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Headword: Abaxi
Adler number: alpha,16
Translated headword: planks, abacuses
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
What we call a)ba/kia.[1] The Lawmaker [says] in the Martyrdom of Saint Thecla: "Tryphaina was overcome by suffering, and was seen lying like the dead on the slabs."[2] So he says.
Greek Original:
Abaxi: tois par' hêmin legomenois abakiois. ho Logothetês en tôi tês hagias Theklês marturiôi: Truphaina de pathei lêphtheisa nekrois homoia pros tois abaxin hôrato keimenê. houtô phêsin.
Notes:
This entry occurs after alpha 17 in ms A (= Parisinus 2625), after alpha 9 in ms S (= Vaticanus 1296) and in the margin of ms D (Bodleianus Auct. V 52).
[1] The given form is a dative plural of a)/bac, ("abacus"), and the lexicographer explains it by reference to the diminutive a)ba/kion. The primary sense is a table topped by a slab, or the slab itself; a "calculator" is a secondary meaning.
[2] Symeon Metaphrastes (also known as the Logothete ('Lawmaker')) Patrologia Graeca 115.837c. On Thecla, cf. tau 1108.
Keywords: biography; Christianity; dialects, grammar, and etymology; gender and sexuality; history; mathematics; religion; science and technology; women
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 22 August 1998@12:53:59.
Vetted by:
William Hutton (Modified translation and notes, added keywords, raised status) on 18 January 2001@09:46:37.
Catharine Roth (modified translation, augmented note) on 7 November 2002@15:06:33.
Catharine Roth (cosmetics) on 7 November 2002@15:08:44.
David Whitehead (another keyword) on 9 November 2005@09:20:27.
Catharine Roth (added keyword) on 6 September 2006@23:44:05.
William Hutton (modified headword and translation, augmented notes, set status) on 24 August 2007@09:36:45.
William Hutton on 24 August 2007@09:42:51.
Jennifer Benedict (tweaks) on 24 March 2008@23:50:31.
David Whitehead (cosmetics) on 18 December 2011@10:35:22.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 7 February 2015@23:44:46.

Headword: Abaris
Adler number: alpha,18
Translated headword: Abaris, Avars
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
Scythian, son of Seuthes. He wrote the so-called Scythinian Oracles[1] and Marriage of the river Hebros and Purifications and a Theogony in prose and Arrival of Apollo among the Hyperboreans in meter. He came from Scythia to Greece.
The legendary arrow belongs to him, the one he flew on from Greece to Hyperborean Scythia. It was given to him by Apollo.[2]
Gregory the Theologian mentioned this man in his Epitaphios for Basil the Great.[3]
They say[4] that once, when there was a plague throughout the entire inhabited world, Apollo told the Greeks and barbarians who had come to consult his oracle that the Athenian people should make prayers on behalf of all of them. So, many peoples sent ambassadors to them, and Abaris, they say, came as ambassador of the Hyperboreans in the third Olympiad.[5]
[Note] that the Bulgarians thoroughly destroyed the Avars[6] by force.
[Note] that these Avars drove out the Sabinorians, when they themselves had been expelled by peoples living near the shore of the Ocean, who left their own land when a mist formed in the flood of the Ocean and a crowd of griffins appeared; the story was that they would not stop until they had devoured the race of men. So the people driven away by these monsters invaded their neighbors. As the invaders were stronger, the others submitted and left, just as the Saragurians, when they were driven out, went to the Akatziri Huns.[7]
The declension is Abaris, Abaridos [genitive singular], Abaridas [accusative plural], and with apocope Abaris [nominative plural].
See about these things under 'Bulgarians'.[8]
Greek Original:
Abaris: Skuthês, Seuthou huios. sunegrapsato de chrêsmous tous kaloumenous Skuthinous kai Gamon Hebrou tou potamou kai Katharmous kai Theogonian katalogadên kai Apollônos aphixin eis Huperboreous emmetrôs. hêke de ek Skuthôn eis Hellada. toutou ho muthologoumenos oïstos, tou petomenou apo tês Hellados mechri tôn Huperboreôn Skuthôn: edothê de autôi para tou Apollônos. toutou kai Grêgorios ho Theologos en tôi eis ton megan Basileion Epitaphiôi mnêmên pepoiêtai. phasi de hoti loimou kata pasan tên oikoumenên gegonotos aneilen ho Apollôn manteuomenois Hellêsi kai barbarois ton Athênaiôn dêmon huper pantôn euchas poiêsasthai. presbeuomenôn de pollôn ethnôn pros autous, kai Abarin ex Huperboreôn presbeutên aphikesthai legousi kata tên g# Olumpiada. hoti tous Abaris hoi Boulgaroi kata kratos ardên êphanisan. hoti hoi Abaris houtoi exêlasan Sabinôras, metanastai genomenoi hupo ethnôn oikountôn men tên parôkeanitin aktên, tên de chôran apolipontôn dia to ex anachuseôs tou Ôkeanou homichlôdes ginomenon, kai grupôn de plêthos anaphanen: hoper ên logos mê proteron pausasthai prin ê boran poiêsai to tôn anthrôpôn genos. dio dê hupo tônde elaunomenoi tôn deinôn tois plêsiochôrois eneballon: kai tôn epiontôn dunatôterôn ontôn hoi tên ephodon huphistamenoi metanistanto, hôsper kai hoi Saragouroi elathentes pros tois Akatirois Ounnois egenonto. klinetai de Abaris, Abaridos, tous Abaridas, kai kata apokopên Abaris. zêtei peri tôn autôn en tôi Boulgaroi.
Notes:
See generally A.H. Griffiths in OCD(4) p.1: "legendary devotee of Apollo from the far north, a shamanistic missionary and saviour-figure like Aristeas [alpha 3900]". Adler credits this part of the entry to the Epitome Onomatologi Hesychii Milesii.
[1] Or in one manuscript, 'Skythian'.
[2] Perhaps from a scholion on the passage about to be cited (so Adler). Cf. Herodotos 4.36.1 (web address 1).
[3] Gregory of Nazianzus PG 36.524b.
[4] This material is from Harpokration s.v. *)/abaris
[5] 768-765 BCE. Harpokration (see preceding note) cites Hippostratos (FGrH 568 F4) to this effect, but adds that there were later alternatives: the twenty-first Olympiad (696-693) or "the time of Croesus, king of Lydia" (so Pindar, fr.270 Snell-Maehler), i.e. c.560-546.
[6] The word used for the Avars here, *)aba/ris, is a homograph for the name of the Hyperborean wise man Abaris, so this separate section on the Avars is included in this entry. There is no indication that the lexicographer sees any connection between the two topics.
[7] Priscus fr.30 FHG (4.104), still 30 Bornmann. The final part reappears at alpha 820 and sigma 111.
[8] beta 423.
References:
RE Abaris (1) I.16-17
Macartney, C.A. "On the Greek Sources for the History of the Turks in the Sixth Century." BSOAS 11 (1944): 266-275
Associated internet address:
Web address 1
Keywords: biography; Christianity; dialects, grammar, and etymology; geography; historiography; history; mythology; philosophy; poetry; religion; rhetoric
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 21 August 1998@17:03:41.
Vetted by:
William Hutton (Modified translation and notes, added keywords, set status.) on 19 January 2001@14:57:43.
David Whitehead (augmented notes and bibliography; cosmetics) on 9 February 2001@05:20:43.
David Whitehead (added note) on 14 February 2001@06:09:48.
Mihai Olteanu (The only thracian item concerning Abaris is his father's name. Everything else pledes for his sythian ('hyperborean') origin. This is why I suppose we deal here with a copist mistake, and I propose the emendation: ́Αβαρις: Σκύθης, *Σκύθου υἱός (for Σκύθης as mythological character, see for example Herodotos 4,10).) on 22 January 2002@21:55:20.
David Whitehead (augmented notes and keywords; cosmetics) on 23 January 2002@03:11:25.
David Whitehead (augmented n.6 and added a keyword) on 5 October 2004@03:21:13.
William Hutton (augmented notes, added link and keywords, set status) on 24 August 2007@11:05:00.
Jennifer Benedict (cosmeticule) on 25 March 2008@00:16:43.
David Whitehead (another note; cosmetics) on 28 March 2014@06:23:27.
David Whitehead (updated a ref) on 29 July 2014@12:06:21.
David Whitehead (updated a ref) on 31 January 2015@09:22:24.

Headword: Abas
Adler number: alpha,20
Translated headword: Abas
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
A sophist, who left Historical Commentaries and an Art of Rhetoric.
Greek Original:
Abas: sophistês, Historika hupomnêmata kai Technên rhêtorikên katalipôn.
Notes:
Adler cites Epitome Onomatologi Hesychii Milesii for the entry.
See RE 1.19, Abas(11). Jacoby's Abas, FGrH 46, is a homonym, author of a Troika.
Reference:
Epitome Onomatologi Hesychii Milesii (ed. Wentzel, Texte und Untersuchungen zur Geschichte der altchristlichen Litteratur XIII.3)
Keywords: biography; historiography; philosophy; rhetoric
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 22 August 1998@12:57:09.
Vetted by:
Svetla Slaveva on 31 January 2000@23:27:03.
Svetla Slaveva on 1 February 2000@11:17:32.
David Whitehead (modified translation and keywords; augmented note; cosmetics) on 8 July 2003@08:27:47.
William Hutton (augmented note, set status) on 24 August 2007@23:41:32.
David Whitehead (expanded note) on 19 December 2011@06:10:09.
Catharine Roth (typo) on 5 August 2013@00:50:02.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 1 January 2015@23:49:14.

Headword: Abaskanos
Adler number: alpha,22
Translated headword: unprejudiced
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
[Meaning someone/something] deceit-free, envy-free.
"He [Mithradates] became an unprejudiced witness to Caesar of the achievements of Antipater."[1]
Greek Original:
Abaskanos: apseudês, anepiphthonos. ho de martus abaskanos ginetai pros Kaisara tôn Antipatrou katorthômatôn.
Notes:
For the etymology of the (rare) headword adjective cf. beta 167, beta 168, beta 169.
[1] Josephus, Jewish War 1.192 (see web address 1 below). For Antipater, father of Herod the Great, see OCD(4) s.v. Antipater(6), pp.107-8. 'Caesar' is Julius Caesar. Mithradates is not one of the six kings of Pontus who bore that name (cf. mu 1044) but the half-caste son of the last of them: a.k.a. M. of Pergamum.
Associated internet address:
Web address 1
Keywords: biography; definition; ethics; geography; historiography; history
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 22 August 1998@12:59:41.
Vetted by:
Catharine Roth (Altered wording, added note and link.) on 29 July 2000@23:43:06.
David Whitehead (cosmetics) on 27 February 2003@07:58:27.
David Whitehead (tweaked tr; augmented notes and keywords; raised status) on 27 August 2007@09:00:04.
Jennifer Benedict (cosmeticule) on 25 March 2008@00:17:46.
David Whitehead (another keyword) on 19 December 2011@06:13:12.
Catharine Roth (tweaked link) on 20 December 2011@00:53:00.
David Whitehead (updated a ref) on 29 July 2014@12:07:55.
David Whitehead (expanded a note; tweaks and cosmetics) on 2 April 2015@09:05:10.
Catharine Roth (tweaked link) on 2 October 2018@02:01:48.

