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Headword: Ἀβέλτερος
Adler number: alpha,32
Translated headword: thoughtless
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
[Meaning] mindless, stupid. For the intelligent man [is] βέλτερος ["thoughtful, superior"].[1]
"No, by Zeus, not the greedy and thoughtless fellow, but the mindless and conceitedly slow-witted."[2] Menander in Perinthia [writes]: "any servant who takes an idle and easy master and deceives him does not know what a great accomplishment it is to make a greater fool of one who is already thoughtless".[3] They also call ἀβελτηρία ["thoughtlessness"] an ἀβελτήριον ["thoughtless thing"]. Anaxandrides in Helen[4] [writes]: "[A:] an anchor, a little boat, - call it what vessel you want. [B:] O Heracles of the sacred precinct of thoughtlessness. [A:] But one could not estimate its size."
Also [sc. attested is] ἀβελτηρία , [meaning] stupidity.
Or mindlessness.
Menander [writes]: "their mind drove them to such thoughtlessness that they prayed for victory over each other rather than over the enemy."[5]
Greek Original:
Ἀβέλτερος: ἀνόητος, ἀσύνετος. βέλτερος γὰρ ὁ φρόνιμος. οὐ μὰ Δί' οὐχ ὁ πλεονέκτης καὶ ἀγνώμων, ἀλλ' ὁ ἀνόητος καὶ εὐήθης μετὰ χαυνότητος. Μένανδρος Περινθίᾳ: ὅστις παραλαβὼν δεσπότην ἀπράγμονα καὶ κοῦφον ἐξαπατᾷ θεράπων, οὐκ οἶδ' ὅ τι οὗτος μεγαλεῖόν ἐστι διαπεπραγμένος, ἐπαβελτερώσας τόν ποτε ἀβέλτερον. λέγουσι δὲ καὶ ἀβελτήριον τὴν ἀβελτηρίαν. Ἀλεξανδρίδης Ἑλένῃ: ἄγκυρα, λέμβος, σκεῦος ὅ τι βούλει λέγε. ὦ Ἡράκλεις ἀβελτηρίου τεμενικοῦ. ἀλλ' οὐδ' ἂν εἰπεῖν τὸ μέγεθος δύναιτό τις. καὶ Ἀβελτηρία, ἡ ἀφροσύνη. ἢ ἀνοησία. Μένανδρος: εἰς τοῦτο δὲ ἀβελτηρίας ἤλασεν αὐτοῖς ὁ νοῦς, ὥστε θάτερον μέρος τὴν κατὰ θατέρου μᾶλλον ἢ τὴν κατὰ τῶν πολεμίων εὔχεσθαι νίκην.
Notes:
On this headword, a comic formation literally meaning non-superior, see generally LSJ s.v. (web address 1 below); and cf. alpha 31, alpha 33.
[1] These glosses are paralleled in a variety of other lexica (and in the scholia to Aristophanes, Clouds 1201 and Ecclesiazusae 768).
[2] Quotation (an illustration of the first of the glossing words, not the headword) unidentifiable; also in Photius and Aelius Dionysius.
[3] Menander fr. 393 Kock.
[4] Anaxandrides [see generally alpha 1982] fr. 12 Kock (and K.-A.). But note that Adler prints the manuscript reading "Alexandrides", on the strength of the (apparent) mention of such a playwright in alpha 3824. On the emendation to Anaxandrides, see Toup vol. 1 p. 9; Adler attributes the emendation to 'Iunius' (probably Adriaan de Jonghe, 1511-1575, author of a Greek/Latin Lexicon).
[5] Not M. the comic poet, quoted above, but the C6 CE historian Menander Protector [mu 591]: his fr. 28 Blockley.
Reference:
Toup, Jonathan, and Richard Porson. Emendationes in Suidam Et Hesychium, Et Alios Lexicographos Graecos. Oxford 1790
Associated internet address:
Web address 1
Keywords: comedy; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; ethics; historiography; history; military affairs; religion
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 25 August 1998@19:02:21.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (augmented notes; added keywords; cosmetics) on 9 February 2001@05:52:19.
Jennifer Benedict (betacoding) on 23 March 2008@13:05:56.
David Whitehead (modified headword; augmented notes and keywords; tweaks and cosmetics) on 24 March 2008@04:34:27.
Jennifer Benedict (added link) on 25 March 2008@11:17:06.
Catharine Roth (fixed note number, augmented note, added bibliography, tweaked link) on 15 May 2008@15:34:15.
David Whitehead (typo) on 16 May 2008@07:55:44.
Catharine Roth (augmented note) on 20 May 2008@11:50:13.
David Whitehead (tweaks) on 16 December 2011@05:38:00.
David Whitehead (updated a reference; cosmetics) on 3 January 2012@04:21:06.
David Whitehead (updated a ref) on 22 December 2014@04:27:32.
David Whitehead (tweaks and cosmetics) on 2 April 2015@09:15:50.

Headword: Ἀβεσαλώμ
Adler number: alpha,35
Translated headword: Abesalom, Absalom
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
Proper name.[1]
[The man] who rose up against his own father David and was destroyed by him in the war.[2]
Greek Original:
Ἀβεσαλώμ: ὄνομα κύριον. ὃς τοῦ ἰδίου πατρὸς Δαβὶδ κατεξανέστη καὶ ἀνῃρέθη ὑπ' αὐτοῦ ἐν τῷ πολέμῳ.
Notes:
[1] So too, according to Adler, in the Ambrosian Lexicon.
[2] See generally 2 Samuel 15-18 LXX.
Keywords: biography; children; definition; ethics; history; military affairs; religion
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 26 August 1998@18:50:03.
Vetted by:
Catharine Roth (Added keywords.) on 30 July 2000@22:45:00.
David Whitehead (added keywords; cosmetics) on 9 June 2003@07:27:13.
David Whitehead on 1 August 2011@07:34:26.
David Whitehead (augmented notes; another keyword) on 19 December 2011@06:57:32.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 7 August 2013@23:28:44.
David Whitehead (coding) on 15 August 2015@07:26:43.

Headword: Ἀβίας
Adler number: alpha,42
Translated headword: Abijah, Abias
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
Son of Rehoboam the son of Solomon. He fought against Jeroboam, Solomon's slave, and in one day killed 1500 powerful men.
Greek Original:
Ἀβίας: υἱὸς Ῥοβοὰμ, τοῦ υἱοῦ Σολομῶντος, ὃς ἐπολέμησεν Ἱεροβοὰμ τῷ δούλῳ Σολομῶντος καὶ ἐν μιᾷ ἡμέρᾳ ἀνεῖλεν ἄνδρας δυνατοὺς #22αφ#.
Notes:
2 Chronicles 13; cf. 1 Kings 1-8.
See also alpha 39, Ἀβιά , a different transliteration of the name, but clearly the same figure.
Keywords: biography; definition; military affairs; religion
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 26 August 1998@18:56:51.
Vetted by:
William Hutton (Added headword, set status) on 28 January 2001@20:41:59.
David Whitehead (augmented keywords) on 27 February 2003@08:35:59.
Jennifer Benedict (expanded note and added x-ref) on 23 March 2008@14:18:15.
Catharine Roth (tweaked betacode) on 24 March 2008@00:11:04.
David Whitehead on 19 December 2011@07:07:21.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 7 August 2013@23:39:02.

