lexicon of the Septuagint, Part I. Stuttgart: Deutsche Bibelgesellschaft, 1992.
Smyth, H.W. Greek Grammar. Cambridge: Harvard University, 1984.
Keywords: biography; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; gender and sexuality; history; military affairs; poetry; religion; women
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 22 August 1998@13:01:24.
Vetted by:
William Hutton (Cosmetics, added keywords, set status) on 27 January 2001@12:09:36.
Craig Miller (Modified translation, notes and bibliography to follow.) on 5 March 2002@09:51:09.
Craig Miller on 5 March 2002@12:40:52.
Craig Miller (Modified and expanded notes, expanded keywords. Bibliography pending.) on 5 March 2002@15:02:20.
Catharine Roth (corrected typos) on 5 March 2002@16:49:22.
Craig Miller on 5 March 2002@23:39:58.
Craig Miller (Bibliography added, cosmetics.) on 6 March 2002@07:38:16.
Craig Miller on 6 March 2002@12:49:31.
Craig Miller on 6 March 2002@14:59:18.
Craig Miller on 1 April 2002@19:33:02.
Raphael Finkel (Added Hebrew texts.) on 31 October 2002@10:19:01.
David Whitehead (added initial note; added x-ref; cosmetics) on 9 June 2003@07:55:20.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 7 August 2013@23:53:33.
Catharine Roth (cosmetics) on 8 August 2013@16:40:29.
Raphael Finkel (Converted Romanization of Hebrew to ISO 259.) on 7 August 2014@14:15:44.
David Whitehead (coding) on 15 August 2015@07:31:59.

Headword: Ἀβληχρήν
Adler number: alpha,58
Translated headword: feeble
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
[Meaning] weak. For what is strong [is] βληχρόν .[1]
Aelian [writes]: "so she brought her life to an end gently and with a calm and feeble death, such as even Homer seems to me to praise."[2]
Greek Original:
Ἀβληχρήν: ἀσθενῆ. βληχρὸν γὰρ τὸ ἰσχυρόν. Αἰλιανός: κατέστρεψεν οὖν τὸν βίον πράως τε καὶ σὺν γαλήνῃ καὶ ἀβληχρῷ θανάτῳ, ὅνπερ οὖν ἐπαινεῖν καὶ Ὅμηρος δοκεῖ μοι.
Notes:
The headword adjective is feminine accusative singular. It is extracted from Homer, Iliad 5.337, where it refers to Aphrodite's hand; cf. the scholia there.
[1] Same or similar glossing in other lexica (references at Photius alpha42 Theodoridis); and cf. beta 340. This seems to be an error, however: βληχρός is well attested as meaning "weak" by itself: see web address 1 for the LSJ entry. The lexica mistake the copulative alpha in the headword for an alpha privative.
[2] Aelian fr. 182d Domingo-Forasté (179 Hercher): cf. Homer, Odyssey 11.135 (web address 2 below). The preceding fragment, quoted at tau 596, shows that the subject is a woman.
Associated internet addresses:
Web address 1,
Web address 2
Keywords: biography; daily life; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; epic; ethics; poetry; women
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 26 August 1998@19:09:47.
Vetted by:
William Hutton (Added headword, modified translation and notes, added keywords, set status) on 30 January 2001@08:53:17.
Catharine Roth (cosmetics) on 4 September 2001@23:32:57.
David Whitehead (cosmetics) on 9 June 2003@08:00:49.
David Whitehead (typo) on 17 July 2003@03:43:18.
Jennifer Benedict (betacoding, cosmetics) on 24 March 2008@17:16:29.
David Whitehead (added primary note and more keywords; tweaks) on 19 December 2011@08:20:09.
Catharine Roth (upgraded link and reference) on 28 January 2012@18:52:16.
Catharine Roth (tweaks, cross-reference, keyword) on 14 October 2012@01:44:40.
David Whitehead on 16 August 2013@06:49:04.
David Whitehead (another x-ref) on 17 January 2014@04:03:02.

