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Headword: Ἀβάσκανος
Adler number: alpha,22
Translated headword: unprejudiced
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
[Meaning someone/something] deceit-free, envy-free.
"He [Mithradates] became an unprejudiced witness to Caesar of the achievements of Antipater."[1]
Greek Original:
Ἀβάσκανος: ἀψευδὴς, ἀνεπίφθονος. ὁ δὲ μάρτυς ἀβάσκανος γίνεται πρὸς Καίσαρα τῶν Ἀντιπάτρου κατορθωμάτων.
Notes:
For the etymology of the (rare) headword adjective cf. beta 167, beta 168, beta 169.
[1] Josephus, Jewish War 1.192 (see web address 1 below). For Antipater, father of Herod the Great, see OCD(4) s.v. Antipater(6), pp.107-8. 'Caesar' is Julius Caesar. Mithradates is not one of the six kings of Pontus who bore that name (cf. mu 1044) but the half-caste son of the last of them: a.k.a. M. of Pergamum.
Associated internet address:
Web address 1
Keywords: biography; definition; ethics; geography; historiography; history
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 22 August 1998@12:59:41.
Vetted by:
Catharine Roth (Altered wording, added note and link.) on 29 July 2000@23:43:06.
David Whitehead (cosmetics) on 27 February 2003@07:58:27.
David Whitehead (tweaked tr; augmented notes and keywords; raised status) on 27 August 2007@09:00:04.
Jennifer Benedict (cosmeticule) on 25 March 2008@00:17:46.
David Whitehead (another keyword) on 19 December 2011@06:13:12.
Catharine Roth (tweaked link) on 20 December 2011@00:53:00.
David Whitehead (updated a ref) on 29 July 2014@12:07:55.
David Whitehead (expanded a note; tweaks and cosmetics) on 2 April 2015@09:05:10.
Catharine Roth (tweaked link) on 2 October 2018@02:01:48.

Headword: Ἄβελ
Adler number: alpha,30
Translated headword: Abel
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
Son of Adam.[1] This man was chaste and just from the beginning and a shepherd of flocks; out of these he offered a sacrifice to God and was accepted, but was then killed because he was envied by his brother Cain.[2] Cain happened to be a farmer and after the judgement he lived worse, with groaning and trembling. For Abel, by dedicating the firstborn [of the flock] to God, recommended himself as more God-loving than self-loving,[3] and because this was a good choice, he was accepted. But Cain impiously kept his first-fruits for himself and gave the seconds to God, and for this reason was rightly rejected. For it says: "and after some days it happened that Cain offered from the fruits of the earth."[4] Cain was disgraced by the fact that the produce he offered was not the first-fruits but that which was some days old and second-best.
Greek Original:
Ἄβελ: υἱὸς Ἀδάμ. οὗτος παρθένος καὶ δίκαιος ὑπῆρχε καὶ ποιμὴν προβάτων: ἐξ ὧν καὶ θυσίαν τῷ θεῷ προσαγαγὼν καὶ δεχθεὶς ἀναιρεῖται, φθονηθεὶς ὑπὸ τοῦ ἀδελφοῦ αὐτοῦ Κάϊν. ὁ Κάϊν δὲ γεωργὸς τυγχάνων καὶ μετὰ τὴν δίκην χειρόνως βιώσας στένων καὶ τρέμων ἦν. ὁ γὰρ Ἄβελ τὰ πρωτότοκα τῷ θεῷ καθιερῶν φιλόθεον μᾶλλον ἢ φίλαυτον ἑαυτὸν συνίστη, ὅθεν καὶ διὰ τῆς ἀγαθῆς αὐτοῦ προαιρέσεως ἀπεδέχθη. ὁ δὲ Κάϊν δυσσεβῶς ἑαυτῷ ἀπονέμων τὰ πρωτογεννήματα, θεῷ δὲ τὰ δεύτερα, εἰκότως καὶ ἀπεβλήθη. φησὶ γάρ: καὶ ἐγένετο μεθ' ἡμέρας, προσήνεγκε Κάϊν ἀπὸ τῶν καρπῶν τῆς γῆς. ὥστε διὰ τοῦτο Κάϊν ἐλέγχεται, ὅτι μὴ τὰ ἀκροθίνια γεννήματα προσήνεγκε τῷ θεῷ, ἀλλὰ τὰ μεθ' ἡμέρας καὶ δεύτερα.
Notes:
George the Monk, Chronicon 6.10-7.16.
[1] alpha 425.
[2] kappa 27.
[3] Again at sigma 1580.
[4] Genesis 4:3.
Keywords: agriculture; biography; botany; Christianity; daily life; ethics; food; historiography; religion; zoology
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 20 August 1998@17:57:27.
Vetted by:
William Hutton (Modified translation, cosmetics, keywords, set status) on 27 January 2001@12:23:00.
David Whitehead (augmented notes and keywords) on 27 February 2003@08:28:31.
David Whitehead (another x-ref) on 8 September 2003@06:15:32.
David Whitehead (another keyword) on 2 October 2005@10:57:50.
David Whitehead (more keywords; cosmetics; raised status) on 22 June 2011@07:14:12.
David Whitehead (another keyword; tweaks) on 29 August 2012@10:24:09.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 5 August 2013@01:03:34.