Headword: Ἀβιμέλεχ
Adler number: alpha,45
Translated headword: Abimelech
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
Proper name.[1]
The son of Gideon.[2] He smote his brothers, seventy sons of Gideon's wives,[3] upon a single stone, and none of them was left except Jotham the youngest son,[4] who ran away. As Abimelech was passing through with his people, Jotham went up to the top of the mountain and, raising his voice, told the following parable. "Listen to me, men of Shechem, and God will listen to you. The trees set out[5] to anoint a king over themselves. And they said to the olive, 'Rule over us.' And the olive said to them, 'Should I give up my rich oil, by which -- through me -- God[6] and men receive honor,[7] and go rule over trees?' Then the trees said to the fig, 'Come, rule over us.' And the fig said to them, 'Should I give up my sweetness, my excellent product, and go to rule over the trees?' And the trees said to the vine, 'Come, rule over us.' And the vine said to them, 'Should I give up my wine, merriment for men, and go to rule over the trees?' And all the trees said to the thornbush, 'Come, you rule over us.' And the thornbush said to the trees, 'If you are truly anointing me to rule over you, come stand under[8] my shade. But if not, may fire come from me and consume the cedars of Lebanon.' Now, if you have dealt with my father and his family truthfully and in an upright way, and have made his concubine's son Abimelech king over the men of Shechem, then may you rejoice in him and may he indeed rejoice in you. But if not, may fire issue from Abimelech and consume your leaders and their families. And may fire issue from the men of Shechem and consume Abimelech." And Jotham ran from the presence of Abimelech his brother. But Abimelech ruled over Israel for three years. Then God sent an evil spirit between[9] Abimelech and the men of Shechem. And the men of Shechem dealt treacherously[10] with the house of Abimelech so to lay at Abimelech's feet[11] the blood of Gideon's seventy sons. And so Abimilech set out to beseige the tower.[12] As he approached the tower gate to burn it, a woman threw a piece of a millstone onto his head and crushed his skull. He at once called out to his armor bearer[13], saying, "Draw your sword and kill me, so they can never say I was killed by a woman." So the young man took up his sword and ran him through. And God recompensed the wickedness Abimelech had done to his father in killing his seventy brothers. God also recompensed[14] all the wickedness of the men of Shechem, in accord with the message and parable of Jotham.
Greek Original:
Ἀβιμέλεχ: ὄνομα κύριον. υἱὸς Γεδεών. οὗτος ἐπάταξε τοὺς ἀδελφοὺς αὐτοῦ ἐκ τῶν ἐλευθέρων ἄνδρας ἐβδομήκοντα ἐπὶ λίθον ἕνα, ἐξ ὧν οὐκ ἀπελείφθη πλὴν Ἰωάθαμ τοῦ νεωτέρου διαδράντος. ὃς καὶ παραπορευομένου τοῦ Ἀβιμέλεχ μετὰ τοῦ λαοῦ ἀνῆλθεν ἐπὶ τὴν κορυφὴν τοῦ ὄρους, καὶ ἐπάρας τὴν φωνὴν αὐτοῦ ἔφη πρὸς αὐτοὺς παραβολὴν τοιαύτην. ἀκούσατέ μου, ἄνδρες Σικίμων, καὶ ἀκούσει ὑμῶν ὁ θεός. πορευόμενα ἐπορεύθησαν τὰ ξύλα τοῦ χρίσαι βασιλέα ἐφ' ἑαυτῶν. καὶ εἶπαν τῇ ἐλαίᾳ: βασίλευσον ἐφ' ἡμῶν. καὶ εἶπεν αὐτοῖς ἡ ἐλαία: ἀφεῖσα τὴν πιότητά μου, ἣν ἐδόξασεν ἐν ἐμοὶ ὁ θεὸς καὶ οἱ ἄνθρωποι, πορευθῶ ἄρχειν τῶν ξύλων; καὶ εἶπον τὰ ξύλα τῇ συκῇ: δεῦρο, βασίλευσον ἐφ' ἡμᾶς. καὶ εἶπεν αὐτοῖς ἡ συκῆ: ἀφεῖσα τὴν γλυκύτητά μου καὶ τὸ γέννημά μου τὸ ἀγαθὸν πορευθῶ ἄρχειν τῶν ξύλων; καὶ εἶπον τὰ ξύλα πρὸς τὴν ἄμπελον: δεῦρο, βασίλευσον ἐφ' ἡμῶν. καὶ εἶπεν αὐτοῖς ἡ ἄμπελος: ἀφεῖσα τὸν οἶνόν μου καὶ τὴν εὐφροσύνην τῶν ἀνθρώπων πορευθῶ ἄρχειν τῶν ξύλων; καὶ εἶπον πάντα τὰ ξύλα τῇ ῥάμνῳ: δεῦρο, σὺ βασίλευσον ἐφ' ἡμᾶς. καὶ εἶπεν ἡ ῥάμνος πρὸς τὰ ξύλα: εἰ ἐν ἀληθείᾳ χρίετέ με ὑμεῖς τοῦ βασιλεύειν ἐφ' ὑμᾶς, δεῦτε, ὑποστῆτε ἐν τῇ σκιᾷ μου, καὶ εἰ μὴ, ἐξέλθοι πῦρ ἀπ' ἐμοῦ καὶ καταφάγῃ τὰς κέδρους τοῦ Λιβάνου. καὶ νῦν εἰ ἐν ἀληθείᾳ καὶ ὁσιότητι ἐποιήσατε μετὰ τοῦ πατρός μου καὶ μετὰ τοῦ οἴκου αὐτοῦ καὶ ἐβασιλεύσατε τὸν Ἀβιμέλεχ υἱὸν τῆς παιδίσκης αὐτοῦ ἐπὶ τοὺς ἄνδρας Σικίμων, εὐφρανθείητε ἐν αὐτῷ, καὶ εὐφρανθείη καί γε αὐτὸς ἐν ὑμῖν: εἰ δὲ μὴ, ἐξέλθοι πῦρ ἐξ Ἀβιμέλεχ καὶ καταφάγοι τοὺς ἄρχοντας ὑμῶν καὶ τοὺς οἴκους αὐτῶν: καὶ ἐξέλθοι πῦρ ἐκ τῶν ἀνδρῶν Σικίμων καὶ καταφάγοι τὸν Ἀβιμέλεχ. καὶ ἀπέδρα Ἰωάθαμ ἀπὸ προσώπου Ἀβιμέλεχ ἀδελφοῦ αὐτοῦ. ὁ δὲ Ἀβιμέλεχ ἦρξεν ἐπὶ τὸν Ἰσραὴλ ἔτη τρία. καὶ ἐξαπέστειλεν ὁ θεὸς πνεῦμα πονηρὸν ἀνὰ μέσον Ἀβιμέλεχ καὶ ἀνὰ μέσον ἀνδρῶν Σικίμων. καὶ ἠθέτησαν οἱ ἄνδρες Σικίμων ἐν τῷ οἴκῳ Ἀβιμέλεχ τοῦ ἐπαγαγεῖν ἀδικίαν καὶ τὸ αἷμα τῶν ο# υἱῶν Γεδεὼν ἐπὶ τὴν κεφαλὴν Ἀβιμέλεχ. καὶ γὰρ ἀπελθὼν πολεμῆσαι πύργον καὶ προσεγγίσας τῇ θύρᾳ τοῦ πύργου ἐμπρῆσαι αὐτὴν, ἔρριψε γυνὴ κλάσμα μύλου ἐπὶ τὴν κεφαλὴν αὐτοῦ καὶ συνέτριψε τὸ κράνιον αὐτοῦ. καὶ ἐπιβοήσας ταχὺ εἶπε πρὸς τὸν αἴροντα αὐτοῦ τὰ σκεύη: σπάσον τὴν ῥομφαίαν σου καὶ θανάτωσόν με, μή ποτε εἴπωσιν: γυνὴ αὐτὸν ἀπέκτεινε. καὶ κεντῆσαν αὐτὸν τὸ παιδάριον ἀνεῖλε. καὶ ἐπέστρεψεν ὁ θεὸς τὴν πονηρίαν Ἀβιμέλεχ, ἣν ἐποίησε τῷ πατρὶ αὐτοῦ ἀποκτείνας τοὺς ο# ἀδελφοὺς αὐτοῦ. καὶ πᾶσαν τὴν πονηρίαν ἀνδρῶν Σικίμων ἐπέστρεψεν ὁ θεὸς εἰς τὴν κεφαλὴν αὐτῶν κατὰ τὸν λόγον καὶ τὴν παροιμίαν Ἰωάθαμ.
Notes:
Source for the main paragraph (after the initial gloss): George the Monk, Chronicon 148.2-149.20.
[1] Hebrew: אבימלך "my father is king." Used derogatorily and incessantly (31 times) throughout the Abimelech episode in Judges 9 (Boling, NSRV at Judges 9:1).
[2] Literally, "by his wives." The use of ἐλευθέρων here indicates "married women/wives" (see L-S-J). The Massoretic Text (MT) (Judges 8:30; Kohlenberger, Vol. 2, 101) shows נשים našīm, which here means "wives" (Brown, Driver, Briggs {BDB}, 61). The term is to be distinguished from that for Abimelech's mother — פלגש pilegeš "concubine" in the sense of a legitimate wife of secondary rank (Kohlenberger for the suffixed MT form; Boling, NRSV at Judges 8:31).
[3] Literally, "upon a single stone." MT: על אבן אחת ʿal ʾeḇen ʾeḥat (Judges 9:5). See Boling, Judges (Anchor), 171.5. A direct transference from the Hebrew to the LXX.
[4] (Cf. iota 478.) The Greek νεώτερου , comparative understood for the superlative (Smyth, 1082.a) from Hebrew הקטן haqqaton, the "young(est) one" (Judges 9:5).
[5] The Suda's πορεύομενα ἐπορεύθησαν parallels the MT at Judges 9:5 (but not the LXX, which singularizes the finite verb) in its fuller anthropomorphism via the plural finite verb. The participle plus finite verb mimics, but does not parallel, MT usage, which gives infinitive absolute plus finite verb (הלוך הלכו haloḵ halēḵū) (Kautzsch, 342 {113o(1)}; Boling, Judges (Anchor), 173.8). For this genre of fable, see also 2 Kings 14:9-10 and its shadow at 2 Chronicles 25:18-19. the motif bears only general resemblance to Aesop's frog fable. For related motifs, see the source summary in Brown (The New Jerome), 140; Boling, Judges (Anchor), 173.
[6] The Suda singularizes (ὁ θεός ), whereas the MT contains אלהים elohīm to be interpreted as "gods" — not "God." That the translation warrants a plural is supported by the antiquity of the original motif (Boling, Judges (Anchor), 173-74.15; 175.20). The plural is the norm in modern Bible translation.
[7] The standard translation of the MT אשר-בי יכבדו אלהים ואנשים ʾašer-bī yeḵaḇdū ʾelohīm waʾanašīm (Judges 9:9) and the Suda's ἣν...ἄνθρωποι is "by which/whereby gods and men are honored." The Hebrew syntax merits reevaluation. The Jotham parable is a poetic fable cast in prose (Boling, Judges (Anchor) 166, 172-73.8-15, 173.15; for an uncritical opposing view, see Brown (The New Jerome), 140). However, Boling (173.9) and others read the Pi'el active yeḵaḇdū ("ykbdw" in Boling) as a Niph'al passive (are honored). Boling also cites the "kbd" root as Niph'al reflexive in Exodus 14:4, perhaps intending an alternative (but unlikely) reading for Judges 9:9 as "gods and men honor themselves." This approach overlooks the fable's poetic form — a medium that allows the Pi'el to operate intransitively (Kautzsch, 142 {52k}). Relatedly, Kautzsch (Gesenius, in accord with T.K Cheyne) assigns Niph'al senses to Pi'el forms in the poetry of Isaiah 48:8 and 60:11, which just as easily may be read intransitively as "your ear has not opened (responded) [to new things]" and "your gates shall always stand open." In Judges 9:9, the intransitive result is "(by) which, through me, gods and men receive honor." The preposition "bi" (Greek: ἐν ἐμοὶ ), which in Boling's syntax is left "unexplained", provides an instrumental dative (BDB, 89, III.2): "through me." Boling asserts "bi" to be "a third-person suffix" without further discussion; BDB (citing George F. Moore) suggests the third-person "bo" (by/through it) for the "bi" form. Boling does cite the LXX Vaticanus reading "by it"; however, Vaticanus works a simplified solution: ἐν ἧι δοξάσουσι τὸν θεὸν ἄνδρες , "by which men shall honor God" (Brenton, 329). In a near parallel to the MT, the Suda records ἐδόξασεν for a Hebraicized-intransitive ἐδόξασαν (yeḵaḇdū): literally, "regarding which (oil), through my agency, God and men receive honor."
[8] The verb ὑπόστητε also carries the meaning "submit"; the Hebrew at Judges 9:15 (imperative hasū) carries only the sense "take refuge" (BDB, 340).
[9] The duplicated ἀνὰ μέσον is a Hebraism paralleling Judges 9:22 (בין אבימלך ובין בעלי שכם bēn ʾAḇimeleḵ uḇēn baʿalē šeḵem). See also the MT and LXX at Genesis 1:4. For model Greek syntax, see LXX Genesis 32:16 (Brenton, 43)— with the MT (Genesis 32:17) showing the duplicate pattern (Kohlenberger, Vol 1, 88).
[10] For ἀθετέω (deal treacherously), see Lust, Pt. I, 9.
[11] Literally, "to lay upon Abimelech's head his injustice and the blood of Gideon's seventy sons."
[12] For Abimelech's ill-fated siege of the Thebez tower, see Judges 9:50-57.
[13] The term παιδάριον reprises the MT נערו naʿarō (his servant or retainer) at Judges 9:54. Translations render the word as "armor bearer." Boling in his Judges (146.10; 182.54) prefers "squire."
[14] Literally, "turned about onto their head."
References:
Boling, R.G. Judges (The Anchor Bible). New York: Doubleday, 1975.
Boling, R.G. Judges in the Harper Collins Study Bible (NRSV). New York: Harper Collins, 1993.
Brenton, C.L.B. The Septuagint with Apocrypha. Peabody: Hendrickson, 1991 (reprint of 1851 ed.).
Brown, F. Driver, S.R., Briggs, C.A. A Hebrew and English Lexicon of the Old Testament. Oxford: Clarendon, 1951.
Brown, R.E. The New Jerome Biblical Commentary. New Jersey: Prentice Hall, 1990.
Kautzsch, E. Gesenius' Hebrew Grammar. Oxford: Clarendon, 1910.
Kohlenberger, J.R. The Interlinear NIV Hebrew-English Old Testament. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1987.
Lust, J. A Greek-English Lexicon of the Septuagint, Part I. Stuttgart: Deutsche Bibelgesellschaft, 1992.
Smyth, H.W. Greek Grammar. Cambridge: Harvard University, 1984.
Keywords: biography; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; gender and sexuality; history; military affairs; poetry; religion; women
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 22 August 1998@13:01:24.
Vetted by:
William Hutton (Cosmetics, added keywords, set status) on 27 January 2001@12:09:36.
Craig Miller (Modified translation, notes and bibliography to follow.) on 5 March 2002@09:51:09.
Craig Miller on 5 March 2002@12:40:52.
Craig Miller (Modified and expanded notes, expanded keywords. Bibliography pending.) on 5 March 2002@15:02:20.
Catharine Roth (corrected typos) on 5 March 2002@16:49:22.
Craig Miller on 5 March 2002@23:39:58.
Craig Miller (Bibliography added, cosmetics.) on 6 March 2002@07:38:16.
Craig Miller on 6 March 2002@12:49:31.
Craig Miller on 6 March 2002@14:59:18.
Craig Miller on 1 April 2002@19:33:02.
Raphael Finkel (Added Hebrew texts.) on 31 October 2002@10:19:01.
David Whitehead (added initial note; added x-ref; cosmetics) on 9 June 2003@07:55:20.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 7 August 2013@23:53:33.
Catharine Roth (cosmetics) on 8 August 2013@16:40:29.
Raphael Finkel (Converted Romanization of Hebrew to ISO 259.) on 7 August 2014@14:15:44.
David Whitehead (coding) on 15 August 2015@07:31:59.