Headword: Ἀβούλως
Adler number: alpha,64
Translated headword: ill-advisedly
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
[Meaning] unthinkingly, ignorantly.[1]
A line [of verse]: "badly, ill-advisedly, unthinkingly, without reason."[2]
Greek Original:
Ἀβούλως: ἀφρόνως, ἀμαθῶς. στίχος: κακῶς, ἀβούλως, ἀφρόνως, ἄνευ λόγου.
Notes:
[1] Same glossing in other lexica (references at Photius alpha48 Theodoridis); and cf. generally alpha 60, alpha 63.
[2] An unidentifiable iambic trimeter, perhaps from tragedy.
Keywords: definition; ethics; meter and music; poetry; tragedy
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 26 August 1998@19:24:02.
Vetted by:
William Hutton (Modified headword, translation, augmented note and keywords, set status) on 30 January 2001@22:45:54.
David Whitehead (added note) on 23 April 2002@09:19:48.
David Whitehead (more keywords; cosmetics) on 15 August 2007@09:49:22.
David Whitehead (tweaks and cosmetics) on 19 December 2011@08:56:38.
David Whitehead on 16 August 2013@07:01:26.

Headword: Ἀβέλτερος νοῦς
Adler number: alpha,71
Translated headword: foolish mind
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
"[A foolish mind,] empty, naive, young."
Greek Original:
Ἀβέλτερος νοῦς, χαῦνος, εὐήθης, νέος.
Notes:
An iambic trimeter, unattributable to any particular author but regarded by Maas (BZ 28 (1928) 421) as coming from a comedy; now Kassel-Austin adespota fr. 915.
The entry is out of alphabetical order; cf. alpha 31, alpha 32, alpha 33.
Keywords: comedy; ethics; meter and music; poetry
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 26 August 1998@19:27:46.
Vetted by:
William Hutton (Cosmetics, keyword, set status) on 31 January 2001@12:52:43.
David Whitehead (rearranged headword and translation; added note; altered keyword) on 1 February 2001@03:30:55.
David Whitehead (internal reorganisation; augmented notes and keywords) on 19 December 2011@09:16:59.
David Whitehead (expanded note; another keyword) on 29 December 2014@03:01:59.
David Whitehead (my typo) on 2 April 2015@10:38:43.

Headword: Ἀβρόμιος
Adler number: alpha,84
Translated headword: Bromios-less, Bromius-less
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
[Meaning] without wine.
"If I escape through the wave of destructive fire, I tell you I will drink for one hundred suns from dewy streams, Bromios-less[1] and wine-less." In the Epigrams.[2]
Greek Original:
Ἀβρόμιος: χωρὶς οἴνου. ἢν ὀλοοῦ διὰ κῦμα φύγω πυρὸς, εἰς ἑκατόν σοι ἠελίους δροσερᾶν πίομαι ἐκ λιβάδων, ἀβρόμιος καὶ ἄοινος. ἐν Ἐπιγράμμασιν.
Notes:
The headword is presumably extracted from the epigram quoted, its only attestation outside lexicography.
[1] Bromios is a name frequently given to Dionysos (delta 1185): see beta 547.
[2] Greek Anthology 6.291.3-5 (author unknown), the vow of a wine-loving woman, should her fever break; cf. Gow and Page (vol. I, 74-77), mu 1022, and sigma 955. This epigram appears twice in the Anthologia Palatina (AP). In the first instance, it is attributed to Antipater of Thessalonica. But in the second instance (inserted after 9.164), and following redaction by the AP scribe designated C (the Corrector), it is noted to be ἀδέσποτον , anonymous (ibid. and vol. II, 100-101)
References:
A.S.F. Gow and D.L. Page, eds., The Greek Anthology: The Garland of Philip and Some Contemporary Epigrams, vol. I, (Cambridge, 1968)
A.S.F. Gow and D.L. Page, eds., The Greek Anthology: The Garland of Philip and Some Contemporary Epigrams, vol. II, (Cambridge, 1968)
Keywords: definition; ethics; food; imagery; medicine; poetry; religion; women
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 26 August 1998@19:37:23.
Vetted by:
William Hutton (Modified headword and translation, added note and keywords, set status) on 1 February 2001@09:40:10.
David Whitehead (modified headword; tweaked translation; x-refs; cosmetics) on 3 January 2005@10:37:13.
David Whitehead (more keywords; tweaks) on 20 December 2011@04:12:25.
Catharine Roth (cosmeticule) on 21 December 2011@01:49:18.
David Whitehead (expanded primary note; cosmetics) on 2 April 2015@11:06:04.
Ronald Allen (expanded n.2, added bibliography, added cross-references, added keywords) on 23 October 2018@18:32:39.
Ronald Allen (typo n.2 second cross-reference) on 23 October 2018@18:40:26.
Ronald Allen (corrected epigram attribution in n.2, added bibliography entry) on 29 October 2018@13:29:47.