Headword: Ἀβέλτερος
Adler number: alpha,32
Translated headword: thoughtless
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
[Meaning] mindless, stupid. For the intelligent man [is] βέλτερος ["thoughtful, superior"].[1]
"No, by Zeus, not the greedy and thoughtless fellow, but the mindless and conceitedly slow-witted."[2] Menander in Perinthia [writes]: "any servant who takes an idle and easy master and deceives him does not know what a great accomplishment it is to make a greater fool of one who is already thoughtless".[3] They also call ἀβελτηρία ["thoughtlessness"] an ἀβελτήριον ["thoughtless thing"]. Anaxandrides in Helen[4] [writes]: "[A:] an anchor, a little boat, - call it what vessel you want. [B:] O Heracles of the sacred precinct of thoughtlessness. [A:] But one could not estimate its size."
Also [sc. attested is] ἀβελτηρία , [meaning] stupidity.
Or mindlessness.
Menander [writes]: "their mind drove them to such thoughtlessness that they prayed for victory over each other rather than over the enemy."[5]
Greek Original:
Ἀβέλτερος: ἀνόητος, ἀσύνετος. βέλτερος γὰρ ὁ φρόνιμος. οὐ μὰ Δί' οὐχ ὁ πλεονέκτης καὶ ἀγνώμων, ἀλλ' ὁ ἀνόητος καὶ εὐήθης μετὰ χαυνότητος. Μένανδρος Περινθίᾳ: ὅστις παραλαβὼν δεσπότην ἀπράγμονα καὶ κοῦφον ἐξαπατᾷ θεράπων, οὐκ οἶδ' ὅ τι οὗτος μεγαλεῖόν ἐστι διαπεπραγμένος, ἐπαβελτερώσας τόν ποτε ἀβέλτερον. λέγουσι δὲ καὶ ἀβελτήριον τὴν ἀβελτηρίαν. Ἀλεξανδρίδης Ἑλένῃ: ἄγκυρα, λέμβος, σκεῦος ὅ τι βούλει λέγε. ὦ Ἡράκλεις ἀβελτηρίου τεμενικοῦ. ἀλλ' οὐδ' ἂν εἰπεῖν τὸ μέγεθος δύναιτό τις. καὶ Ἀβελτηρία, ἡ ἀφροσύνη. ἢ ἀνοησία. Μένανδρος: εἰς τοῦτο δὲ ἀβελτηρίας ἤλασεν αὐτοῖς ὁ νοῦς, ὥστε θάτερον μέρος τὴν κατὰ θατέρου μᾶλλον ἢ τὴν κατὰ τῶν πολεμίων εὔχεσθαι νίκην.
Notes:
On this headword, a comic formation literally meaning non-superior, see generally LSJ s.v. (web address 1 below); and cf. alpha 31, alpha 33.
[1] These glosses are paralleled in a variety of other lexica (and in the scholia to Aristophanes, Clouds 1201 and Ecclesiazusae 768).
[2] Quotation (an illustration of the first of the glossing words, not the headword) unidentifiable; also in Photius and Aelius Dionysius.
[3] Menander fr. 393 Kock.
[4] Anaxandrides [see generally alpha 1982] fr. 12 Kock (and K.-A.). But note that Adler prints the manuscript reading "Alexandrides", on the strength of the (apparent) mention of such a playwright in alpha 3824. On the emendation to Anaxandrides, see Toup vol. 1 p. 9; Adler attributes the emendation to 'Iunius' (probably Adriaan de Jonghe, 1511-1575, author of a Greek/Latin Lexicon).
[5] Not M. the comic poet, quoted above, but the C6 CE historian Menander Protector [mu 591]: his fr. 28 Blockley.
Reference:
Toup, Jonathan, and Richard Porson. Emendationes in Suidam Et Hesychium, Et Alios Lexicographos Graecos. Oxford 1790
Associated internet address:
Web address 1
Keywords: comedy; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; ethics; historiography; history; military affairs; religion
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 25 August 1998@19:02:21.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (augmented notes; added keywords; cosmetics) on 9 February 2001@05:52:19.
Jennifer Benedict (betacoding) on 23 March 2008@13:05:56.
David Whitehead (modified headword; augmented notes and keywords; tweaks and cosmetics) on 24 March 2008@04:34:27.
Jennifer Benedict (added link) on 25 March 2008@11:17:06.
Catharine Roth (fixed note number, augmented note, added bibliography, tweaked link) on 15 May 2008@15:34:15.
David Whitehead (typo) on 16 May 2008@07:55:44.
Catharine Roth (augmented note) on 20 May 2008@11:50:13.
David Whitehead (tweaks) on 16 December 2011@05:38:00.
David Whitehead (updated a reference; cosmetics) on 3 January 2012@04:21:06.
David Whitehead (updated a ref) on 22 December 2014@04:27:32.
David Whitehead (tweaks and cosmetics) on 2 April 2015@09:15:50.