Headword: Ἀβλῆτα
Adler number: alpha,57
Translated headword: unshot, unthrown
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
[Referring to] projectiles, ones that have not been dispatched with a view to wounding.[1]
Also [sc. attested is the phrase] 'unshot arrow': the one badly shot or the one not yet shot. Declines ἀβλὴς , [genitive] ἀβλῆτος .[2]
Greek Original:
Ἀβλῆτα: βέλη, τὰ μὴ πεμφθέντα εἰς τρῶσιν. καὶ ἀβλῆτα ὀϊστὸν, τὸν κακόβλητον ἢ τὸν μήπω βεβλημένον. κλίνεται δὲ ἀβλὴς, ἀβλῆτος.
Notes:
[1] Here the headword adjective is glossed as if it were a neuter plural, but see next note.
[2] cf. the scholia to Homer, Iliad 4.117-118, where this accusative singular phrase occurs, albeit with other words intervening (web address 1 below).
Associated internet address:
Web address 1
Keywords: definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; epic; medicine; military affairs
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 26 August 1998@19:08:39.
Vetted by:
William Hutton (Added headword, modified translation, keyword, raised status) on 30 January 2001@08:35:45.
David Whitehead (added note and keywords; cosmetics) on 23 April 2002@09:07:46.
Jennifer Benedict (betacoding, added link) on 24 March 2008@17:14:36.
David Whitehead (augmented and modified notes; cosmetics) on 25 March 2008@05:00:13.
David Whitehead (tweaks) on 19 December 2011@08:10:13.
David Whitehead (another keyword; tweaks) on 2 April 2015@10:27:20.
Catharine Roth (cosmeticule) on 26 May 2019@00:45:21.