Headword: Abelteros
Adler number: alpha,32
Translated headword: thoughtless
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
[Meaning] mindless, stupid. For the intelligent man [is] be/lteros ["thoughtful, superior"].[1]
"No, by Zeus, not the greedy and thoughtless fellow, but the mindless and conceitedly slow-witted."[2] Menander in Perinthia [writes]: "any servant who takes an idle and easy master and deceives him does not know what a great accomplishment it is to make a greater fool of one who is already thoughtless".[3] They also call a)belthri/a ["thoughtlessness"] an a)belth/rion ["thoughtless thing"]. Anaxandrides in Helen[4] [writes]: "[A:] an anchor, a little boat, - call it what vessel you want. [B:] O Heracles of the sacred precinct of thoughtlessness. [A:] But one could not estimate its size."
Also [sc. attested is] a)belthri/a, [meaning] stupidity.
Or mindlessness.
Menander [writes]: "their mind drove them to such thoughtlessness that they prayed for victory over each other rather than over the enemy."[5]
Greek Original:
Abelteros: anoêtos, asunetos. belteros gar ho phronimos. ou ma Di' ouch ho pleonektês kai agnômôn, all' ho anoêtos kai euêthês meta chaunotêtos. Menandros Perinthiai: hostis paralabôn despotên apragmona kai kouphon exapatai therapôn, ouk oid' ho ti houtos megaleion esti diapepragmenos, epabelterôsas ton pote abelteron. legousi de kai abeltêrion tên abeltêrian. Alexandridês Helenêi: ankura, lembos, skeuos ho ti boulei lege. ô Hêrakleis abeltêriou temenikou. all' oud' an eipein to megethos dunaito tis. kai Abeltêria, hê aphrosunê. ê anoêsia. Menandros: eis touto de abeltêrias êlasen autois ho nous, hôste thateron meros tên kata thaterou mallon ê tên kata tôn polemiôn euchesthai nikên.
Notes:
On this headword, a comic formation literally meaning non-superior, see generally LSJ s.v. (web address 1 below); and cf. alpha 31, alpha 33.
[1] These glosses are paralleled in a variety of other lexica (and in the scholia to Aristophanes, Clouds 1201 and Ecclesiazusae 768).
[2] Quotation (an illustration of the first of the glossing words, not the headword) unidentifiable; also in Photius and Aelius Dionysius.
[3] Menander fr. 393 Kock.
[4] Anaxandrides [see generally alpha 1982] fr. 12 Kock (and K.-A.). But note that Adler prints the manuscript reading "Alexandrides", on the strength of the (apparent) mention of such a playwright in alpha 3824. On the emendation to Anaxandrides, see Toup vol. 1 p. 9; Adler attributes the emendation to 'Iunius' (probably Adriaan de Jonghe, 1511-1575, author of a Greek/Latin Lexicon).
[5] Not M. the comic poet, quoted above, but the C6 CE historian Menander Protector [mu 591]: his fr. 28 Blockley.
Reference:
Toup, Jonathan, and Richard Porson. Emendationes in Suidam Et Hesychium, Et Alios Lexicographos Graecos. Oxford 1790
Associated internet address:
Web address 1
Keywords: comedy; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; ethics; historiography; history; military affairs; religion
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 25 August 1998@19:02:21.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (augmented notes; added keywords; cosmetics) on 9 February 2001@05:52:19.
Jennifer Benedict (betacoding) on 23 March 2008@13:05:56.
David Whitehead (modified headword; augmented notes and keywords; tweaks and cosmetics) on 24 March 2008@04:34:27.
Jennifer Benedict (added link) on 25 March 2008@11:17:06.
Catharine Roth (fixed note number, augmented note, added bibliography, tweaked link) on 15 May 2008@15:34:15.
David Whitehead (typo) on 16 May 2008@07:55:44.
Catharine Roth (augmented note) on 20 May 2008@11:50:13.
David Whitehead (tweaks) on 16 December 2011@05:38:00.
David Whitehead (updated a reference; cosmetics) on 3 January 2012@04:21:06.
David Whitehead (updated a ref) on 22 December 2014@04:27:32.
David Whitehead (tweaks and cosmetics) on 2 April 2015@09:15:50.

Headword: Abesalôm
Adler number: alpha,35
Translated headword: Abesalom, Absalom
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
Proper name.[1]
[The man] who rose up against his own father David and was destroyed by him in the war.[2]
Greek Original:
Abesalôm: onoma kurion. hos tou idiou patros Dabid katexanestê kai anêirethê hup' autou en tôi polemôi.
Notes:
[1] So too, according to Adler, in the Ambrosian Lexicon.
[2] See generally 2 Samuel 15-18 LXX.
Keywords: biography; children; definition; ethics; history; military affairs; religion
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 26 August 1998@18:50:03.
Vetted by:
Catharine Roth (Added keywords.) on 30 July 2000@22:45:00.
David Whitehead (added keywords; cosmetics) on 9 June 2003@07:27:13.
David Whitehead on 1 August 2011@07:34:26.
David Whitehead (augmented notes; another keyword) on 19 December 2011@06:57:32.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 7 August 2013@23:28:44.
David Whitehead (coding) on 15 August 2015@07:26:43.