Headword: Ἀβίγας
Adler number: alpha,43
Translated headword: Abigas
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
A river.
Greek Original:
Ἀβίγας: ποταμός.
Notes:
In Numidia; the present-day Oued bou Roughal, in (present-day) Algeria. Barrington Atlas Map 34 grid F2. Mentioned in (e.g.) Procopius, History of the Wars of Justinian 4.19.7.
See again under rho 270.
Keywords: definition; geography; historiography
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 26 August 1998@18:57:23.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (added headword and note) on 9 October 2000@06:42:22.
David Whitehead (augmented note (with info supplied by Nicholas Fincher) and keywords) on 8 September 2004@06:58:03.
David Whitehead on 19 July 2011@08:01:42.
David Whitehead (x-ref) on 25 August 2011@05:20:08.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 7 August 2013@23:40:15.

Headword: Ἀβίσαρος
Adler number: alpha,52
Translated headword: Abisaros, Abisareis
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
Name of a place.
Greek Original:
Ἀβίσαρος: ὄνομα τόπου.
Note:
In the mountains of NE India, present-day Hazara: Sanskrit Abhisara; Barrington Atlas map 6 grid C3. The Atlas uses the nominative plural Abisareis, which is found in e.g. Arrian, Indica 4.12, and represents a pluralisation of the (Greek version of the) ruler's name, Abisares; and the Suda's Abisaros is presumably a non-existent nominative derived from the genitive of this name, Abisarou.
Reference:
A.B.Bosworth, Commentary on Arrian's History of Alexander, ii (1995) 177-8.
Keywords: definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; geography; historiography
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 26 August 1998@19:04:58.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (added headword and note) on 9 October 2000@06:54:33.
David Whitehead (augmented note, keywords, bibliog) on 28 August 2006@12:26:54.
Jennifer Benedict (cosmeticule) on 23 March 2008@20:12:21.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 17 November 2009@18:45:50.
David Whitehead on 1 August 2011@07:38:51.