Headword: Ἀβρέας
Adler number: alpha,74
Translated headword: Abreas
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
Proper name.
Greek Original:
Ἀβρέας: ὄνομα κύριον.
Note:
That of a "double-pay" soldier in Arrian, Anabasis 6.9-10.
Keywords: biography; definition; economics; historiography; history; military affairs
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 26 August 1998@19:29:50.
Vetted by:
William Hutton (Added headword, cosmetics, set status) on 31 January 2001@13:02:23.
David Whitehead (added note and keywords) on 24 April 2002@03:26:41.
David Whitehead on 1 August 2011@07:43:43.
David Whitehead on 19 December 2011@09:27:40.

Headword: Ἀβριόρηξ
Adler number: alpha,80
Translated headword: Abriorex, Abriorix
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
Proper name.
Greek Original:
Ἀβριόρηξ: ὄνομα κύριον.
Note:
Attested only here and, according to Adler, in the Ambrosian Lexicon in this form ending eta-xi; nevertheless this is surely Abriorix (a.k.a. Ambiorix), leader of the Gallic Eburones against Julius Caesar in 54-53 BCE.
Keywords: biography; definition; geography; historiography; history; military affairs
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 26 August 1998@19:34:00.
Vetted by:
William Hutton (Added headword, set keyword and status) on 31 January 2001@13:24:23.
David Whitehead (modified headword; added keyword) on 1 February 2001@03:55:16.
David Whitehead (note) on 19 July 2011@09:00:27.
David Whitehead (expanded note) on 19 December 2011@09:57:15.
David Whitehead (augmented note and keywords) on 2 April 2015@11:00:30.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 7 May 2015@00:19:45.

Headword: Ἀβρογάστης
Adler number: alpha,81
Translated headword: Abrogastes, Arbogast
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
A Frank, who was fierce as flame from[1] strength of body and ruggedness of spirit; by happenstance second in rank to Baudo.[2] He was especially solid and complete in regard to self-control and made war on money, giving no quarter--for[3] he was no different from the common soldiers in terms of wealth at least. For this reason he seemed useful to the emperor Theodosius,[4] since he added to the manly and just manner of Valentinian[5] his own gravity, as a just and unswerving standard for the palace, not to do harm or wrong in any matters of the court.
Greek Original:
Ἀβρογάστης: Φράγγος, ὃς κατὰ ἀλκὴν σώματος καὶ θυμοῦ τραχύτητα φλογοειδὴς ἦν, δευτεραγωνιστὴς τυγχάνων Βαύδωνος. ἄλλως τε ἦν καὶ πρὸς σωφροσύνην πεπηγώς τε καὶ διηρθρωμένος καὶ πρὸς χρήματα πόλεμον πολεμῶν ἄσπονδον. διέφερε γοῦν τῶν εὐτελῶν στρατιωτῶν ὅσον γε εἰς πλοῦτον οὐδέν. καὶ διὰ τοῦτο ἐδόκει τῷ βασιλεῖ Θεοδοσίῳ χρήσιμος, ὅς γε πρὸς τὸν Οὐαλεντινιανοῦ τρόπον ἀρρενωπὸν ὄντα καὶ δίκαιον, καὶ τὸ παρ' ἑαυτοῦ βάρος ἐπετίθει, καθάπερ ὀρθὸν καὶ ἀστραβῆ τὸν κάνονα τοῖς βασιλείοις, πρὸς τὸ μηδὲν τῶν περὶ τὴν αὐλὴν παραβλάπτεσθαι ἢ ἁμαρτάνεσθαι.
Notes:
This entry -- which has been tentatively identified as a fragment (no.53 FHG; Blockley, Eunapius fr. 58.[1]) of the sophist and historian Eunapius of Sardis -- concerns the Frankish general Flavius Arbogastes (died 394). (The present headword 'Abrogastes' is a rare variant of, or error for, the name.)
[1] Causal κατά (LSJ s.v. IV).
[2] His predecessor (and, allegedly, father) Flavius Bauto.
[3] "Part proof" γοῦν (Denniston, p. 451).
[4] theta 144.
[5] omicron 762.
References:
Banchich, T.M. "Eunapius, Eustathius, and the Suda." AJP 109 (1988) 223-225
Blockley, R.C. The Fragmentary Classicising Historians of the Later Roman Empire: Eunapius, Olympiodorus, Priscus and Malchus. Vol. II. Liverpool: Francis Cairns, 1983.
Denniston, J.D. The Greek Particles. Second Edition. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1954.
Keywords: biography; economics; ethics; geography; historiography; history; medicine; military affairs
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 26 August 1998@19:34:42.
Vetted by:
William Hutton (Added headword, modified translation, added keywords, set status) on 31 January 2001@16:29:34.
David Whitehead (added note and keyword; cosmetics) on 1 February 2001@04:13:55.
David Whitehead (another keyword) on 28 November 2005@08:20:03.
David Whitehead (tweaks to tr; augmented notes and keywords) on 20 December 2011@03:53:50.
Aaron Baker (Modified translation; added grammatical notes; added Blockly cite; added bibliography.) on 3 June 2015@22:23:43.
Aaron Baker (Added period after "Bauto.") on 3 June 2015@22:25:43.
Catharine Roth (coded Greek) on 3 June 2015@23:24:46.
Catharine Roth (added bibliography) on 27 January 2016@22:44:10.

Headword: Ἁβροδιαίτῃ
Adler number: alpha,82
Translated headword: with luxurious living
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
[Meaning] with a soft and dainty life.[1] Also [sc. attested is the related adjective] habrodiaitos: a softy, a soft-liver.[2]
"The lifestyle of the Romans [is] not inclined toward soft-living, especially since they are warlike and hard working."[3]
It also means someone living in affluence.
Also [sc. attested is] ἁβρότητι ["in luxury"]: [meaning] in softness, in daintiness.[4]
Greek Original:
Ἁβροδιαίτῃ: τρυφερᾷ ζωῇ καὶ ἁπαλῇ. καὶ Ἁβροδίαιτος: τρυφητὴς, τρυφερόβιος. τοῖς δὲ Ῥωμαίοις οὐκ ἐς τὸ ἁβροδίαιτον ὁ βίος: ἄλλως δὲ ὡς φιλοπόλεμοί τέ εἰσι καὶ φερέπονοι. σημαίνει δὲ καὶ τὸν πλουσίως ζῶντα. καὶ Ἁβρότητι: τρυφερότητι, ἁπαλότητι.
Notes:
[1] The primary headword -- a single word in the Greek (but described in LSJ s.v. as 'a faulty compound') -- and its glossing phrase are transmitted in the dative case here, but at Photius, Lexicon alpha52 Theodoridis, the editor prints them as nominatives.
[2] Same or similar material in other lexica.
[3] Menander Protector fr. 15.1 Blockley.
[4] Same material in other lexica; references at Photius alpha58 Theodoridis.
Keywords: daily life; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; economics; ethics; historiography; military affairs
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 26 August 1998@19:35:47.
Vetted by:
William Hutton (Altered translation, set keywords and status) on 31 January 2001@23:01:03.
David Whitehead (modified note; cosmetics) on 1 February 2001@04:17:21.
David Whitehead (supplemented translation; augmented notes and keywords; tweaks and cosmetics) on 20 December 2011@04:06:41.
David Whitehead on 20 December 2011@04:07:24.
David Whitehead (updated a reference) on 3 January 2012@04:22:20.
David Whitehead (tweaked notes) on 16 August 2013@07:16:19.