Headword: Ἄβρομος
Adler number: alpha,85
Translated headword: noisy
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
A clamorous person.
Greek Original:
Ἄβρομος: ὁ θορυβώδης.
Notes:
Same entry, according to Adler, in the Ambrosian Lexicon (44).
The headword adjective is attested most commonly in the plural; see e.g. Homer, Iliad 13.41.
LSJ s.v. (web address 1 below) notes that the initial alpha of the word is sometimes (as here) copulative but can also (e.g. in Apollonius Rhodius) be privative, i.e. noiseless.
Associated internet address:
Web address 1
Keywords: definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; epic; poetry
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 26 August 1998@19:37:53.
Vetted by:
William Hutton (Modified translation, added note, link; set status) on 1 February 2001@09:43:42.
Jennifer Benedict (cosmeticule) on 25 March 2008@11:55:43.
David Whitehead (augmented note and keywords; cosmetics) on 26 March 2008@03:56:32.
David Whitehead (tweaks) on 20 December 2011@04:17:38.

Headword: Ἁβρός
Adler number: alpha,87
Translated headword: delicate
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
[Meaning] bright, delicate, tender.[1]
In the Epigrams: "a cicada sat above a cithara delicately murmuring."[2]
"All the same that fellow is dainty and delicate and weakened by the softness of his body and depraved and with his hair done up like the most licentious little courtesans. And when he goes in to see the king his face and his curly hair are always delicately dripping [with perfume], and he takes as much money from the communal difficulties as would satisfy even the legendary Midas."[3]
Greek Original:
Ἁβρός: λαμπρὸς, τρυφερὸς, ἁπαλός. ἐν Ἐπιγράμμασιν: ἁβρὸν ἐπιτρύζων κιθάρας ὕπερ ἕζετο τέττιξ. ὅμως δὲ ὁ τρυφερὸς ἐκεῖνος καὶ ἁβρὸς καὶ ὑπὸ μαλακίας τοῦ σώματος κατεαγὼς καὶ λελυγισμένος καὶ τάς τε κόμας ἀναδούμενος, ὥσπερ αἱ τῶν ἑταιρίδων ἀσελγέστεραι, καὶ ἁβροσταγὲς ἔχων ἀεὶ τὸ μέτωπον καὶ τοὺς βοστρύχους, λαβὼν χρυσίον ἐκ τῶν κοινῶν συμφορῶν, ὅσον ἱκανὸν ἦν ἐμπλῆσαι καὶ τὸν ἐκ τοῦ μύθου Μίδαν, εἰσέρρει πρὸς τὸν βασιλέα.
Notes:
For this adjective see already alpha alpha 73 and alpha 86, and again alpha 88.
[1] Same glossing in other lexica; references at Photius alpha55 Theodoridis.
[2] Greek Anthology 6.54.7 (Paulus Silentarius).
[3] Attributed by Hemsterhuys to Eunapius; again (in part) at alpha 1860.
Keywords: biography; clothing; daily life; definition; ethics; gender and sexuality; historiography; imagery; mythology; poetry; women; zoology
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 26 August 1998@19:39:27.
Vetted by:
William Hutton (Modified translation, cosmetics, augmented note, set keywords and status) on 2 February 2001@12:21:50.
David Whitehead (added note and keyword; cosmetics) on 9 February 2001@06:35:10.
David Whitehead (another keyword) on 3 January 2006@10:26:40.
David Whitehead (augmented notes and keywords; tweaks and cosmetics) on 21 December 2011@04:35:18.
Catharine Roth (cosmeticule) on 22 December 2011@19:16:16.
David Whitehead on 16 August 2013@07:18:56.
David Whitehead (another x-ref) on 17 January 2014@04:31:02.

Headword: Ἁβρὸς λειμὼν καὶ νοτερὸς καὶ εὐθαλής
Adler number: alpha,88
Translated headword: a meadow delicate and moist and flourishing
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
"All decked out as luxuriously as possible and in a manner that was amazing in terms of wealth, for someone, that is, who marvels at wealth."
Greek Original:
Ἁβρὸς λειμὼν καὶ νοτερὸς καὶ εὐθαλής. πάντας δὲ ὡς ἁβρότατά τε καὶ ἅμα ἐς ἔκπληξιν κατὰ πλοῦτον, τῷ γε δὴ πλοῦτον θαυμάζοντι, ἐσταλμένους.
Notes:
The precise relationship between the headword phrase -- a re-arranged version of part of Aelian fr. 126a Domingo-Forasté (123 Hercher), quoted in epsilon 3095 -- and the quotation which serves as its gloss is unclear, though the latter too has been suggested as coming from Aelian: so Adler at epsilon 3200. Adler regards the quotation here (lacking in ms S) as an interpolation from epsilon 3200.
The manuscripts and Photius read καινότερος "newer"; Markland (Jeremiah Markland, 1693–1776) emended to καὶ νοτερὸς by comparison with epsilon 3095.
Keywords: daily life; economics; ethics; geography; poetry
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 26 August 1998@19:40:06.
Vetted by:
William Hutton (Modified translation, added note, set keywords and status) on 2 February 2001@14:37:55.
David Whitehead (modified note; cosmetics) on 4 February 2001@06:10:47.
David Whitehead (another keyword) on 4 December 2005@08:32:15.
Catharine Roth (augmented note) on 28 April 2008@16:20:12.
Catharine Roth (augmented note) on 29 April 2008@11:53:20.
David Whitehead (more keywords; tweaks) on 21 December 2011@04:38:24.
Catharine Roth (updated reference) on 28 January 2012@19:07:49.