Headword: Ἀβλεπτήματι
Adler number: alpha,55
Translated headword: by an oversight
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
[Meaning] by a mistake.
"He bore the oversights of ordinary folk patiently, but those of more intellectual people grieved him."[1]
Also [sc. attested is the participle] ἀβλεπτοῦντες . "Those committing oversights and ashamed to face Philip were coming to help."[2]
Greek Original:
Ἀβλεπτήματι: ἁμαρτήματι. ὁ δὲ φέρων ἐκαρτέρει τὰ τῶν ἰδιωτῶν ἀβλεπτήματα, τὰ δὲ τῶν λογικωτέρων αὐτὸν ἠνία. καὶ Ἀβλεπτοῦντες. οἱ δὲ ἀβλεπτοῦντες καὶ αἰδούμενοι ἀντοφθαλμεῖν πρὸς τὸν Φίλιππον ἐβοήθουν.
Notes:
The headword and the synonym offered for it are neuter nouns in the dative singular (translated here as instrumental datives). The same headword -- evidently quoted from somewhere but not independently attested -- and gloss also appear in other lexica; references at Photius alpha40 Theodoridis. The first quotation illustrates this same noun but in the accusative plural.
[1] Polybius fr. 90 Büttner-Wobst. Büttner-Wobst notes that this fragment was attributed to Polybius by Casaubon, but not accepted by Schweighäuser (p. 527).
[2] Polybius fr. 91 Büttner-Wobst. Casaubon also attributed this fragment to Polybius, but Büttner-Wobst notes that Dindorf rejected it (ibid.).
Reference:
T. Büttner-Wobst, ed., Polybii Historiae, vol. IV, (Leipzig 1904)
Keywords: biography; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; ethics; historiography; history
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 26 August 1998@19:07:04.
Vetted by:
William Hutton (Modified translation, added note and keywords, set status) on 30 January 2001@08:24:21.
David Whitehead (modified translation and note; cosmetics) on 13 April 2004@10:08:32.
David Whitehead (more keywords; tweaks and cosmetics) on 19 December 2011@08:01:56.
David Whitehead on 16 August 2013@06:47:36.
David Whitehead (expanded primary note) on 2 April 2015@09:26:19.
Ronald Allen (supplemented notes, added bibliography) on 24 April 2018@22:29:37.
Ronald Allen (reworded n.2) on 25 April 2018@22:02:29.
Ronald Allen (cosmeticule) on 9 May 2018@22:31:12.
Ronald Allen (bibliography cosmeticule) on 4 June 2018@22:39:57.
Ronald Allen (cosmeticule in primary note: make em dash symmetrical) on 4 September 2018@18:59:19.

Headword: Ἀβούλητον κακόν
Adler number: alpha,62
Translated headword: involuntary evil, undesired evil
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
[Meaning something] unwanted, what one does not want.[1]
Also [sc. attested is] abouletos, he who does not wish; but Aboulitos [is] a proper name, with the 'i'.[2]
Greek Original:
Ἀβούλητον κακόν: ἀθέλητον, ὃ οὐ θέλει τις. καὶ Ἀβούλητος, ὁ μὴ βουλόμενος, Ἀβούλιτος δὲ ὄνομα κύριον, διὰ τοῦ ι.
Notes:
[1] The headword phrase has the same or similar glossing in other lexica (references at Photius alpha46 Theodoridis), and is presumably quoted from somewhere.
[2] For Aboulitos (or -tes), satrap of Susiana under Alexander the Great, see Plutarch, Alexander 68; Arrian, Anabasis 3.8.5, etc.
Keywords: biography; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; ethics; geography; historiography; history
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 26 August 1998@19:22:25.
Vetted by:
William Hutton (Cosmetics, added keyword, set status) on 30 January 2001@22:38:53.
David Whitehead (added note and keywords; cosmetics) on 23 April 2002@09:30:21.
David Whitehead (augmented headword, notes, keywords) on 15 August 2007@09:45:45.
David Whitehead (cosmetics) on 1 August 2011@07:41:29.
David Whitehead on 16 August 2013@06:52:58.

Headword: Ἀβρέας
Adler number: alpha,74
Translated headword: Abreas
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
Proper name.
Greek Original:
Ἀβρέας: ὄνομα κύριον.
Note:
That of a "double-pay" soldier in Arrian, Anabasis 6.9-10.
Keywords: biography; definition; economics; historiography; history; military affairs
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 26 August 1998@19:29:50.
Vetted by:
William Hutton (Added headword, cosmetics, set status) on 31 January 2001@13:02:23.
David Whitehead (added note and keywords) on 24 April 2002@03:26:41.
David Whitehead on 1 August 2011@07:43:43.
David Whitehead on 19 December 2011@09:27:40.