Headword: Ἁβροκόμας
Adler number: alpha,83
Translated headword: Abrokomas, Habrokomas, Abrocomas
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
This man was satrap[1] under Artaxerxes, king of the Persians.[2]
Greek Original:
Ἁβροκόμας: οὗτος σατράπης ἦν Ἀρταξέρξου τοῦ Περσῶν βασιλέως.
Notes:
From Harpokration (and Photius) s.v. The name has a smooth breathing (Abrokomas) there, as in Xenophon before them (below); in the Suda it is rough (Habrokomas).
[1] Provincial governor; see sigma 153 (and generally OCD(4) p.1321).
[2] There were several Persian kings of this name (see generally OCD(4) p.175), but probably Artaxerxes II (405/4-359/8) is meant; he had a general called Abrokomas, mentioned by Xenophon in the Anabasis.
Keywords: biography; chronology; dialects, grammar, and etymology; geography; historiography; history; military affairs; politics
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 26 August 1998@19:36:18.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (added headword, notes, keyword; cosmetics) on 29 September 2000@05:33:34.
William Hutton (Cosmetics) on 1 February 2001@00:51:03.
David Whitehead (augmented notes and keywords) on 19 July 2011@09:44:36.
Catharine Roth (cosmeticule) on 21 December 2011@01:44:30.
David Whitehead (updated 2 refs) on 29 July 2014@12:13:20.
David Whitehead (more keywords) on 2 April 2015@11:02:29.

Headword: Ἄβυσσον
Adler number: alpha,104
Translated headword: abyss
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
[Meaning] that which not even a deep [βυθός ] can contain; but Ionians pronounce βυθός as βυσσός .[1]
From which also βυσσοδομεύειν ["to build in the deep"] appears to be said,[2] from the verb δύνω ["I sink"] [meaning] I enter upon secretly, with a change [of initial consonant] [giving] βύω , βύσω , βέβυσμαι , βέβυσαι , [and the nouns] βυσός and ἀβύσσος [meaning] where no-one enters because of its depth.[3]
Aristophanes in Frogs [writes]: "for immediately you will come to a huge lake, an absolute abyss."[4] And he also uses the word in the neuter: "they shall not make peace while the measureless [ἄβυσσον ] silver is with the goddess on the Acropolis." For 1,000 talents were stored on the Acropolis.[5]
"Abyss" is what the Holy Scripture calls the watery substance. So since the land is surrounded on all sides by waters [and] by great and small seas, David naturally called this [i.e., abyss] the earth's surrounding garment.[6] Also, "abyss calls to abyss", the same prophet says,[7] meaning figuratively military divisions and the excessive size of the multitude.[8]
"I was under water as [if] in a kind of abyss."[9]
So an abyss [is] a great amount of water.
Greek Original:
Ἄβυσσον: ἣν οὐδὲ βυθὸς χωρῆσαι δύναται: Ἴωνες δὲ τὸν βυθὸν βυσσόν φασιν. ὅθεν δοκεῖ λέγεσθαι καὶ βυσσοδομεύειν, παρὰ τὸ δύνω, τὸ ὑπεισέρχομαι, κατὰ τροπὴν βύω, βύσω, βέβυσμαι, βέβυσαι, βυσὸς καὶ ἀβύσσος, οὗ οὐδεὶς εἰσέρχεται διὰ τὸ βάθος. Ἀριστοφάνης Βατράχοις: εὐθὺς γὰρ ἐπὶ λίμνην μεγάλην ἥξεις πάνυ ἄβυσσον. καὶ οὐδετέρως φησὶν ὁ αὐτός: ἕως ἂν ᾖ τὸ ἀργύριον τὸ ἄβυσσον παρὰ τῇ θεῷ, οὐκ εἰρηνεύσουσιν. ἐν γὰρ τῇ ἀκροπόλει χίλια τάλαντα ἀπέκειτο. Ἄβυσσον καλεῖ τὴν ὑγρὰν οὐσίαν ἡ θεία γραφή. ἐπεὶ οὖν ἡ γῆ πανταχόθεν ὕδασι περιέχεται μεγάλοις καὶ μικροῖς πελάγεσιν, εἰκότως περιβόλαιον αὐτῆς εἴρηκεν ὁ Δαβίδ. καὶ, ἄβυσσος ἄβυσσον ἐπικαλεῖται, ὁ αὐτὸς προφήτης φησίν: τὰ στρατιωτικὰ λέγων τάγματα καὶ τὴν τοῦ πλήθους ὑπερβολὴν τροπικῶς. ὡς ἐν ἀβύσσῳ τινὶ ὑποβρύχιος ἐγενόμην. Ἄβυσσος οὖν ὑδάτων πλῆθος πολύ.
Notes:
See also alpha 105.
[1] This comment on Ionian pronunciation comes from the scholiast on Aristophanes, Frogs 138, quoted later in the entry.
[2] In Homer, Odyssey, where βυσσοδομεύω occurs most frequently, it has the sense "brood over."
[3] cf. Etymologicum Magnum 4.44. These are principal parts of the verb βύω , which means "to stuff," followed by βυσός , which does not exist according to LSJ. Probably this is a mistake for βυσσός , "depth of the sea" (cf. beta 598, βυσσόν ). The Suda generally has little concern for the distinction between single and double consonants. The author thus seems to propose a very dubious etymology: that ἀ-βυσσος literally means "unstuffable" -- i.e., unable to be entered. [Ms M (= Marcianus 448) omits this sentence.]
[4] Aristophanes, Frogs 137-8 (web address 1).
[5] "Silver" [ἀργύριον ] is a neuter noun in Greek, while lake [λίμνη ] in the previous sentence is feminine; the point is that the same form ἄβυσσον is used with both. The sentence quoted here is actually part of a scholion to Aristophanes, Lysistrata 173 (web address 2); Aristophanes uses the phrase τὸ ἀργύριον τὸ ἄβυσσον in that line itself.
[6] Psalm 103:6 LXX. See again under pi 1083.
[7] Psalm 41:8 LXX.
[8] Referring to the continuation of Psalm 41:8 LXX, "all thy waves and thy billows are gone over me" (KJV).
[9] From Theodoret's commentary (PG 80.1173) on Psalm 41:8 LXX.
Associated internet addresses:
Web address 1,
Web address 2
Keywords: Christianity; comedy; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; economics; epic; geography; history; imagery; military affairs; proverbs; religion
Translated by: Elizabeth Vandiver on 21 November 1998@17:02:02.
Vetted by:
William Hutton (Cosmetics, augmented note, added keywords, set status) on 5 February 2001@11:48:31.
David Whitehead (added note; cosmetics) on 9 February 2001@08:11:37.
David Whitehead (added x-ref; cosmetics) on 4 July 2003@08:14:49.
Elizabeth Vandiver (Added links; cosmetics) on 14 December 2003@15:22:17.
David Whitehead (modified translation and notes 6-9) on 28 April 2004@11:16:41.
Jennifer Benedict (betacoding) on 26 March 2008@00:15:00.
Catharine Roth (cosmetics) on 19 April 2011@18:23:25.
David Whitehead (more keywords) on 25 April 2011@04:11:52.
Catharine Roth (tweaked translation and note, after consulting with the translator) on 26 April 2011@17:14:37.
David Whitehead (augmented notes and keywords; tweaks and cosmetics) on 22 December 2011@03:45:27.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 21 November 2014@10:58:29.
David Whitehead (cosmetics) on 21 November 2014@11:44:30.
David Whitehead (coding) on 15 August 2015@07:36:21.