Headword: Ἁβροσύνη
Adler number: alpha,89
Translated headword: splendor
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
[Meaning] brightness.
Greek Original:
Ἁβροσύνη: φαιδρότης.
Notes:
The rare headword noun (also in other lexica, with the same gloss) is a poetic variant of ἁβρότης ; see LSJ s.v. Though it is attested in Sappho and elsewhere, its inclusion here seems to have been prompted by its occurrence in Euripides, Orestes 349 (so Latte on Hesychius s.v.); cf. the scholia there.
cf. generally alpha 86, alpha 87, alpha 88. For the glossing noun see also the gloss at pi 138.
Keywords: daily life; definition; poetry; tragedy
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 26 August 1998@19:40:49.
Vetted by:
William Hutton (Modified headword, cosmetics, set keywords & status) on 1 February 2001@21:30:02.
David Whitehead (x-refs) on 3 January 2005@10:39:54.
David Whitehead (another note; more keywords) on 21 December 2011@04:44:38.
David Whitehead (tweaked note) on 1 February 2012@05:40:54.
David Whitehead (another x-ref) on 4 April 2015@08:08:49.

Headword: Ἁβρότερον
Adler number: alpha,91
Translated headword: more delicately
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
"But they behaved more delicately than them and were full of Sybaris."
Greek Original:
Ἁβρότερον: ἀλλ' ἁβρότερον αὐτῶν εἶχον καὶ Συβάριδος μεστοὶ ἦσαν.
Notes:
Philostratus, Life of Apollonius of Tyana 4.27 (here illustrating the use of the neuter adjective as adverb; cf. already alpha 70).
See also alpha 86, alpha 87, alpha 88.
For the use of the toponym Sybaris in this way cf. sigma 1271, and see generally LSJ s.v. and OCD s.v.
Keywords: dialects, grammar, and etymology; ethics; geography; imagery; rhetoric
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 26 August 1998@19:42:22.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (modified headword and translation; augmented note; added keyword) on 2 February 2001@03:29:56.
Jennifer Benedict (added link) on 25 March 2008@11:58:23.
David Whitehead (more keywords; cosmetics) on 26 March 2008@03:58:52.
David Whitehead (x-refs; more keywords) on 21 December 2011@06:05:07.
Catharine Roth (deleted link) on 22 December 2011@19:21:32.

Headword: Ἀβρότη
Adler number: alpha,92
Translated headword: divine, holy
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
[sc. a term applied to] night.
Because it is deprived [a-] of people [brotoi].[1]
Greek Original:
Ἀβρότη: ἡ νύξ. παρὰ τὸ ἐστερῆσθαι βροτῶν.
Notes:
The headword occurs as an adjective describing night in Homer, Iliad 14.78 (web address 1). It recurs at Sophocles fr.269c 20 (of the darkness of death); and it is also a textual variant at (?)Aeschylus, Prometheus Bound 2 (applied to 'wilderness').
With the exception of this last instance (and contrary to the present entry), the word is best understood as a doublet for ἄμβροτος , 'immortal' (alpha 1540). See LSJ s.v. at web address 2.
[1] Addendum lacking, Adler reports, in mss AS.
Associated internet addresses:
Web address 1,
Web address 2
Keywords: definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; epic; poetry; tragedy
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 26 August 1998@19:42:56.
Vetted by:
Frederick Williams on 29 October 1999@10:41:02.
Frederick Williams on 29 October 1999@10:52:34.
Frederick Williams on 29 October 1999@11:14:00.
Elizabeth Vandiver on 16 November 1999@14:44:14.
William Hutton (Cosmetics, augmented note, set keywords and status) on 1 February 2001@22:28:35.
David Whitehead (added keywords; cosmetics) on 5 February 2003@09:56:18.
David Whitehead (tweaked hw; augmented notes; another keyword) on 21 December 2011@06:19:18.
Catharine Roth (upgraded link) on 22 December 2011@19:26:00.
David Whitehead (cosmetics) on 4 October 2015@10:37:09.