Headword: Abimelech
Adler number: alpha,45
Translated headword: Abimelech
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
Proper name.[1]
The son of Gideon.[2] He smote his brothers, seventy sons of Gideon's wives,[3] upon a single stone, and none of them was left except Jotham the youngest son,[4] who ran away. As Abimelech was passing through with his people, Jotham went up to the top of the mountain and, raising his voice, told the following parable. "Listen to me, men of Shechem, and God will listen to you. The trees set out[5] to anoint a king over themselves. And they said to the olive, 'Rule over us.' And the olive said to them, 'Should I give up my rich oil, by which -- through me -- God[6] and men receive honor,[7] and go rule over trees?' Then the trees said to the fig, 'Come, rule over us.' And the fig said to them, 'Should I give up my sweetness, my excellent product, and go to rule over the trees?' And the trees said to the vine, 'Come, rule over us.' And the vine said to them, 'Should I give up my wine, merriment for men, and go to rule over the trees?' And all the trees said to the thornbush, 'Come, you rule over us.' And the thornbush said to the trees, 'If you are truly anointing me to rule over you, come stand under[8] my shade. But if not, may fire come from me and consume the cedars of Lebanon.' Now, if you have dealt with my father and his family truthfully and in an upright way, and have made his concubine's son Abimelech king over the men of Shechem, then may you rejoice in him and may he indeed rejoice in you. But if not, may fire issue from Abimelech and consume your leaders and their families. And may fire issue from the men of Shechem and consume Abimelech." And Jotham ran from the presence of Abimelech his brother. But Abimelech ruled over Israel for three years. Then God sent an evil spirit between[9] Abimelech and the men of Shechem. And the men of Shechem dealt treacherously[10] with the house of Abimelech so to lay at Abimelech's feet[11] the blood of Gideon's seventy sons. And so Abimilech set out to beseige the tower.[12] As he approached the tower gate to burn it, a woman threw a piece of a millstone onto his head and crushed his skull. He at once called out to his armor bearer[13], saying, "Draw your sword and kill me, so they can never say I was killed by a woman." So the young man took up his sword and ran him through. And God recompensed the wickedness Abimelech had done to his father in killing his seventy brothers. God also recompensed[14] all the wickedness of the men of Shechem, in accord with the message and parable of Jotham.
Greek Original:
Abimelech: onoma kurion. huios Gedeôn. houtos epataxe tous adelphous autou ek tôn eleutherôn andras ebdomêkonta epi lithon hena, ex hôn ouk apeleiphthê plên Iôatham tou neôterou diadrantos. hos kai paraporeuomenou tou Abimelech meta tou laou anêlthen epi tên koruphên tou orous, kai eparas tên phônên autou ephê pros autous parabolên toiautên. akousate mou, andres Sikimôn, kai akousei humôn ho theos. poreuomena eporeuthêsan ta xula tou chrisai basilea eph' heautôn. kai eipan têi elaiai: basileuson eph' hêmôn. kai eipen autois hê elaia: apheisa tên piotêta mou, hên edoxasen en emoi ho theos kai hoi anthrôpoi, poreuthô archein tôn xulôn; kai eipon ta xula têi sukêi: deuro, basileuson eph' hêmas. kai eipen autois hê sukê: apheisa tên glukutêta mou kai to gennêma mou to agathon poreuthô archein tôn xulôn; kai eipon ta xula pros tên ampelon: deuro, basileuson eph' hêmôn. kai eipen autois hê ampelos: apheisa ton oinon mou kai tên euphrosunên tôn anthrôpôn poreuthô archein tôn xulôn; kai eipon panta ta xula têi rhamnôi: deuro, su basileuson eph' hêmas. kai eipen hê rhamnos pros ta xula: ei en alêtheiai chriete me humeis tou basileuein eph' humas, deute, hupostête en têi skiai mou, kai ei mê, exelthoi pur ap' emou kai kataphagêi tas kedrous tou Libanou. kai nun ei en alêtheiai kai hosiotêti epoiêsate meta tou patros mou kai meta tou oikou autou kai ebasileusate ton Abimelech huion tês paidiskês autou epi tous andras Sikimôn, euphrantheiête en autôi, kai euphrantheiê kai ge autos en humin: ei de mê, exelthoi pur ex Abimelech kai kataphagoi tous archontas humôn kai tous oikous autôn: kai exelthoi pur ek tôn andrôn Sikimôn kai kataphagoi ton Abimelech. kai apedra Iôatham apo prosôpou Abimelech adelphou autou. ho de Abimelech êrxen epi ton Israêl etê tria. kai exapesteilen ho theos pneuma ponêron ana meson Abimelech kai ana meson andrôn Sikimôn. kai êthetêsan hoi andres Sikimôn en tôi oikôi Abimelech tou epagagein adikian kai to haima tôn o# huiôn Gedeôn epi tên kephalên Abimelech. kai gar apelthôn polemêsai purgon kai prosengisas têi thurai tou purgou emprêsai autên, erripse gunê klasma mulou epi tên kephalên autou kai sunetripse to kranion autou. kai epiboêsas tachu eipe pros ton aironta autou ta skeuê: spason tên rhomphaian sou kai thanatôson me, mê pote eipôsin: gunê auton apekteine. kai kentêsan auton to paidarion aneile. kai epestrepsen ho theos tên ponêrian Abimelech, hên epoiêse tôi patri autou apokteinas tous o# adelphous autou. kai pasan tên ponêrian andrôn Sikimôn epestrepsen ho theos eis tên kephalên autôn kata ton logon kai tên paroimian Iôatham.
Notes:
Source for the main paragraph (after the initial gloss): George the Monk, Chronicon 148.2-149.20.
[1] Hebrew: אבימלך "my father is king." Used derogatorily and incessantly (31 times) throughout the Abimelech episode in Judges 9 (Boling, NSRV at Judges 9:1).
[2] Literally, "by his wives." The use of e)leuqe/rwn here indicates "married women/wives" (see L-S-J). The Massoretic Text (MT) (Judges 8:30; Kohlenberger, Vol. 2, 101) shows נשים našīm, which here means "wives" (Brown, Driver, Briggs {BDB}, 61). The term is to be distinguished from that for Abimelech's mother — פלגש pilegeš "concubine" in the sense of a legitimate wife of secondary rank (Kohlenberger for the suffixed MT form; Boling, NRSV at Judges 8:31).
[3] Literally, "upon a single stone." MT: על אבן אחת ʿal ʾeḇen ʾeḥat (Judges 9:5). See Boling, Judges (Anchor), 171.5. A direct transference from the Hebrew to the LXX.
[4] (Cf. iota 478.) The Greek new/terou, comparative understood for the superlative (Smyth, 1082.a) from Hebrew הקטן haqqaton, the "young(est) one" (Judges 9:5).
[5] The Suda's poreu/omena e)poreu/qhsan parallels the MT at Judges 9:5 (but not the LXX, which singularizes the finite verb) in its fuller anthropomorphism via the plural finite verb. The participle plus finite verb mimics, but does not parallel, MT usage, which gives infinitive absolute plus finite verb (הלוך הלכו haloḵ halēḵū) (Kautzsch, 342 {113o(1)}; Boling, Judges (Anchor), 173.8). For this genre of fable, see also 2 Kings 14:9-10 and its shadow at 2 Chronicles 25:18-19. the motif bears only general resemblance to Aesop's frog fable. For related motifs, see the source summary in Brown (The New Jerome), 140; Boling, Judges (Anchor), 173.
[6] The Suda singularizes (o( qeo/s), whereas the MT contains אלהים elohīm to be interpreted as "gods" — not "God." That the translation warrants a plural is supported by the antiquity of the original motif (Boling, Judges (Anchor), 173-74.15; 175.20). The plural is the norm in modern Bible translation.
[7] The standard translation of the MT אשר-בי יכבדו אלהים ואנשים ʾašer-bī yeḵaḇdū ʾelohīm waʾanašīm (Judges 9:9) and the Suda's h(\n...a)/nqrwpoi is "by which/whereby gods and men are honored." The Hebrew syntax merits reevaluation. The Jotham parable is a poetic fable cast in prose (Boling, Judges (Anchor) 166, 172-73.8-15, 173.15; for an uncritical opposing view, see Brown (The New Jerome), 140). However, Boling (173.9) and others read the Pi'el active yeḵaḇdū ("ykbdw" in Boling) as a Niph'al passive (are honored). Boling also cites the "kbd" root as Niph'al reflexive in Exodus 14:4, perhaps intending an alternative (but unlikely) reading for Judges 9:9 as "gods and men honor themselves." This approach overlooks the fable's poetic form — a medium that allows the Pi'el to operate intransitively (Kautzsch, 142 {52k}). Relatedly, Kautzsch (Gesenius, in accord with T.K Cheyne) assigns Niph'al senses to Pi'el forms in the poetry of Isaiah 48:8 and 60:11, which just as easily may be read intransitively as "your ear has not opened (responded) [to new things]" and "your gates shall always stand open." In Judges 9:9, the intransitive result is "(by) which, through me, gods and men receive honor." The preposition "bi" (Greek: e)n e)moi\), which in Boling's syntax is left "unexplained", provides an instrumental dative (BDB, 89, III.2): "through me." Boling asserts "bi" to be "a third-person suffix" without further discussion; BDB (citing George F. Moore) suggests the third-person "bo" (by/through it) for the "bi" form. Boling does cite the LXX Vaticanus reading "by it"; however, Vaticanus works a simplified solution: e)n h(=i doca/sousi to\n qeo\n a)/ndres, "by which men shall honor God" (Brenton, 329). In a near parallel to the MT, the Suda records e)do/casen for a Hebraicized-intransitive e)do/casan (yeḵaḇdū): literally, "regarding which (oil), through my agency, God and men receive honor."
[8] The verb u(po/sthte also carries the meaning "submit"; the Hebrew at Judges 9:15 (imperative hasū) carries only the sense "take refuge" (BDB, 340).
[9] The duplicated a)na\ me/son is a Hebraism paralleling Judges 9:22 (בין אבימלך ובין בעלי שכם bēn ʾAḇimeleḵ uḇēn baʿalē šeḵem). See also the MT and LXX at Genesis 1:4. For model Greek syntax, see LXX Genesis 32:16 (Brenton, 43)— with the MT (Genesis 32:17) showing the duplicate pattern (Kohlenberger, Vol 1, 88).
[10] For a)qete/w (deal treacherously), see Lust, Pt. I, 9.
[11] Literally, "to lay upon Abimelech's head his injustice and the blood of Gideon's seventy sons."
[12] For Abimelech's ill-fated siege of the Thebez tower, see Judges 9:50-57.
[13] The term paida/rion reprises the MT נערו naʿarō (his servant or retainer) at Judges 9:54. Translations render the word as "armor bearer." Boling in his Judges (146.10; 182.54) prefers "squire."
[14] Literally, "turned about onto their head."
References:
Boling, R.G. Judges (The Anchor Bible). New York: Doubleday, 1975.
Boling, R.G. Judges in the Harper Collins Study Bible (NRSV). New York: Harper Collins, 1993.
Brenton, C.L.B. The Septuagint with Apocrypha. Peabody: Hendrickson, 1991 (reprint of 1851 ed.).
Brown, F. Driver, S.R., Briggs, C.A. A Hebrew and English Lexicon of the Old Testament. Oxford: Clarendon, 1951.
Brown, R.E. The New Jerome Biblical Commentary. New Jersey: Prentice Hall, 1990.
Kautzsch, E. Gesenius' Hebrew Grammar. Oxford: Clarendon, 1910.
Kohlenberger, J.R. The Interlinear NIV Hebrew-English Old Testament. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1987.
Lust, J. A Greek-English Lexicon of the Septuagint, Part I. Stuttgart: Deutsche Bibelgesellschaft, 1992.
Smyth, H.W. Greek Grammar. Cambridge: Harvard University, 1984.
Keywords: biography; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; gender and sexuality; history; military affairs; poetry; religion; women
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 22 August 1998@13:01:24.
Vetted by:
William Hutton (Cosmetics, added keywords, set status) on 27 January 2001@12:09:36.
Craig Miller (Modified translation, notes and bibliography to follow.) on 5 March 2002@09:51:09.
Craig Miller on 5 March 2002@12:40:52.
Craig Miller (Modified and expanded notes, expanded keywords. Bibliography pending.) on 5 March 2002@15:02:20.
Catharine Roth (corrected typos) on 5 March 2002@16:49:22.
Craig Miller on 5 March 2002@23:39:58.
Craig Miller (Bibliography added, cosmetics.) on 6 March 2002@07:38:16.
Craig Miller on 6 March 2002@12:49:31.
Craig Miller on 6 March 2002@14:59:18.
Craig Miller on 1 April 2002@19:33:02.
Raphael Finkel (Added Hebrew texts.) on 31 October 2002@10:19:01.
David Whitehead (added initial note; added x-ref; cosmetics) on 9 June 2003@07:55:20.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 7 August 2013@23:53:33.
Catharine Roth (cosmetics) on 8 August 2013@16:40:29.
Raphael Finkel (Converted Romanization of Hebrew to ISO 259.) on 7 August 2014@14:15:44.
David Whitehead (coding) on 15 August 2015@07:31:59.

Headword: Abiôton
Adler number: alpha,49
Translated headword: unlivable
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
[Meaning something] bad [and] annoying, painful.[1]
"He found it an unlivable situation if he could not control the city".[2]
Also [sc. attested is the masculine] a)bi/wtos, he who is not alive.[3]
Greek Original:
Abiôton: kakon aêdes, odunêron. ho de abiôtôs eichen, ei mê kratêsoi tês poleôs. kai Abiôtos, ho mê zôn.
Notes:
[1] Same material in other lexica; references at Photius alpha39 Theodoridis. The headword -- shown by the glossing to be neuter nominative/accusative singular rather than masculine accusative singular -- is evidently quoted from somewhere. The possibilities are numerous. (Latte on Hesychius s.v. confidently asserts Euripides, Alcestis 242.)
[2] Quotation unidentifiable -- but perhaps from Plutarch, who has several instances of the idiom a)biw/tws e)/xein.
[3] For this word see also alpha 50.
Keywords: biography; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; ethics; history; politics; tragedy
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 26 August 1998@19:01:02.
Vetted by:
William Hutton (Added headword, modified translation, raised status) on 29 January 2001@17:14:44.
William Hutton (Added note) on 29 January 2001@17:18:16.
David Whitehead (added note and keywords; cosmetics; raised status) on 30 January 2001@03:39:11.
David Whitehead on 30 January 2001@03:40:51.
David Whitehead (restorative cosmetics) on 13 April 2004@09:57:16.
David Whitehead (augmented notes and keywords; tweaks and cosmetics) on 19 December 2011@07:44:30.
David Whitehead on 19 December 2011@07:45:11.
David Whitehead (expanded n.1; another keyword) on 1 February 2012@05:18:15.
David Whitehead on 16 August 2013@06:43:40.

Headword: Ableptêmati
Adler number: alpha,55
Translated headword: by an oversight
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
[Meaning] by a mistake.
"He bore the oversights of ordinary folk patiently, but those of more intellectual people grieved him."[1]
Also [sc. attested is the participle] a)bleptou=ntes. "Those committing oversights and ashamed to face Philip were coming to help."[2]
Greek Original:
Ableptêmati: hamartêmati. ho de pherôn ekarterei ta tôn idiôtôn ableptêmata, ta de tôn logikôterôn auton ênia. kai Ableptountes. hoi de ableptountes kai aidoumenoi antophthalmein pros ton Philippon eboêthoun.
Notes:
The headword and the synonym offered for it are neuter nouns in the dative singular (translated here as instrumental datives). The same headword -- evidently quoted from somewhere but not independently attested -- and gloss also appear in other lexica; references at Photius alpha40 Theodoridis. The first quotation illustrates this same noun but in the accusative plural.
[1] Polybius fr. 90 Büttner-Wobst. Büttner-Wobst notes that this fragment was attributed to Polybius by Casaubon, but not accepted by Schweighäuser (p. 527).
[2] Polybius fr. 91 Büttner-Wobst. Casaubon also attributed this fragment to Polybius, but Büttner-Wobst notes that Dindorf rejected it (ibid.).
Reference:
T. Büttner-Wobst, ed., Polybii Historiae, vol. IV, (Leipzig 1904)
Keywords: biography; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; ethics; historiography; history
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 26 August 1998@19:07:04.
Vetted by:
William Hutton (Modified translation, added note and keywords, set status) on 30 January 2001@08:24:21.
David Whitehead (modified translation and note; cosmetics) on 13 April 2004@10:08:32.
David Whitehead (more keywords; tweaks and cosmetics) on 19 December 2011@08:01:56.
David Whitehead on 16 August 2013@06:47:36.
David Whitehead (expanded primary note) on 2 April 2015@09:26:19.
Ronald Allen (supplemented notes, added bibliography) on 24 April 2018@22:29:37.
Ronald Allen (reworded n.2) on 25 April 2018@22:02:29.
Ronald Allen (cosmeticule) on 9 May 2018@22:31:12.
Ronald Allen (bibliography cosmeticule) on 4 June 2018@22:39:57.
Ronald Allen (cosmeticule in primary note: make em dash symmetrical) on 4 September 2018@18:59:19.