Headword: Ἄβυσσος
Adler number: alpha,105
Translated headword: abyss, pit
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
There was a shrine of Persephone, which guarded much gold from all ages[1] [and] kept it inviolate.[2] In this [shrine] there was a certain pit of gold, not visible to the general public [and] hidden[3] under ground.
Greek Original:
Ἄβυσσος: ἱερὸν ἦν τῆς Περσεφόνης πολὺν χρυσὸν ἐκ παντὸς τοῦ χρόνου πεφυλαγμένον ἄθικτον ἔχον. ἐν ᾧ χρυσός τις ἄβυσσος, ἀόρατος τοῖς πολλοῖς κατὰ γῆς κεκρυμμένος.
Notes:
For this headword see already alpha 104.
The pi 3232 entry on Pyrrhus (the C4/3 BCE king of Epirus: see generally OCD(4) p.1245) comprises a lengthy anecdotal extract on him from the Roman Antiquities of Dionysius of Halicarnassus (20.8-9); the present entry paraphrases part of it (20.9.2). The date is 276-275, when Pyrrhus was campaigning for a second time in southern Italy and Sicily.
[1] Literally, "of all time".
[2] Or "untouched".
[3] Or simply "situated" (pi 3232).
Keywords: architecture; biography; economics; geography; historiography; history; military affairs; religion
Translated by: Elizabeth Vandiver on 1 October 1999@23:13:45.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (augmented notes; cosmetics) on 9 February 2001@08:44:13.
David Whitehead (augmented keywords; cosmetics) on 19 December 2003@08:01:03.
David Whitehead (another x-ref; more keywords) on 22 December 2011@03:48:15.
David Whitehead (updated a ref) on 29 July 2014@12:17:45.
William Hutton (tweaked translation on the basis of a suggestion of Brady Kiesling.) on 27 December 2016@10:22:00.

Headword: Ἀγαθοεργοί
Adler number: alpha,115
Translated headword: agathoergoi, benefactors
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
Men selected according to valor.
From the Ephors.[1]
Greek Original:
Ἀγαθοεργοί: αἱρετοὶ κατ' ἀνδραγαθίαν. ἐκ τῶν Ἐφόρων.
Notes:
This is the name for a select group of Spartan elders. According to Herodotus (1.67.5: web address 1) five were selected each year from the eldest members of the cavalry, not from the ephors.
[1] Adler called these final three words locus dubius, and capitalized, as here, the word Ephors. For a speculative argument that this phrase should actually read "from the [sc. writings] of Ephoros", see D. Whitehead, 'Ephorus(?) on the Spartan constitution', Classical Quarterly n.s. 55 (2005) 299-301. [The suggestion has been taken up in Brill's New Jacoby s.v. Ephorus, by Victor Parker. However, the evidential basis for it is illusory, according to I.C. Cunningham, CQ n.s. 61 (2011) 312-314.]
Associated internet address:
Web address 1
Keywords: definition; ethics; geography; historiography; history; law; military affairs
Translated by: William Hutton on 31 March 2001@23:24:43.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (augmented note; added keyword) on 2 April 2001@03:36:30.
David Whitehead (augmented note and keywords) on 17 June 2005@09:32:07.
David Whitehead (expanded note) on 25 May 2011@06:46:44.
Catharine Roth (cosmetics) on 25 May 2011@11:04:04.
David Whitehead (expanded note; more keywords; cosmetics) on 22 December 2011@06:04:44.

Headword: Ἀγαθός
Adler number: alpha,121
Translated headword: good
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
[Meaning one who is] prudent. But the prudent man and the good man are not equivalents. For the 'good' man [has] something extra. For the prudent man [is] good, [as is] the brave man and others. Those who have some knowledge are also called good.[1]
"...the Daoi [were also called] good spearmen, and good too at hand-to-hand fighting."[2]
Greek Original:
Ἀγαθός: ὁ φρόνιμος. οὐκ ἐπίσης δὲ ὁ φρόνιμος καὶ ὁ ἀγαθός. ἐπιπλέον γὰρ ὁ ἀγαθός. ἀγαθὸς γὰρ ὁ σώφρων, ὁ ἀνδρεῖος καὶ οἱ λοιποί. ἀγαθοὶ λέγονται καὶ οἱ ἐπιστήμονες. τοὺς δὲ Δάους ἀγαθοὺς μὲν ἀκοντιστὰς, ἀγαθοὺς δὲ καὶ ἐν χερσὶ ποιήσασθαι μάχην.
Notes:
[1] This material (from an unidentifiable source) is found only in the parallel entry in ps.-Zonaras. From the second sentence onwards it seems to be disputing the initial, simple equivalence.
[2] Quotation unidentifiable, but for the Daoi, a Danubian people, see Strabo 7.3.12 (web address 1); Steph.Byz, s.v. Dakia; OCD(4) p.409 s.v. Dacia, and Herodotus 1.125.4 (web address 2).
Associated internet addresses:
Web address 1,
Web address 2
Keywords: definition; ethics; geography; historiography; military affairs
Translated by: William Hutton on 31 March 2001@23:55:10.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (added note and keyword; cosmetics) on 25 April 2002@03:29:15.
Marcelo Boeri (Added reference.) on 10 July 2002@15:56:58.
Marcelo Boeri (Cosmetics) on 10 July 2002@16:26:19.
David Whitehead (another keyword) on 12 October 2005@08:01:34.
Jennifer Benedict (added links) on 26 March 2008@00:42:46.
David Whitehead (augmented notes; another keyword; tweaks) on 22 December 2011@07:07:38.
David Whitehead (updated a ref) on 29 July 2014@12:25:12.
David Whitehead (tweaking) on 4 April 2015@10:25:28.
Catharine Roth (tweaked links) on 2 January 2017@01:58:18.

Headword: Ἀγαπητόν
Adler number: alpha,154
Translated headword: beloved, scarce
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
[Meaning] that which is loved or unique.[1]
Also [sc. attested is the related adverb] ἀγαπητώς ["scarcely"]. "So great was the foolishness among their leaders that they scarcely saw whether they would not be fighting with all who were taking part in the campaign."[2]
Greek Original:
Ἀγαπητόν: τὸ ἠγαπημένον ἢ τὸ μονογενές. καὶ οὕτω δὲ ἄρα πολὺ τὸ ἀνόητον ἐν τοῖς ἡγεμόσιν αὐτῶν ἦν, ὥστε ἀγαπητῶς εἶδον, εἰ μὴ μετὰ πάντων ἀγωνιοῦνται τῶν συναραμένων τῆς στρατιᾶς.
Notes:
[1] Neuter singular of this adjective. (For the plural see alpha 153.) Same or similar material in other lexica (references at Photius alpha121 Theodoridos), and in the scholia to Homer, Iliad 6.401. The term is applied e.g. to an only child, who is especially loved on that account: see LSJ s.v. at web address 1.
[2] Quotation unidentifiable. (It illustrates sense 2 in LSJ s.v.; sense 1 is 'gladly, contentedly.')
Associated internet address:
Web address 1
Keywords: children; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; epic; ethics; historiography; history; military affairs
Translated by: William Hutton on 2 April 2000@22:10:59.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (modified translation; added notes and keywords) on 11 February 2001@09:17:24.
Jennifer Benedict (added link) on 26 March 2008@01:18:42.
David Whitehead (modified headword and tr; augmented notes and keywords) on 27 March 2008@08:25:42.
David Whitehead (expanded n.1; more keywords; tweaks) on 23 December 2011@06:35:04.
David Whitehead on 16 August 2013@08:21:09.
David Whitehead (tweaking) on 4 April 2015@11:50:24.
Catharine Roth (upgraded link) on 4 April 2015@23:32:47.