Headword: Ἁβροχίτων
Adler number: alpha,96
Translated headword: delicate-tunic'd
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
[Meaning someone] wearing delicate things.
Greek Original:
Ἁβροχίτων: τρυφερὰ φορῶν.
Note:
Same entry in other lexica; references at Photius alpha60 Theodoridis. The headword adjective bears this meaning in e.g. Greek Anthology 9.538; however, the word is first attested in Aeschylus, Persians 543, of beds (accusative plural: web address 1 below).
Associated internet address:
Web address 1
Keywords: clothing; daily life; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; poetry; tragedy
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 26 August 1998@19:45:35.
Vetted by:
William Hutton (Cosmetics, set keywords and status) on 1 February 2001@22:44:01.
David Whitehead (added note and keywords) on 27 February 2003@09:00:26.
Jennifer Benedict (added link, title tags) on 25 March 2008@12:02:09.
David Whitehead (expanded note; tweaks) on 21 December 2011@06:35:49.
David Whitehead on 16 August 2013@07:27:25.

Headword: Ἀγαθίας
Adler number: alpha,112
Translated headword: Agathias
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
A lawyer,[1] of Myrina;[2] the one who wrote the History as a continuation of Procopius of Caesarea,[3] [comprising] the affairs involving Belisarius[4] and the events in Italy and Libya; that is the affairs involving Narses[5] in Italy and the events in Lazike[6] and Byzantion. He also composed other books, both in meter and in prose, including the Daphniaka[7] and the Cycle of New Epigrams, which he compiled himself from the poets of his day. He was a contemporary of Paulus Silentiarius and of the consul Macedonius and of Tribonian[8] in the time of Justinian.[9]
Greek Original:
Ἀγαθίας: σχολαστικὸς, Μυριναῖος, ὁ γράψας τὴν μετὰ Προκόπιον ἱστορίαν τὸν Καισαρέα, τὰ κατὰ Βελισάριον καὶ τὰς ἐν Ἰταλίᾳ καὶ ἐν Λιβύῃ πράξεις, τουτέστι τὰ κατὰ Ναρσῆν ἐν Ἰταλίᾳ καὶ τὰ ἐν Λαζικῇ καὶ Βυζαντίῳ. οὗτος συνέταξε καὶ ἕτερα βιβλία ἔμμετρά τε καὶ καταλογάδην, τά τε καλούμενα Δαφνιακά, καὶ τὸν Κύκλον τῶν νέων Ἐπιγραμμάτων, ὃν αὐτὸς συνῆξεν ἐκ τῶν κατὰ καιρὸν ποιητῶν. συνήκμασε δὲ Παύλῳ τῷ Σελεντιαρίῳ καὶ Μακεδονίῳ τῷ ὑπάτῳ καὶ Τριβουνιανῷ ἐπὶ τῶν Ἰουστινιανοῦ χρόνων.
Notes:
c.532-c.580. See generally Averil Cameron in OCD(4) s.v. (p.35).
[1] See OCD s.v.
[2] a.k.a. Sebastopolis, in Aeolis (Asia Minor): Barrington Atlas map 56 grid D4.
[3] For Procopius see pi 2479. A's own work was in turn continued by Menander Protector (mu 591).
[4] See beta 233.
[5] See nu 42.
[6] An alternative name for Colchis (kappa 1979); present-day Georgia, between the Black and Caspian Seas.
[7] Amatory hexameters.
[8] tau 956, cf. tau 951.
[9] iota 446.
Keywords: biography; chronology; gender and sexuality; geography; historiography; law; poetry; religion
Translated by: William Hutton on 30 March 2001@15:08:59.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (added notes and keywords; cosmetics) on 24 April 2002@04:07:08.
David Whitehead (added note) on 3 November 2003@06:05:01.
David Whitehead (added x-ref; corrected a note number) on 3 August 2006@09:47:58.
David Whitehead (tweaked tr) on 18 May 2011@08:29:09.
David Whitehead (augmented notes and keywords) on 22 December 2011@04:42:12.
Philip Rance (modified translation) on 23 January 2012@07:57:14.
David Whitehead (updated a ref) on 29 July 2014@12:22:58.

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