Headword: Aboulei
Adler number: alpha,60
Translated headword: inconsiderately, unintentionally
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
[Meaning] without consideration, mindlessly, ignorantly.[1]
"Though he certainly had not guessed the king's opinion, he accomplished it quite unintentionally."[2]
Greek Original:
Aboulei: aboulôs, aphronôs, amathôs. ho de ou sphodra stochazomenos tês tou basileôs gnômês aboulotata diepraxato.
Notes:
The headword adverb, noted for its form by grammarians, is presumably extracted from somewhere (other than the quotation given).
[1] cf. generally alpha 64.
[2] Polybius fr. 92 Büttner-Wobst. The quotation employs the superlative form of the adverb (a)boulo/tata) rendered here by 'quite unintentionally'. Although accepting the fragment himself, Büttner-Wobst notes that Dindorf maintained that this fragment cannot be genuinely Polybian, because Polybius does not use the verb diapra/casqai, except in a positive context (p. 527).
Reference:
T. Büttner-Wobst, ed., Polybii Historiae, vol. IV, (Leipzig 1904)
Keywords: biography; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; ethics; historiography; history
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 26 August 1998@19:11:52.
Vetted by:
William Hutton (Modified headword, translation and note, added keywords, set status) on 30 January 2001@22:33:11.
David Whitehead (added note; cosmetics) on 23 April 2002@09:17:38.
Catharine Roth (cosmetic) on 23 April 2002@11:16:43.
David Whitehead (added primary note and another hw option; more keywords; cosmetics) on 19 December 2011@08:33:31.
David Whitehead (expanded primary note; cosmetics) on 2 April 2015@10:32:52.
Ronald Allen (added bibliography, supplemented n.2) on 25 April 2018@22:49:34.
Ronald Allen (cosmeticule (bibliography)) on 4 June 2018@23:45:53.

Headword: Aboulêton kakon
Adler number: alpha,62
Translated headword: involuntary evil, undesired evil
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
[Meaning something] unwanted, what one does not want.[1]
Also [sc. attested is] abouletos, he who does not wish; but Aboulitos [is] a proper name, with the 'i'.[2]
Greek Original:
Aboulêton kakon: athelêton, ho ou thelei tis. kai Aboulêtos, ho mê boulomenos, Aboulitos de onoma kurion, dia tou i.
Notes:
[1] The headword phrase has the same or similar glossing in other lexica (references at Photius alpha46 Theodoridis), and is presumably quoted from somewhere.
[2] For Aboulitos (or -tes), satrap of Susiana under Alexander the Great, see Plutarch, Alexander 68; Arrian, Anabasis 3.8.5, etc.
Keywords: biography; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; ethics; geography; historiography; history
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 26 August 1998@19:22:25.
Vetted by:
William Hutton (Cosmetics, added keyword, set status) on 30 January 2001@22:38:53.
David Whitehead (added note and keywords; cosmetics) on 23 April 2002@09:30:21.
David Whitehead (augmented headword, notes, keywords) on 15 August 2007@09:45:45.
David Whitehead (cosmetics) on 1 August 2011@07:41:29.
David Whitehead on 16 August 2013@06:52:58.