Headword: Ἀγαπητός
Adler number: alpha,156
Translated headword: Agapetos, Agapetus
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
Bishop of Synada.[1] Eusebius [the spiritual son] of Pamphilus[2] gives him great praise and mentions his amazing miracles: his shifting of boundaries and rivers and raisings of the dead. He also relates that when he was a soldier Maximinus[3] wanted to kill him for being a Christian, since he had learned that many were extremely impressed by the things he had accomplished.
Greek Original:
Ἀγαπητός: ἐπίσκοπος Συνάδων, ὃν ἐν ἐπαίνῳ πολλῷ τίθεται Εὐσέβιος ὁ Παμφίλου καὶ θαυμάτων αὐτοῦ ἐξαισίων μνήμην ποιεῖται, ὁρῶν μεταστάσεις καὶ ποταμῶν καὶ νεκρῶν ἐγέρσεις. καὶ ὅτι στρατιώτην ὄντα ἠβουλήθη Μαξιμῖνος ὡς Χριστιανὸν ἀποκτεῖναι, διὰ τὸ πυνθάνεσθαι πολλοὺς τὰ πρὸς αὐτοῦ τελούμενα ὑπεραγαμένους.
Notes:
Philostorgius II.8a (pp. 19-20 Bidez-Winkelmann).
[1] In Phrygia. ('Synada' again under sigma 1427, but more usually spelled Synnada.) Barrington Atlas map 62 grid E4; present-day Suhut.
[2] Eusebius of Caesarea: epsilon 3737.
[3] Maximinus Daia, emperor 305-313 (mu 172).
Keywords: biography; Christianity; ethics; geography; military affairs; religion
Translated by: William Hutton on 2 April 2000@22:31:44.
Vetted by:
Catharine Roth (added note) on 27 February 2002@23:57:08.
David Whitehead (added note; cosmetics) on 28 February 2002@03:17:44.
Catharine Roth (added note) on 28 February 2002@10:44:08.
Catharine Roth (augmented notes) on 28 February 2002@11:52:36.
Catharine Roth (augmented reference in note 4) on 28 November 2004@23:35:35.
David Whitehead (more keywords) on 3 October 2005@07:10:06.
David Whitehead (tweaked and expanded notes; more keywords) on 23 December 2011@06:49:29.

Headword: Ἄγγαροι
Adler number: alpha,165
Translated headword: messengers
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
[Meaning] those who carry letters in relays.[1] They are also [called] 'couriers' [ἀστάνδαι ].[2] The words [are] Persian. Aeschylus in Agamemnon [writes]: "beacon sent beacon hither with relaying fire."[3] The word is also used for conveyors of freight and more generally of inanimate objects and slaves. Also [sc. attested is] the [verb] ἀγγαροφορεῖν in reference to carrying burdens. And [the verb] ἀγγαρεύεσθαι means what we now speak of as being impressed to carry burdens and labor of that sort. Menander offers this example in the Sikyonios: "someone arriving by sea puts in? He is labelled an enemy. And if he has anything nice it's pressed into service [ἀγγαρεύεται ]."[4]
Greek Original:
Ἄγγαροι: οἱ ἐκ διαδοχῆς γραμματοφόροι. οἱ δὲ αὐτοὶ καὶ ἀστάνδαι. τὰ δὲ ὀνόματα Περσικά. Αἰσχύλος Ἀγαμέμνονι: φρυκτὸς δὲ φρυκτὸν δεῦρο ἀπ' ἀγγάρου πυρὸς ἔπεμπε. τίθεται τὸ ὄνομα καὶ ἐπὶ τῶν φορτηγῶν καὶ ὅλως τῶν ἀναισθήτων καὶ ἀνδραποδωδῶν. καὶ τὸ Ἀγγαροφορεῖν ἐπὶ τοῦ φορτία φέρειν. καὶ Ἀγγαρεύεσθαι καλοῦσιν ὥσπερ ἡμεῖς νῦν τὸ εἰς φορτηγίαν καὶ τοιαύτην τινὰ ὑπηρεσίαν ἄγεσθαι. Μένανδρος καὶ τοῦτο ἐν τῷ Σικυωνίῳ παρίστησιν: ὁ πλέων κατήχθη; κρίνεθ' οὗτος πολέμιος. ἐὰν ἔχῃ τὶ μαλακὸν, ἀγγαρεύεται.
Notes:
Same entry in Photius, similar ones elsewhere.
LSJ entry at web address 1. See also alpha 162, alpha 163, alpha 164.
[1] cf. Herodotus 3.126 (web address 2) and esp. 8.98 (web address 3).
[2] cf. alpha 4420. The word appears also at Athenaeus, Deipnosophists 3.122A (3.94 Kaibel); Eustathius Commentaries on Homer's Odyssey vol. 2 p. 189.6; Hesychius alpha7814; Plutarch, Alexander 18 (bis); De Alex. fort. virt. 326E; 340C.
[3] Aeschylus, Agamemnon 282f. (web address 4), where the mss have ἀγγέλου , an obvious gloss.
[4] Menander, Sikyonios fr.4 Sandbach [= fr 440 Kock].
Associated internet addresses:
Web address 1,
Web address 2,
Web address 3,
Web address 4
Keywords: comedy; daily life; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; historiography; history; military affairs; science and technology; tragedy; zoology
Translated by: Gregory Hays on 23 June 1999@13:13:42.
Vetted by:
William Hutton (Cosmetics, modified translation, added cross-references, keywords, links, set status) on 5 July 2001@12:26:03.
William Hutton (Fixed faulty linksz) on 5 July 2001@12:31:12.
Catharine Roth (added keyword and link; cosmetic) on 5 July 2001@13:14:47.
Anne Mahoney (make the Greek beta-code) on 6 July 2001@11:37:41.
David Whitehead (added keywords; cosmetics) on 25 April 2002@09:14:56.
Jennifer Benedict (betacoding, reordered links, cosmetics) on 26 March 2008@01:38:57.
David Whitehead (cosmetics) on 27 March 2008@08:32:31.
David Whitehead (augmented notes; tweaks and cosmetics) on 23 December 2011@08:14:35.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 12 August 2013@22:38:38.
Catharine Roth (typo) on 12 August 2013@23:22:50.
David Whitehead (tweaked a ref) on 14 January 2015@03:18:54.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 5 April 2015@23:40:43.

Headword: Ἀγασθῶ τινι
Adler number: alpha,168
Translated headword: I was amazed at someone, I was impressed by someone
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
Meaning I would wonder at someone. Xenophon [writes]: "whenever I was impressed by any of the soldiers."[1]
Greek Original:
Ἀγασθῶ τινι: ἀντὶ τοῦ θαυμάσω τινά. Ξενοφῶν: ὅταν τινὶ ἀγασθῶ τῶν στρατιωτῶν.
Notes:
Same entry in other lexica; references at Photius alpha125 Theodoridis. The headword, extracted from the quotation given, is aorist subjunctive (first person singular) of ἄγαμαι .
cf. generally alpha 138, alpha 141, alpha 166, alpha 167.
[1] Xenophon, Cyropedia 2.4.9 (web address 1).
Associated internet address:
Web address 1
Keywords: definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; historiography; military affairs
Translated by: Gregory Hays on 4 June 1999@14:13:58.
Vetted by:
William Hutton (Altered headword and translation for consistency with other entries, set status to low) on 31 October 2001@09:57:04.
David Whitehead (added keywords; cosmetics) on 3 February 2003@07:43:44.
Jennifer Benedict (cosmeticule) on 26 March 2008@01:44:34.
David Whitehead (augmented notes; tweaks) on 23 December 2011@08:36:44.
David Whitehead (expanded primary note) on 18 August 2013@05:50:47.
Catharine Roth (tweaked link) on 5 April 2015@21:46:04.

Headword: Ἀγελάρχης
Adler number: alpha,183
Translated headword: herd-leader
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
The leader of the herd of oxen.
Greek Original:
Ἀγελάρχης: ὁ τῆς ἀγέλης τῶν βοῶν ἄρχων.
Notes:
Same entry, according to Adler, in the Ambrosian Lexicon.
LSJ s.v. (web address 1) shows both this literal meaning and the extended one of any kind of leader.
Associated internet address:
Web address 1
Keywords: definition; imagery; military affairs; zoology
Translated by: Gregory Hays on 23 June 1999@13:19:29.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (modified headword and translation; added note) on 11 February 2001@09:50:50.
Catharine Roth (augmented note, raised status) on 15 October 2007@01:23:17.
David Whitehead (tweaked note; more keywords) on 15 October 2007@03:11:25.
Jennifer Benedict (added link) on 26 March 2008@02:02:18.
David Whitehead (tweaks) on 29 December 2011@06:36:16.
Catharine Roth (cosmeticule) on 29 December 2011@11:39:20.
Catharine Roth (upgraded link, coding) on 5 April 2015@23:22:25.