Headword: Abraam
Adler number: alpha,69
Translated headword: Abraham
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
The first among patriarchs; [it was he] in whom the Hebrew people took pride at first, before they rebelled against God, became estranged from Him, and shed upon themselves the blood of His Only-Begotten Son.[1] This man came out of the land of the Chaldeans, who devoted their entire lives to the stars and heavenly bodies. Trained, therefore, as was their ancestral custom, to observe the motions of the heavenly bodies[2] he surmised that the masterwork underlying this visible creation was not to be found in such objects, but had a Creator who set them in motion, gave harmony to their paths, and ordered the entire universe. Because of the greatness and beauty of the things He had made, Abraham, as it was likely, ceased devoting himself to gazing out into the heavens nor did he squander his passion in their pursuit. Instead, by surmounting the celestial vaults and transcending all the intelligible realm beyond the cosmos, Abraham no longer stood apart from the One sought, until finally the Creator for whom he yearned manifested Himself to Abraham in likenesses[3] and forms. And in this way the Unseen and Invisible revealed Himself. And [God] sent him forth from his own land as a wanderer and settled him in the land of the Canaanites. There he dwelled, now being in about his ninety-ninth year.[4] Until this time, he was childless; then [God] made him the father of the miraculous and blessed Isaac that he might have a first-born, only-begotten son[5] -- prefiguring the mystical image of the First-Born, Only-Begotten Son.[6] This was an exceedingly singular[7] honor bestowed upon Abraham, for the Creator favored him with the titles Servant, Beloved, and Father by flesh of the Only Begotten Son of Him who fashioned the entire universe.[8] Abraham invented sacred writing and devised the language of which Hebrew children used to have a command, as they were this man's disciples and descendants. Moreover, the Greek alphabet received its impetus from this script,[9] even if Greeks amused themselves by forming the letters differently. Proof of this is in the pronunciation of the first and preeminent letter "alpha" because it derives its name from the Hebrew "aleph" by way of the Blessed, First, and Eternal Name.[10] So too, the Greeks through Abraham came to possess books on dream interpretation. Witness to this is Joseph, the truly wondrous descendant of Abraham, who interpreted Pharoah's dreams as they were going to turn out in fact. In this, Philo, the Jewish philosopher, will be my confirmation via his work Life of the Statesman.[11] About Philo it is said "Philo platonizes and Plato philonizes."[12]
The practice of idolatry extended from Serug[13] to the time of Abraham's father Tharron.[14] Thus, when Abraham was 14 years old[15] and deemed worthy of divine knowledge, he upbraided his father, "Why do you lead the people astray for harmful gain (that is, with idols)? There is no other God but the One in heaven, the Creator of the entire universe." Yet seeing the people serving earthly things, he embarked on a tireless quest, seeking out with his pious heart the Truly Existing God.[16] But seeing that the sky is sometimes light and sometimes dark, he said to himself, "That is not God." Observing similarly the sun and the moon, the one obscured and eclipsed and the other waning and occluded, he said, "Those are not gods either." True, he was trained in astronomy by his father, but Abraham all the same was puzzled by the motions of the stars and scornful of them. But God appeared to him and said, "Go out of your land and leave your kinsmen."[17] Abraham took his father's idols, smashing some and incinerating others. Then he went away with his father out of the land of the Chaldeans. And they came to Haran,[18] where his father died. He left there, obeying the Lord's word, with his wife Sarah and his nephew Lot[19] and all their possessions, and came to the promised land Canaan, which the Canaanites had seized and settled in. When a famine arose, Abraham left the land of the Canaanites and went into Egypt, where Abimelech[20] the king took his wife Sarah. God struck terror into Abimelech and paralysed his limbs, saying "Give this man back his wife, because he is a prophet and will pray for you, and you will live. But if you do not give her back, know that you and your entire household will die." When Abraham got his wife back, undefiled, he prayed, and Abimelech and his household were cured of the paralysis.[21] After this the king, honoring Abraham and devoting himself to his sayings, became a pious and expert teacher to the Egyptians. The same Abraham, upon returning from war,[22] was considered worthy of blessing by Melchisedek, king of Salem, who brought bread and wine out to him. Melchisedek was a priest of the Most High, and Abraham gave to Him a tenth of all he had. Melchisedek was without father, mother, or lineage, like the Son of God.[23]
When Abram[24] lamented to God about his childlessness, God revealed to him through a dream that his descendants would be as numerous as the stars. And he believed God, and God reckoned it to him as righteousness.[25] Now Sarah, who was barren, gave Abraham permission to father a child with her maidservant, and she bore Ismael.[26] And when Abram was 99 years old, God appeared to him and altered his name to Abraham, for until then he had been called Abram. Similarly, Sarah became Sarrah with another "r".[27] And Abraham circumcised Ismael and all his descendants. Moreover, when the Lord was being shown the hospitality of Abraham's house, He promised Abraham that Sarrah would bear him a son. But Sarrah smiled; and the one who was begotten was called Isaac, by the Hebrew name that means "laughter with delight."[28]
Also [sc. attested is the adjective] *abramiai=os: [meaning] descendant of Abraham, or towering, revered.[29]
Greek Original:
Abraam: ho prôtos en patriarchais: eis hon apesemnuneto dêmos ho tôn Hebraiôn to proteron, prin ê theou aposkirtêsai kai genesthai toutou allotrioi kai to tou monogenous huiou autou haima eph' heautous epispasasthai. houtos ek men tês Chaldaiôn gês hupêrchen hormômenos, tôn peri ta meteôra kai tous asteras ton bion holon katanaliskontôn. askêtheis oun kata ton patrion nomon tas tôn epouraniôn asterôn kinêseis kai stochasamenos hôs ouk en toutois histatai to megalourgon tês phainomenês tautêsi ktiseôs, all' echei tina ton dêmiourgon ton kai kinounta kai dieuthunonta tên enarmonion tôn asterôn poreian kai tou kosmou pantos tên katastasin, kai dia tou megethous kai tês kallonês tôn ktismatôn ton genesiourgon autôn, hôs enên, theôrêsas ouk estê mechri toutôn, oude tên ephesin eis tauta katedapanêsen, alla tôn ouraniôn hapsidôn huperartheis kai pasan diabas tên noêtên te kai huperkosmion sumpêxin ouk apestê tou zêtoumenou, heôs hou ho pothoumenos heauton autôi ephanerôse tupois te kai morphômasin, hois heauton emphanizei ho aphanês kai aoratos. kai metanastên auton ek tês patridos labôn epi tên Chananitin katestêse, ton enenêkoston pou kai enaton êdê chronon parelkonta: kai apaida mechri tote tunchanonta gennêtora tou thaumasiou kai makaros kate- stêsen Isaak, hin' echoi monogenê huion kai prôtotokon, tou monogenous kai prôtotokou mustikên eikona prodiagraphonta: touto geras autôi kat' exaireton charisamenos, to doulon kai philon kai patera chrêmatisai tou monogenous huiou kata sarka, tou ton kosmon holon dêmiourgêsantos. houtos heure men hiera grammata kai glôssan emêchanêsato, hês Hebraiôn paides en epistêmêi etunchanon, hôs ontes toutou mathêtai kai apogonoi. ek toutou kai ta Hellênôn grammata tas aphormas elabon, kan allôs kai allôs heautous diapaizontes anagraphôsin Hellênes. kai toutou marturion hê tou Alpha phônê tou prôtou stoicheiou kai archontos, apo tou Aleph Hebraiou labontos tên epiklêsin tou makariou kai prôtou kai athanatou onomatos. ek toutou kai ta oneirôn biblia espheterisanto Hellênes. kai martus Iôsêph ho panthaumastos ho toutou apogonos, ho tou Pharaô ta enupnia hôs emellon apobêsesthai diêgoumenos. touto moi kai Philôn, ex Hebraiôn philosophos, en tôi tou Politikou biôi sunepimarturêsetai, Philôn, peri hou errêthê, Philôn platônizei, kai Platôn philônizei. hoti êrxato hê eidôlolatreia apo Serouch heôs tôn chronôn Tharra tou patros Abraam. hos Abraam huparchôn etôn id# kai theognôsias axiôtheis enouthetei ton patera autou, legôn: ti planais tous anthrôpous dia kerdos epizêmion [toutesti ta eidôla]; ouk estin allos theos ei mê ho en tois ouranois, ho kai panta ton kosmon dêmiourgêsas. horôn gar tous anthrôpous ktismatolatrountas diêrcheto diaponoumenos kai ton ontôs onta theon ekzêtôn ek philotheou kardias. horôn de ton ouranon pote men lampron, pote de skoteinon, elegen en heautôi: ouk estin houtos theos. homoiôs kai ton hêlion kai tên selênên, ton men apokruptomenon kai amauroumenon, tên de phthinousan kai apolêgousan, ephêsen: oud' houtoi eisi theoi. kai mentoi kai tên tôn asterôn kinêsin, ek tou patros gar epaideueto tên astronomian, kai aporôn eduscherainen. ôphthê de autôi ho theos kai legei autôi: exelthe ek tês gês sou kai ek tês sungeneias sou. kai labôn ta eidôla tou patros kai ta men klasas ta de empurisas anechôrêse meta tou patros ek gês Chaldaiôn: kai elthontos eis Charran, eteleutêsen ho patêr autou. kai exelthôn ekeithen en logôi Kuriou êlthe sun têi gunaiki Sarrai kai tôi anepsiôi Lôt meta pasês autôn tês aposkeuês eis tên opheilomenên gên Chanaan, hên hoi Chananaioi turannikôs aphelomenoi ôikêsan. limou de genomenou katalipôn tên Chananaiôn gên eis Aigupton apêiei, hou tên gunaika Sarran Abimelech hêrpasen ho basileus. touton ho theos ekdeimatôsas kai paresin tôn melôn epaxas, apodos, ephê, tên gunaika tôi anthrôpôi, hoti prophêtês esti kai proseuxetai peri sou kai zêseis. ei de mê apodôis, gnôthi hoti apothanêi su kai ta sa panta. kai houtôs apolabôn tên gunaika amianton kai proseuxamenos iathênai epoiêse tês pareseôs Abimelech kai ton oikon autou. ektote timôn auton ho basileus kai prosechôn tois hup' autou legomenois, didaskalos eusebeias kai polupeirias Aiguptiois egeneto. ho autos Abram hupostrephôn ek tou polemou tês eulogias tou Melchisedek katêxiôtai, tou basileôs Salêm, hos exênenken autôi artous kai oinon. ên de kai hiereus tou Hupsistou. kai edôken autôi Abram dekatên apo pantôn. ên de ho Melchisedek apatôr, amêtôr, agenealogêtos, aphômoiômenos tôi huiôi tou theou. tôi de Abram ateknian olophuromenôi kath' hupnous epideixas ho theos tous asteras kata to plêthos autôn esesthai hoi to sperma proedêlou. ho de episteuse tôi theôi, kai elogisthê autôi eis dikaiosunên. hê de Sarra steira ousa sunechôrêsen Abram apo tês paidiskês paidopoiêsasthai: kai ischei ton Ismaêl. enenêkonta de kai ennea etôn onti tôi Abram epiphaneis ho theos Abraam metônomasen: Abram gar prôên ônomazeto: homoiôs kai tên Saran Sarran, prostheis kai heteron r. kai perieteme ton Ismaêl kai pantas tous ex autou. Kurios de tôi Abraam epixenôtheis epêngeilato texesthai Sarran autôi paida. hê de emeidiase, kai Isaak to gennêthen prosêgoreuthê, pherônumôs tôi meth' hêdonês gelôti kata tên Hebraïda dialekton. kai Abramiaios: ho apogonos Abraam, ê gigantiaios, hieroprepês.
Notes:
This long entry is derived in part directly from George the Monk, in part indirectly from Philo of Alexandria; see further in the notes below.
[1] cf. Matthew 27:25 (web address 1).
[2] The Suda's attention to Chaldean astrology derives from Philo, On Abraham, (Colson, Philo Vol VI: XV.69-70).
[3] Use of tu/pos here is twofold: 1) To assert that God's appearance to Abraham was indirect (echoing Philo, On Abraham, XVII.79-80); 2) To impart, as if a corollary of tu/pos in Romans 5:14, that God's manifestation to Abraham was a type or prefiguration of Christ.
[4] Abraham is 100 years old at Isaac's birth (Genesis 21:5); however, the Suda follows Josephus, Antiquities of the Jews 1.191-93 (web address 2 below) in assuming Abraham's age as 99 at the time of God's promise.
[5] The Suda here omits Ishmael, born to Abraham by the Egyptian slave Hagar when he was 86 years old (Genesis 16:1-16). The Suda's omission tacitly acknowledges a covenantal and legal distinction clearly drawn in Genesis. In Isaac, God establishes an "everlasting covenant" for his progeny, whereas God blesses Ishmael and makes him "fruitful and exceedingly numerous" (Genesis 17:19-20). Isaac's filial status is made explicit by God in identifying him as Abraham's "only son" (Genesis 22:12) through whom "offspring shall be named" for Abraham, whereas Ishmael, although destined to father a nation, is identified by God as "the son of the slave woman" (Genesis 21:12-13). Ishmael is, however, mentioned later in the entry.
[6] Christological imagery links Isaac to the personage of Jesus (Matthew 1:1-2 at web address 3 below). See also delta 94, notes 1 and 14.
[7] The Suda underscores the magnitude of the honor with a hyperbolic kat' before e)cai/reton.
[8] The statement, rooted in a paternalistic-filial model that originates in Abraham and culminates in the figure of Christ, approximates the transcendental premise: Abraham is to Joseph as Isaac is to Christ.
[9] The Suda confuses Mosaic and Abrahamic lore. The 2nd century BCE Jewish writer Eupolemus claimed for Moses the invention and propagation of writing: "Moses was the first wise man, the first who imparted the alphabet to the Jews; the Phoenicians received it from the Jews, and the Greeks from the Phoenicians." The 2nd century BCE Egyptian Jewish writer Artapanus attributed hieroglyphics to Moses. According to the 2nd century BCE Samaritan writer Ps.-Eupolemus and Artapanus, astrology and astronomy originated with Abraham, who taught these disciplines and other tools of culture to the Jews, Phoenicians, and Egyptians. They, in turn, transmitted these arts to the Greeks. Philo in On Abraham stresses Abraham's expertise as a teacher. (Encyc. Judaica, Vol 6.964-65; Gruen, 146-51, 157, 294; Grant, 77; Philo, XI.52) At sigma 295, Seth is credited with the invention of the alphabet; Greek legend named Cadmus or Linus as the one who introduced the alphabet to Greece (gamma 416, kappa 21, kappa 22, lambda 568). See also phi 787.
[10] The reference recalls א aleph as the initial letter of ʾelohīm, the most frequent generic name for God in the OT, used about 2,500 times--but a distant second to the unspoken covenant name YHWH (Yahweh), which occurs some 6,800 times (Perdue, 685-86). Cf. alpha 1445.
[11] A reference to Philo's *bi/os politikou= o(/per e)sti peri\ *)iwsh/f (Colson, Philo Vol VI, 140ff.)
[12] Adapted from Jerome's On Illustrious Men (11): h)\ *pla/twn filwni/zei h)\ *fi/lwn platwni/zei ("Either Plato philonizes or Philo platonizes.") Cf. phi 448 and Photius, Bibliotheca 86b 25.
[13] Abraham's grandfather (Genesis 11:22). Seruch in the LXX, שרוג śerūḡ in Hebrew. See also sigma 253.
[14] Abraham's father (Genesis 11:24). Tharra (*qa/rra, *qarra/) or Tharrha (*qa/r)r(a) (Hatch, Concordance, Appendix 1, 71; Brenton, 13); in Hebrew תרח Teraḥ. From the Chronicon of George the Monk, 92.11-12; cf. Malalas 55.5-6.
[15] The Midrash sets Abraham's rejection of idolatry at age 13 (Encyc. Judaica, 4.244). From here to "teacher to the Egyptians," the Suda's source is the Chronicon of George the Monk, 93.16 - 95.17.
[16] On God as "He who is," see omicron 438, omega 105.
[17] cf. Philo, On Abraham XIV.62.
[18] The call in Genesis 12:1-5 brings Abraham from Haran (חרן) to Canaan (כנען). The Suda adheres to Philo, On Abraham, XIV. 67: metani/statai...a)po\ th=s *xaldai/wn gh=s...e)is th\n *xarrai/wn gh=n.
[19] Philo shows a)delfidou=s, as at On Abraham, XXXVII.212, rather than the Suda's potentially ambiguous a)neyio/s for nephew (see LSJ s.v. at web address 4).
[20] On Abimelech, see alpha 45.
[21] The affliction cured in Genesis 20:17-18 is unspecified for Abimelech, but clearly is sterility for the female members of his house. Josephus, Antiquities of the Jews 1.208 (web address 5) relates that a "dangerous distemper" (Whiston trans.) afflicted Abimelech. For other traditions, see EncycJudaica, 2.76.
[22] Genesis 14:14-18; the Suda's source is the Chronicon of George the Monk, 100.17-26; 101.5-7.
[23] See Hebrews 7:3 (web address 6). In the Suda, see mu 544, mu 545, mu 546.
[24] The Greek mainly uses Abraam (אברהם ʾAḇraham) to this point, but here Abram (אברם), his pre-covenant name (Genesis 17:5).
[25] Genesis 15:5-6. The statement "and he believed God and God reckoned it to him as righteousness" appears also in Romans 4:3 (web address 7), Galatians 3:6 (web address 8), and James 2:23 (web address 9). A more idiomatic and semantically precise translation of the Hebrew (והאמין בה' ויחשבה לו צדקה weheʾemīn bah' wayyaḥšeḇeha lō ṣedaqah) reads: "And because he put his trust in the Lord, He reckoned it to his merit" (Plaut, 146). This version takes into interpretive account the imperfective waw consecutive (consequential) (Kautzsch, 111.l).
[26] Ismael (Ishmael) appears in the Suda at iota 644, but with a gloss that belongs to Isaak.
[27] Genesis 17:15. Also as *sa/r)r(a or Sarrha (Brenton, 18). The Hebrew covenant name change is Sarai to Sarah (both meaning Princess).
[28] Isaac (יצחק yiṣḥaq) from the Hebrew meaning "he (Abraham) laughed" in Genesis 17:17, and puns Sarah's תצחק tiṣḥaq ("she laughed") in Genesis 18:12. (Kohlenberger, Vol 1, 37, 39; Anderson, 182) In the Suda, see iota 606 (mostly taken from this entry).
[29] This adjectival derivative of Abraham's name appears in 4 Maccabees 9:21 LXX. The gloss replicates, apart from word order, one in Photius; cf. Synagoge alpha17, Hesychius alpha181.
References:
Anderson, A.W. Understanding the Old Testament. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall, 1966
Attridge, H.W. "The Letter to the Hebrews" in The HarperCollins Study Bible (NRSV). New York: HarperCollins, 1993
Brenton, L.C.L. The Septuagint with Apocrypha. Peabody: Henrickson, 1999 (reprint of 1851 edn.)
Colson F.H., Philo (Vol VI), Loeb Classical Library. Cambridge: Harvard University, 1994
Encyclopaedia Judaica. Jerusalem: Encyclopaedia Judaica, 1973
Grant, M. From Alexander to Cleopatra: The Hellenistic World. New York: Charles Scribners' Sons, 1982
Gruen, E.S. Heritage and Hellenism: The Reinvention of Jewish Tradition. Berkeley: University of California, 1998
Hatch, E., Redpath, H.A., and Muraoka, T. A Concordance to the Septuagint. Grand Rapids: Baker Books, 1998
Kautzsch, E. Gesenius' Hebrew Grammar. Oxford: Clarendon, 1910
Keck, L.E. "The Letter of Paul to the Romans" in The HarperCollins Study Bible (NRSV). New York: HarperCollins, 1993
Kohlenberger, J.R. The Interlinear NIV Hebrew-English Old Testament. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1987
Perdue, L.G. "Names of God in the Old Testament" in Harper's Bible Dictionary. San Francisco: Harper & Row, 1985
Plaut, W.G. The Torah: Genesis, A Modern Commentary. New York: Union of American Hebrew Congregations, 1972
Smyth, H.W. Greek Grammar. Cambridge: Harvard University, 1984
Whiston, W. The Works of Josephus. Peabody: Hendrickson, 1987 (reprint of 1736 edn.)
Associated internet addresses:
Web address 1,
Web address 2,
Web address 3,
Web address 4,
Web address 5,
Web address 6,
Web address 7,
Web address 8,
Web address 9
Keywords: aetiology; biography; children; Christianity; chronology; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; dreams; food; gender and sexuality; geography; historiography; history; law; medicine; religion; science and technology; women
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 20 August 1998@17:54:17.
Vetted by:
Craig Miller (Under editorial review as of this date) on 6 January 2002@08:24:02.
Craig Miller (Modified translation) on 24 January 2002@19:18:31.
Craig Miller on 25 January 2002@00:26:38.
Craig Miller (Notes added. Additional work pending.) on 25 January 2002@00:29:41.
Craig Miller on 25 January 2002@01:17:54.
Craig Miller (Added bibliography, keywords; changed status) on 25 January 2002@22:21:22.
Craig Miller (Cosmetics) on 25 January 2002@22:51:36.
Craig Miller on 25 January 2002@22:54:34.
Craig Miller on 25 January 2002@23:13:26.
Craig Miller on 4 June 2002@20:45:55.
Craig Miller on 19 June 2002@19:13:42.
Raphael Finkel (Added Hebrew words; minor cosmetics.) on 31 October 2002@10:38:39.
Raphael Finkel (More Hebrew, cosmetics.) on 18 December 2002@10:58:21.
Craig Miller (Additional cosmetics) on 17 May 2003@19:07:49.
David Whitehead (another keyword) on 2 October 2005@08:20:23.
David Whitehead (another keyword) on 16 November 2005@07:49:08.
Jennifer Benedict (added 15 links) on 25 March 2008@11:50:57.
Catharine Roth (references, cosmetics) on 10 April 2008@16:09:00.
Catharine Roth (cosmetics) on 10 April 2008@20:15:09.
Catharine Roth (tweaked translation, pruned notes, added cross-references) on 11 April 2008@12:30:02.
Catharine Roth (adjusted note numbers; more tweaks) on 11 April 2008@14:18:11.
William Hutton (augmented n. 29) on 17 July 2009@17:14:18.
David Whitehead (tweaks and cosmetics) on 21 December 2011@07:16:50.
Catharine Roth (upgraded links, other tweaks) on 22 December 2011@19:00:49.
Catharine Roth (tweaked note and links) on 11 November 2013@01:26:27.
Raphael Finkel (Converted Romanization of Hebrew to ISO 259.) on 7 August 2014@14:27:02.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 11 August 2014@00:14:27.
David Whitehead (coding) on 15 August 2015@07:33:55.
Catharine Roth (betacode typo) on 2 October 2018@02:07:40.

Headword: Abreas
Adler number: alpha,74
Translated headword: Abreas
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
Proper name.
Greek Original:
Abreas: onoma kurion.
Note:
That of a "double-pay" soldier in Arrian, Anabasis 6.9-10.
Keywords: biography; definition; economics; historiography; history; military affairs
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 26 August 1998@19:29:50.
Vetted by:
William Hutton (Added headword, cosmetics, set status) on 31 January 2001@13:02:23.
David Whitehead (added note and keywords) on 24 April 2002@03:26:41.
David Whitehead on 1 August 2011@07:43:43.
David Whitehead on 19 December 2011@09:27:40.

Headword: Abriorêx
Adler number: alpha,80
Translated headword: Abriorex, Abriorix
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
Proper name.
Greek Original:
Abriorêx: onoma kurion.
Note:
Attested only here and, according to Adler, in the Ambrosian Lexicon in this form ending eta-xi; nevertheless this is surely Abriorix (a.k.a. Ambiorix), leader of the Gallic Eburones against Julius Caesar in 54-53 BCE.
Keywords: biography; definition; geography; historiography; history; military affairs
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 26 August 1998@19:34:00.
Vetted by:
William Hutton (Added headword, set keyword and status) on 31 January 2001@13:24:23.
David Whitehead (modified headword; added keyword) on 1 February 2001@03:55:16.
David Whitehead (note) on 19 July 2011@09:00:27.
David Whitehead (expanded note) on 19 December 2011@09:57:15.
David Whitehead (augmented note and keywords) on 2 April 2015@11:00:30.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 7 May 2015@00:19:45.

Headword: Abrogastês
Adler number: alpha,81
Translated headword: Abrogastes, Arbogast
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
A Frank, who was fierce as flame from[1] strength of body and ruggedness of spirit; by happenstance second in rank to Baudo.[2] He was especially solid and complete in regard to self-control and made war on money, giving no quarter--for[3] he was no different from the common soldiers in terms of wealth at least. For this reason he seemed useful to the emperor Theodosius,[4] since he added to the manly and just manner of Valentinian[5] his own gravity, as a just and unswerving standard for the palace, not to do harm or wrong in any matters of the court.
Greek Original:
Abrogastês: Phrangos, hos kata alkên sômatos kai thumou trachutêta phlogoeidês ên, deuteragônistês tunchanôn Baudônos. allôs te ên kai pros sôphrosunên pepêgôs te kai diêrthrômenos kai pros chrêmata polemon polemôn aspondon. diephere goun tôn eutelôn stratiôtôn hoson ge eis plouton ouden. kai dia touto edokei tôi basilei Theodosiôi chrêsimos, hos ge pros ton Oualentinianou tropon arrenôpon onta kai dikaion, kai to par' heautou baros epetithei, kathaper orthon kai astrabê ton kanona tois basileiois, pros to mêden tôn peri tên aulên parablaptesthai ê hamartanesthai.
Notes:
This entry -- which has been tentatively identified as a fragment (no.53 FHG; Blockley, Eunapius fr. 58.[1]) of the sophist and historian Eunapius of Sardis -- concerns the Frankish general Flavius Arbogastes (died 394). (The present headword 'Abrogastes' is a rare variant of, or error for, the name.)
[1] Causal kata/ (LSJ s.v. IV).
[2] His predecessor (and, allegedly, father) Flavius Bauto.
[3] "Part proof" gou=n (Denniston, p. 451).
[4] theta 144.
[5] omicron 762.
References:
Banchich, T.M. "Eunapius, Eustathius, and the Suda." AJP 109 (1988) 223-225
Blockley, R.C. The Fragmentary Classicising Historians of the Later Roman Empire: Eunapius, Olympiodorus, Priscus and Malchus. Vol. II. Liverpool: Francis Cairns, 1983.
Denniston, J.D. The Greek Particles. Second Edition. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1954.
Keywords: biography; economics; ethics; geography; historiography; history; medicine; military affairs
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 26 August 1998@19:34:42.
Vetted by:
William Hutton (Added headword, modified translation, added keywords, set status) on 31 January 2001@16:29:34.
David Whitehead (added note and keyword; cosmetics) on 1 February 2001@04:13:55.
David Whitehead (another keyword) on 28 November 2005@08:20:03.
David Whitehead (tweaks to tr; augmented notes and keywords) on 20 December 2011@03:53:50.
Aaron Baker (Modified translation; added grammatical notes; added Blockly cite; added bibliography.) on 3 June 2015@22:23:43.
Aaron Baker (Added period after "Bauto.") on 3 June 2015@22:25:43.
Catharine Roth (coded Greek) on 3 June 2015@23:24:46.
Catharine Roth (added bibliography) on 27 January 2016@22:44:10.