Headword: Ἄγεστα
Adler number: alpha,203
Translated headword: agesta
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
[sc. An egesta is] a military device erected from stones and logs and earth. But some call such a device agesta.[1] See also under egesta.
Greek Original:
Ἄγεστα: πολεμικὸν μηχάνημα ἐκ λίθων καὶ ξύλων καὶ χοῦ ἐγειρόμενον. οἱ δὲ ἄγεστά φασι τὸ τοιοῦτον μηχάνημα. καὶ ζήτει ἐν τῷ ἔγεστα.
Notes:
Copied from epsilon 52, egesta, q.v. for further detail (from Procopius). See also alpha 840, akessa.
[1] According to E.A. Sophocles' lexicon (s.v.), agesta comes from Latin aggestum or aggestus; cf. alpha 840.
Keywords: definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; historiography; military affairs; science and technology
Translated by: William Hutton on 18 October 2000@16:00:45.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (added note and keyword; cosmetics) on 25 April 2002@10:34:23.
Catharine Roth (modified notes) on 5 June 2002@20:57:20.
Catharine Roth (added cross-reference) on 5 June 2002@20:58:56.
David Whitehead (rearranged notes; tweaks) on 30 December 2011@07:28:29.

Headword: Ἄγειν καὶ φέρειν
Adler number: alpha,209
Translated headword: to plunder and to pillage
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
Marauding and despoiling. But ἀγειν [can mean], without distinction, both to carry away things, even from dead bodies, and to gather [them].[1]
"When [Baian] crossed to the land opposite the stream, immediately he set fire to the villages of the Slavs and laid waste to their fields. He plundered and pillaged everything, and at that point none of the barbarians there dared to come to blows with him; instead they took refuge in the most overgrown and sheltered parts of the woods".[2]
Greek Original:
Ἄγειν καὶ φέρειν: τὸ λῃστεύειν καὶ ἁρπάζειν. ἄγειν δὲ καὶ ἀπάγειν χρήματα καὶ ἐπὶ ἀψύχων καὶ κομίζειν ἀδιαφόρως. ὁ δὲ ἐπεὶ ἐπεραιώθη ἐς τὸ κατ' ἀντικρὺ τοῦ ῥείθρου, παραχρῆμα τάς τε κώμας ἐνεπίμπρα τῶν Σκλαβηνῶν καὶ ἐσίνετο τοὺς ἀγροὺς, ἦγέ τε καὶ ἔφερεν ἅπαντα, οὐδενός πω τῶν ἐκεῖσε βαρβάρων θαρρήσαντός οἱ εἰς χεῖρας ἐλθεῖν, εἰς τὰ λάσια καὶ κατηρεφῆ τῆς ὕλης καταπεφευγότων.
Notes:
[1] Same or similar material in other lexica; references at Photius alpha139 Theodoridis. For the idiom, see also alpha 293 and epsilon 427.
[2] Part of Menander Protector fr. 21 Blockley. For the Slavs (Sklavenoi) see generally sigma 634.
Keywords: agriculture; biography; definition; geography; historiography; history; military affairs
Translated by: William Hutton on 22 October 2000@13:28:47.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (added note; cosmetics) on 23 October 2000@06:18:52.
David Whitehead (added x-ref and keyword) on 5 December 2003@10:27:09.
David Whitehead (another keyword) on 7 October 2005@06:01:12.
David Whitehead (tweaked tr; augmented and updated notes; more keywords) on 3 January 2012@04:35:39.
David Whitehead on 18 August 2013@06:46:28.
Catharine Roth (cross-references) on 17 December 2016@01:01:54.

Headword: Ἄγημα
Adler number: alpha,219
Translated headword: division, guard, force, troop
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
[Meaning] the king's advancing force of elephants and horses and infantry. But some [sc. say that this term means] the best part of the Macedonian battle array;[1] strong in weaponry and in the conditioning of their bodies.[2]
Greek Original:
Ἄγημα: τὸ προϊὸν τοῦ βασιλέως τάγμα ἐλεφάντων καὶ ἵππων καὶ πεζῶν. οἱ δὲ τὸ ἄριστον τῆς Μακεδονικῆς συντάξεως: κραταιὸν ὁπλίσει καὶ σωμάτων εὐεξίᾳ.
Notes:
See also alpha 220.
[1] Same or similar material in other lexica; references at Photius alpha165 Theodoridis.
[2] This last clause (not in the other lexica) is perhaps a quotation; if so, it is unidentifiable.
Keywords: definition; history; medicine; military affairs; zoology
Translated by: William Hutton on 22 October 2000@23:07:28.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (added notes; cosmetics) on 26 April 2002@05:51:00.
David Whitehead (augmented notes; cosmetics) on 3 January 2012@09:14:08.
David Whitehead on 18 August 2013@07:11:41.
David Whitehead (another keyword) on 9 April 2015@03:11:13.

Headword: Ἄγημα
Adler number: alpha,220
Translated headword: guard
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
The entire detachment is found abundantly in Arrian.[1]
Greek Original:
Ἄγημα: τὸ ὅλως τάγμα εὕρηται κατὰ πολὺ παρὰ Ἀρριανῷ.
Notes:
See also alpha 219.
[1] e.g. Arrian, Anabasis 1.1.11.
Reference:
A.B. Bosworth, Conquest and Empire: the reign of Alexander the Great (Cambridge 1988) index s.v. "agema (royal guard)".
Keywords: definition; historiography; military affairs
Translated by: William Hutton on 22 October 2000@23:11:01.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (added note and bibliography; cosmetics) on 23 October 2000@07:26:02.
David Whitehead (added note) on 26 April 2002@05:48:33.
David Whitehead (cosmetics) on 3 January 2012@09:01:20.

Headword: Ἀγηνορίη
Adler number: alpha,221
Translated headword: arrogance, pride
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
[Meaning] stubbornness.
Greek Original:
Ἀγηνορίη: ἡ αὐθάδεια.
Notes:
Same glossing in Apollonius' Homeric Lexicon (7.20).
As LSJ s.v. indicates (web address 1), the headword noun (ending -rie in epic/Ionic dialect, -ria in others) has overtones which depend on context. What may be sometimes (or to some) manly courage easily spills over into damaging pride and arrogance. See e.g. Homer Iliad 22.457 ("cease from the baneful valour that possessed him"); 9.700 ("haughty is he even of himself, and now hast thou yet far more set him amid haughtinesses"); 12.46 ("though his valour is his bane").
See also alpha 223.
Associated internet address:
Web address 1
Keywords: definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; epic; ethics; military affairs
Translated by: Nathan Greenberg on 19 November 1998@08:48:17.
Vetted by:
Samuel Huskey on 25 June 2000@10:12:48.
Samuel Huskey on 25 June 2000@10:19:23.
David Whitehead (modified headword, translation, notes; augmented keywords; restorative cosmetics) on 26 April 2002@06:08:22.
David Whitehead (added note) on 26 April 2002@06:09:39.
Catharine Roth (upgraded link) on 18 August 2013@02:04:22.
David Whitehead (expanded note) on 18 August 2013@07:15:02.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 29 March 2015@22:50:45.
David Whitehead (another keyword) on 9 April 2015@03:12:15.

Headword: Ἀγηνόριον
Adler number: alpha,222
Translated headword: Agenorion, Agenor-shrine
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
Name of a place.
Greek Original:
Ἀγηνόριον: ὄνομα τόπου.
Notes:
In Arrian, Anabasis 2.24.2: during Alexander the Great's siege of Tyre (332 BCE) the defenders attempt to rally at the Agenorion.
For Agenor cf. alpha 223. But NB Bosworth ad loc.: 'This supposed Shrine of Agenor is nowhere else attested, and it may be interpretatio Graeca, giving an established and familiar Greek name for an important Semitic sanctuary. Curt. iv.4.19 mentions Agenor as the founder of Tyre, and he had been solidly associated with Tyre in Greek mythology, figuring as the father of Europa, Cadmus, Cilix, and Phoenix [Author, Myth]'.
Reference:
A.B. Bosworth, A Historical Commentary on Arrian's History of Alexander, i (Oxford 1980)
Keywords: definition; geography; historiography; history; military affairs; mythology; religion
Translated by: Nathan Greenberg on 19 November 1998@08:57:52.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (added note and keyword; cosmetics) on 11 February 2001@11:48:31.
David Whitehead (modified/augmented my erroneous note; augmented keywords; cosmetics) on 14 April 2004@06:00:43.
David Whitehead on 1 August 2011@08:16:33.

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