Headword: Habrokomas
Adler number: alpha,83
Translated headword: Abrokomas, Habrokomas, Abrocomas
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
This man was satrap[1] under Artaxerxes, king of the Persians.[2]
Greek Original:
Habrokomas: houtos satrapês ên Artaxerxou tou Persôn basileôs.
Notes:
From Harpokration (and Photius) s.v. The name has a smooth breathing (Abrokomas) there, as in Xenophon before them (below); in the Suda it is rough (Habrokomas).
[1] Provincial governor; see sigma 153 (and generally OCD(4) p.1321).
[2] There were several Persian kings of this name (see generally OCD(4) p.175), but probably Artaxerxes II (405/4-359/8) is meant; he had a general called Abrokomas, mentioned by Xenophon in the Anabasis.
Keywords: biography; chronology; dialects, grammar, and etymology; geography; historiography; history; military affairs; politics
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 26 August 1998@19:36:18.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (added headword, notes, keyword; cosmetics) on 29 September 2000@05:33:34.
William Hutton (Cosmetics) on 1 February 2001@00:51:03.
David Whitehead (augmented notes and keywords) on 19 July 2011@09:44:36.
Catharine Roth (cosmeticule) on 21 December 2011@01:44:30.
David Whitehead (updated 2 refs) on 29 July 2014@12:13:20.
David Whitehead (more keywords) on 2 April 2015@11:02:29.

Headword: Abusson
Adler number: alpha,104
Translated headword: abyss
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
[Meaning] that which not even a deep [buqo/s] can contain; but Ionians pronounce buqo/s as busso/s.[1]
From which also bussodomeu/ein ["to build in the deep"] appears to be said,[2] from the verb du/nw ["I sink"] [meaning] I enter upon secretly, with a change [of initial consonant] [giving] bu/w, bu/sw, be/busmai, be/busai, [and the nouns] buso/s and a)bu/ssos [meaning] where no-one enters because of its depth.[3]
Aristophanes in Frogs [writes]: "for immediately you will come to a huge lake, an absolute abyss."[4] And he also uses the word in the neuter: "they shall not make peace while the measureless [a)/busson] silver is with the goddess on the Acropolis." For 1,000 talents were stored on the Acropolis.[5]
"Abyss" is what the Holy Scripture calls the watery substance. So since the land is surrounded on all sides by waters [and] by great and small seas, David naturally called this [i.e., abyss] the earth's surrounding garment.[6] Also, "abyss calls to abyss", the same prophet says,[7] meaning figuratively military divisions and the excessive size of the multitude.[8]
"I was under water as [if] in a kind of abyss."[9]
So an abyss [is] a great amount of water.
Greek Original:
Abusson: hên oude buthos chôrêsai dunatai: Iônes de ton buthon busson phasin. hothen dokei legesthai kai bussodomeuein, para to dunô, to hupeiserchomai, kata tropên buô, busô, bebusmai, bebusai, busos kai abussos, hou oudeis eiserchetai dia to bathos. Aristophanês Batrachois: euthus gar epi limnên megalên hêxeis panu abusson. kai oudeterôs phêsin ho autos: heôs an êi to argurion to abusson para têi theôi, ouk eirêneusousin. en gar têi akropolei chilia talanta apekeito. Abusson kalei tên hugran ousian hê theia graphê. epei oun hê gê pantachothen hudasi periechetai megalois kai mikrois pelagesin, eikotôs peribolaion autês eirêken ho Dabid. kai, abussos abusson epikaleitai, ho autos prophêtês phêsin: ta stratiôtika legôn tagmata kai tên tou plêthous huperbolên tropikôs. hôs en abussôi tini hupobruchios egenomên. Abussos oun hudatôn plêthos polu.
Notes:
See also alpha 105.
[1] This comment on Ionian pronunciation comes from the scholiast on Aristophanes, Frogs 138, quoted later in the entry.
[2] In Homer, Odyssey, where bussodomeu/w occurs most frequently, it has the sense "brood over."
[3] cf. Etymologicum Magnum 4.44. These are principal parts of the verb bu/w, which means "to stuff," followed by buso/s, which does not exist according to LSJ. Probably this is a mistake for busso/s, "depth of the sea" (cf. beta 598, busso/n). The Suda generally has little concern for the distinction between single and double consonants. The author thus seems to propose a very dubious etymology: that a)-bussos literally means "unstuffable" -- i.e., unable to be entered. [Ms M (= Marcianus 448) omits this sentence.]
[4] Aristophanes, Frogs 137-8 (web address 1).
[5] "Silver" [a)rgu/rion] is a neuter noun in Greek, while lake [li/mnh] in the previous sentence is feminine; the point is that the same form a)/busson is used with both. The sentence quoted here is actually part of a scholion to Aristophanes, Lysistrata 173 (web address 2); Aristophanes uses the phrase to\ a)rgu/rion to\ a)/busson in that line itself.
[6] Psalm 103:6 LXX. See again under pi 1083.
[7] Psalm 41:8 LXX.
[8] Referring to the continuation of Psalm 41:8 LXX, "all thy waves and thy billows are gone over me" (KJV).
[9] From Theodoret's commentary (PG 80.1173) on Psalm 41:8 LXX.
Associated internet addresses:
Web address 1,
Web address 2
Keywords: Christianity; comedy; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; economics; epic; geography; history; imagery; military affairs; proverbs; religion
Translated by: Elizabeth Vandiver on 21 November 1998@17:02:02.
Vetted by:
William Hutton (Cosmetics, augmented note, added keywords, set status) on 5 February 2001@11:48:31.
David Whitehead (added note; cosmetics) on 9 February 2001@08:11:37.
David Whitehead (added x-ref; cosmetics) on 4 July 2003@08:14:49.
Elizabeth Vandiver (Added links; cosmetics) on 14 December 2003@15:22:17.
David Whitehead (modified translation and notes 6-9) on 28 April 2004@11:16:41.
Jennifer Benedict (betacoding) on 26 March 2008@00:15:00.
Catharine Roth (cosmetics) on 19 April 2011@18:23:25.
David Whitehead (more keywords) on 25 April 2011@04:11:52.
Catharine Roth (tweaked translation and note, after consulting with the translator) on 26 April 2011@17:14:37.
David Whitehead (augmented notes and keywords; tweaks and cosmetics) on 22 December 2011@03:45:27.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 21 November 2014@10:58:29.
David Whitehead (cosmetics) on 21 November 2014@11:44:30.
David Whitehead (coding) on 15 August 2015@07:36:21.

Headword: Abussos
Adler number: alpha,105
Translated headword: abyss, pit
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
There was a shrine of Persephone, which guarded much gold from all ages[1] [and] kept it inviolate.[2] In this [shrine] there was a certain pit of gold, not visible to the general public [and] hidden[3] under ground.
Greek Original:
Abussos: hieron ên tês Persephonês polun chruson ek pantos tou chronou pephulagmenon athikton echon. en hôi chrusos tis abussos, aoratos tois pollois kata gês kekrummenos.
Notes:
For this headword see already alpha 104.
The pi 3232 entry on Pyrrhus (the C4/3 BCE king of Epirus: see generally OCD(4) p.1245) comprises a lengthy anecdotal extract on him from the Roman Antiquities of Dionysius of Halicarnassus (20.8-9); the present entry paraphrases part of it (20.9.2). The date is 276-275, when Pyrrhus was campaigning for a second time in southern Italy and Sicily.
[1] Literally, "of all time".
[2] Or "untouched".
[3] Or simply "situated" (pi 3232).
Keywords: architecture; biography; economics; geography; historiography; history; military affairs; religion
Translated by: Elizabeth Vandiver on 1 October 1999@23:13:45.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (augmented notes; cosmetics) on 9 February 2001@08:44:13.
David Whitehead (augmented keywords; cosmetics) on 19 December 2003@08:01:03.
David Whitehead (another x-ref; more keywords) on 22 December 2011@03:48:15.
David Whitehead (updated a ref) on 29 July 2014@12:17:45.
William Hutton (tweaked translation on the basis of a suggestion of Brady Kiesling.) on 27 December 2016@10:22:00.

Headword: Agatharchos
Adler number: alpha,109
Translated headword: Agatharkhos, Agatharchos, Agatharchus
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
A proper name. He was an outstanding painter from nature, the son of Eudemos, of Samian stock.
Greek Original:
Agatharchos: onoma kurion. ên de zôgraphos epiphanês, Eudêmou huios, to de genos Samios.
Notes:
After the initial gloss, this entry derives from Harpokration s.v., commenting on Demosthenes 21.147 (web address 1).
The other primary sources on A. (translated in Pollitt, below) are Plutarch, Life of Pericles 13.2 (web address 2); Plutarch, Life of Alcibiades 16.4 (web address 3); Vitruvius, On Architecture 7, praef. 1l (web address 4).
According to tradition, A. was the first painter to make a theatrical skene (for Aeschylus).
References:
OCD(4) s.v. (p.35)
J.J. Pollitt, The Art of Ancient Greece (Cambridge 1990) 145-6 (with 188)
Associated internet addresses:
Web address 1,
Web address 2,
Web address 3,
Web address 4
Keywords: art history; biography; definition; geography; rhetoric; science and technology; stagecraft; tragedy
Translated by: Elizabeth Vandiver on 1 October 1999@23:24:55.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (added headwords and note; augmented bibliography) on 9 February 2001@09:13:41.
David Whitehead (augmented notes and keywords; cosmetics) on 19 December 2003@08:05:39.
Elizabeth Vandiver (Added keyword) on 28 September 2005@20:10:00.
Jennifer Benedict (added links) on 26 March 2008@00:23:53.
David Whitehead (another keyword; cosmetics) on 19 July 2011@09:47:47.
Catharine Roth (upgraded links, other cosmetics) on 23 December 2011@18:47:22.
David Whitehead (updated a ref) on 29 July 2014@12:18:59.

Headword: Agathias
Adler number: alpha,112
Translated headword: Agathias
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
A lawyer,[1] of Myrina;[2] the one who wrote the History as a continuation of Procopius of Caesarea,[3] [comprising] the affairs involving Belisarius[4] and the events in Italy and Libya; that is the affairs involving Narses[5] in Italy and the events in Lazike[6] and Byzantion. He also composed other books, both in meter and in prose, including the Daphniaka[7] and the Cycle of New Epigrams, which he compiled himself from the poets of his day. He was a contemporary of Paulus Silentiarius and of the consul Macedonius and of Tribonian[8] in the time of Justinian.[9]
Greek Original:
Agathias: scholastikos, Murinaios, ho grapsas tên meta Prokopion historian ton Kaisarea, ta kata Belisarion kai tas en Italiai kai en Libuêi praxeis, toutesti ta kata Narsên en Italiai kai ta en Lazikêi kai Buzantiôi. houtos sunetaxe kai hetera biblia emmetra te kai katalogadên, ta te kaloumena Daphniaka, kai ton Kuklon tôn neôn Epigrammatôn, hon autos sunêxen ek tôn kata kairon poiêtôn. sunêkmase de Paulôi tôi Selentiariôi kai Makedoniôi tôi hupatôi kai Tribounianôi epi tôn Ioustinianou chronôn.
Notes:
c.532-c.580. See generally Averil Cameron in OCD(4) s.v. (p.35).
[1] See OCD s.v.
[2] a.k.a. Sebastopolis, in Aeolis (Asia Minor): Barrington Atlas map 56 grid D4.
[3] For Procopius see pi 2479. A's own work was in turn continued by Menander Protector (mu 591).
[4] See beta 233.
[5] See nu 42.
[6] An alternative name for Colchis (kappa 1979); present-day Georgia, between the Black and Caspian Seas.
[7] Amatory hexameters.
[8] tau 956, cf. tau 951.
[9] iota 446.
Keywords: biography; chronology; gender and sexuality; geography; historiography; law; poetry; religion
Translated by: William Hutton on 30 March 2001@15:08:59.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (added notes and keywords; cosmetics) on 24 April 2002@04:07:08.
David Whitehead (added note) on 3 November 2003@06:05:01.
David Whitehead (added x-ref; corrected a note number) on 3 August 2006@09:47:58.
David Whitehead (tweaked tr) on 18 May 2011@08:29:09.
David Whitehead (augmented notes and keywords) on 22 December 2011@04:42:12.
Philip Rance (modified translation) on 23 January 2012@07:57:14.
David Whitehead (updated a ref) on 29 July 2014@12:22:58.

Headword: Agathoergoi
Adler number: alpha,115
Translated headword: agathoergoi, benefactors
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
Men selected according to valor.
From the Ephors.[1]
Greek Original:
Agathoergoi: hairetoi kat' andragathian. ek tôn Ephorôn.
Notes:
This is the name for a select group of Spartan elders. According to Herodotus (1.67.5: web address 1) five were selected each year from the eldest members of the cavalry, not from the ephors.
[1] Adler called these final three words locus dubius, and capitalized, as here, the word Ephors. For a speculative argument that this phrase should actually read "from the [sc. writings] of Ephoros", see D. Whitehead, 'Ephorus(?) on the Spartan constitution', Classical Quarterly n.s. 55 (2005) 299-301. [The suggestion has been taken up in Brill's New Jacoby s.v. Ephorus, by Victor Parker. However, the evidential basis for it is illusory, according to I.C. Cunningham, CQ n.s. 61 (2011) 312-314.]
Associated internet address:
Web address 1
Keywords: definition; ethics; geography; historiography; history; law; military affairs
Translated by: William Hutton on 31 March 2001@23:24:43.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (augmented note; added keyword) on 2 April 2001@03:36:30.
David Whitehead (augmented note and keywords) on 17 June 2005@09:32:07.
David Whitehead (expanded note) on 25 May 2011@06:46:44.
Catharine Roth (cosmetics) on 25 May 2011@11:04:04.
David Whitehead (expanded note; more keywords; cosmetics) on 22 December 2011@06:04:44.

Headword: Agathoklês
Adler number: alpha,117
Translated headword: Agathokles, Agathocles
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
This man became tyrant [of Syracuse] and, as Timaeus says, in his early youth was a common prostitute, ready [to give himself] to the most debauched, a jackdaw, a buzzard,[1] presenting his backside to all who wanted it. When he died, says [Timaeus], his wife cried out to him in lamentation, "What [did] I not [carnally do to] you? And what [did] you not [reciprocate to] me?"[2] That nature had endowed Agathokles with great advantages is clear. For escaping the wheel, the smoke[of the kiln and] the clay,[3] he came to Syracuse, at about the age of eighteen, and in a short time, starting from such beginnings, he became master of the whole of Sicily, exposed the Carthaginians to extreme dangers, and finally, having grown old in the role of dynast, ended his life with the title of king.[4]
Greek Original:
Agathoklês: houtos egeneto turannos kai, hôs phêsi Timaios, kata tên prôtên hêlikian koinos pornos, hetoimos tois akratestatois, koloios, triorchês, pantôn tôn boulomenôn tois opisthen emprosthen gegonôs. hos hote apethane, tên gunaika phêsi kataklaiomenên auton houtô thrênein: ti d' ouk egô se; ti d' ouk eme su; hoti de ek phuseôs anankê megala proterêmata gegonenai peri ton Agathoklea, touto dêlon. eis gar tas Surakousas paregenêthê pheugôn ton trochon, ton kapnon, ton pêlon, peri te tên hêlikian oktôkaideka etê gegonôs, kai meta tina chronon hormêtheis hupo toiautês hupotheseôs, kurios men egenêthê pasês Sikelias, megistois de kindunois periestêse Karchêdonious, telos engêrasas têi dunasteiai, katestrepse ton bion basileus prosagoreuomenos.
Notes:
360-289 BCE; he ruled Syracuse from 317-289. See generally OCD(4) p.36, under Agathocles(1).
The entry presents a semi-verbatim and mildly abridged extract from Polybius (12.15.2-7: web address 1 below), who is in turn citing, disapprovingly, Timaeus of Tauromenium (FGrH 566 F124b).
[1] On this passage K.J. Dover, Greek Homosexuality (London 1978) p.103 writes: 'The jackdaw here probably sybolises impudence and shamelessness; the buzzard, in Greek triorkhes, having three testicles, presumably symbolises insatiable lust, which is assumed to characterise the true pornos'. Cf. tau 995, where the first part of this quotation reappears.
[2] Probably Theoxene, the daughter or stepdaughter of Ptolemy I Soter and the third wife of Agathokles. See F.W. Walbank, A historical commentary on Polybius (Oxford, 1967) v.2 p.361.
[3] His father owned a large pottery. See Diodorus 19.2.7; 20.63.4. As with equivalent figures in (e.g.) late-C5 Athens, such as Kleon, we see here the conceit that those whose wealth lay in manufacture would actually participate in (and be debased by) the actual manufacturing.
[4] Agathokles assumed the title of king in 305. See Diodorus 20.54.1.
References:
Berve, H., Die Herrschaft des Agathokles (Verlag der Bayerischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, 1953)
Agathokles(15) in RE 1.1 748-757
Associated internet address:
Web address 1
Keywords: biography; constitution; daily life; ethics; gender and sexuality; historiography; history; politics; trade and manufacture; women; zoology
Translated by: David Whitehead on 10 February 2001@10:07:49.
Vetted by:
William Hutton (Modified translation, cosmetics, added keywords, set status) on 6 June 2001@00:10:30.
Tony Natoli (Modified translation, added notes and bibliography, raised status.) on 12 August 2001@02:19:21.
David Whitehead (restorative and other cosmetics) on 17 September 2002@05:10:41.
David Whitehead (more keywords) on 9 October 2005@10:59:41.
David Whitehead (more keywords) on 20 November 2005@10:37:08.
Jennifer Benedict (added link) on 26 March 2008@00:30:36.
David Whitehead (cosmetics) on 22 December 2011@06:16:09.
David Whitehead (updated a ref) on 29 July 2014@12:23:59.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 1 January 2015@23:51:52.
Catharine Roth (tweaked link) on 17 February 2018@23:14:40.

Headword: Agathônios
Adler number: alpha,125
Translated headword: Agathonios, Agathonius
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
A proper name.[1]
[The man] who was king of Tartessos.[2]
Also [sc. attested is the phrase] "Agathon's pipe-playing": the soft and relaxed [kind]; alternatively that which is neither loose nor harsh, but temperate and very sweet.[3]
Greek Original:
Agathônios: onoma kurion. hos ebasileuse tês Tartêssou. kai Agathônios aulêsis: hê malakê kai eklelumenê: ê hê mête chalara, mête pikra, all' eukratos kai hêdistê.
Notes:
[1] Herodotus 1.163 gives it as Arganthonios (text at web address 1). See also tau 137.
[2] In southern Spain; probably the Biblical Tarshish. See generally tau 137 and OCD(4) s.v. (p.1433).
[3] Zenobius 1.2. On Agathon (an Athenian poet of the late C5 BC) and his reputation for softness see alpha 124; and on his aulos music, M.L. West, Ancient Greek Music (Oxford 1992) 354-5.
Associated internet address:
Web address 1
Keywords: biography; daily life; definition; ethics; geography; historiography; history; imagery; meter and music; proverbs; tragedy
Translated by: David Whitehead on 10 February 2001@09:33:27.
Vetted by:
Catharine Roth (added link) on 25 April 2002@11:17:50.
David Whitehead (augmented notes and keywords) on 17 September 2002@05:14:00.
Catharine Roth (cross-reference, italics, keyword) on 18 September 2006@18:09:26.
David Whitehead (tweaks) on 22 December 2011@07:42:50.
David Whitehead on 22 December 2011@07:43:09.
David Whitehead (updated a ref) on 29 July 2014@12:34:58.

Headword: Agalma
Adler number: alpha,131
Translated headword: decoration, delight, ornament, statue
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
Anything in which someone takes delight.[1]
"And he [A] gives silver, so that he [B] might complete the statue with the utmost artisanry, adding the size and prescribing the nature of the stone."[2]
Greek Original:
Agalma: pan eph' hôi tis agalletai. kai didôsin argurion, hina ekponêsêi to agalma akras technês, prostheis to megethos kai proseipôn tês lithou tên phusin.
Notes:
See also alpha 132, alpha 133, alpha 135, alpha 136.
[1] Again under alpha 133. Also in Photius, other lexica, and various scholia (e.g. to Homer, Odyssey 8.509, and Aristophanes, Wasps 303).
[2] Aelian fr. 65b Domingo-Forasté (part of 62 Hercher), on an unscrupulous (but unnamed) sculptor.
Keywords: art history; comedy; definition; economics; epic; ethics; science and technology; trade and manufacture
Translated by: William Hutton on 22 June 2000@01:06:06.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (added note; cosmetics) on 9 February 2001@09:59:18.
David Whitehead (augmented notes and keywords; cosmetics) on 18 February 2011@06:57:00.
David Whitehead (another note; more keywords; tweaks) on 23 December 2011@03:46:34.
Catharine Roth (updated reference in note 2) on 28 January 2012@19:11:34.

Headword: Agalma Athênas
Adler number: alpha,132
Translated headword: statue of Athena
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
Look under "Athena's"[1]; and see "statue, desolating abomination" under "Antiochos".[2] And see "statue of Apollo" under "Apollo's statue".[3] And see "statue of Dionysus" under "Auxentios".[4]
Greek Original:
Agalma Athênas: zêtei en tôi Athênas: kai zêtei agalma bdelugma tês erêmôseôs en tôi Antiochos: kai zêtei agalma Apollônos en tôi Apollônos agalma: kai zêtei agalma Dionusou en tôi Auxentios.
Notes:
This entry, more of a set of cross references than anything else, appears as a marginal gloss in two of the better manuscripts, Adler's A (= Parisinus 2625) and M (= Marcianus 448).
[1] alpha 727.
[2] alpha 2693, where the text actually reads "idol (ei)/dwlon), abomination of desolation". For the meaning of the phrase see Dan. 11.31.
[3] alpha 3425.
[4] alpha 4450.
Keywords: art history; religion
Translated by: William Hutton on 12 January 1999@12:36:32.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (removed keyword; cosmetics; raised status) on 9 February 2001@10:08:20.
Jennifer Benedict (betacoding) on 26 March 2008@00:54:35.
David Whitehead (cosmetics) on 23 December 2011@03:51:13.

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