Headword: Ἀβριόρηξ
Adler number: alpha,80
Translated headword: Abriorex, Abriorix
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
Proper name.
Greek Original:
Ἀβριόρηξ: ὄνομα κύριον.
Note:
Attested only here and, according to Adler, in the Ambrosian Lexicon in this form ending eta-xi; nevertheless this is surely Abriorix (a.k.a. Ambiorix), leader of the Gallic Eburones against Julius Caesar in 54-53 BCE.
Keywords: biography; definition; geography; historiography; history; military affairs
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 26 August 1998@19:34:00.
Vetted by:
William Hutton (Added headword, set keyword and status) on 31 January 2001@13:24:23.
David Whitehead (modified headword; added keyword) on 1 February 2001@03:55:16.
David Whitehead (note) on 19 July 2011@09:00:27.
David Whitehead (expanded note) on 19 December 2011@09:57:15.
David Whitehead (augmented note and keywords) on 2 April 2015@11:00:30.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 7 May 2015@00:19:45.

Headword: Ἀβρογάστης
Adler number: alpha,81
Translated headword: Abrogastes, Arbogast
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
A Frank, who was fierce as flame from[1] strength of body and ruggedness of spirit; by happenstance second in rank to Baudo.[2] He was especially solid and complete in regard to self-control and made war on money, giving no quarter--for[3] he was no different from the common soldiers in terms of wealth at least. For this reason he seemed useful to the emperor Theodosius,[4] since he added to the manly and just manner of Valentinian[5] his own gravity, as a just and unswerving standard for the palace, not to do harm or wrong in any matters of the court.
Greek Original:
Ἀβρογάστης: Φράγγος, ὃς κατὰ ἀλκὴν σώματος καὶ θυμοῦ τραχύτητα φλογοειδὴς ἦν, δευτεραγωνιστὴς τυγχάνων Βαύδωνος. ἄλλως τε ἦν καὶ πρὸς σωφροσύνην πεπηγώς τε καὶ διηρθρωμένος καὶ πρὸς χρήματα πόλεμον πολεμῶν ἄσπονδον. διέφερε γοῦν τῶν εὐτελῶν στρατιωτῶν ὅσον γε εἰς πλοῦτον οὐδέν. καὶ διὰ τοῦτο ἐδόκει τῷ βασιλεῖ Θεοδοσίῳ χρήσιμος, ὅς γε πρὸς τὸν Οὐαλεντινιανοῦ τρόπον ἀρρενωπὸν ὄντα καὶ δίκαιον, καὶ τὸ παρ' ἑαυτοῦ βάρος ἐπετίθει, καθάπερ ὀρθὸν καὶ ἀστραβῆ τὸν κάνονα τοῖς βασιλείοις, πρὸς τὸ μηδὲν τῶν περὶ τὴν αὐλὴν παραβλάπτεσθαι ἢ ἁμαρτάνεσθαι.
Notes:
This entry -- which has been tentatively identified as a fragment (no.53 FHG; Blockley, Eunapius fr. 58.[1]) of the sophist and historian Eunapius of Sardis -- concerns the Frankish general Flavius Arbogastes (died 394). (The present headword 'Abrogastes' is a rare variant of, or error for, the name.)
[1] Causal κατά (LSJ s.v. IV).
[2] His predecessor (and, allegedly, father) Flavius Bauto.
[3] "Part proof" γοῦν (Denniston, p. 451).
[4] theta 144.
[5] omicron 762.
References:
Banchich, T.M. "Eunapius, Eustathius, and the Suda." AJP 109 (1988) 223-225
Blockley, R.C. The Fragmentary Classicising Historians of the Later Roman Empire: Eunapius, Olympiodorus, Priscus and Malchus. Vol. II. Liverpool: Francis Cairns, 1983.
Denniston, J.D. The Greek Particles. Second Edition. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1954.
Keywords: biography; economics; ethics; geography; historiography; history; medicine; military affairs
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 26 August 1998@19:34:42.
Vetted by:
William Hutton (Added headword, modified translation, added keywords, set status) on 31 January 2001@16:29:34.
David Whitehead (added note and keyword; cosmetics) on 1 February 2001@04:13:55.
David Whitehead (another keyword) on 28 November 2005@08:20:03.
David Whitehead (tweaks to tr; augmented notes and keywords) on 20 December 2011@03:53:50.
Aaron Baker (Modified translation; added grammatical notes; added Blockly cite; added bibliography.) on 3 June 2015@22:23:43.
Aaron Baker (Added period after "Bauto.") on 3 June 2015@22:25:43.
Catharine Roth (coded Greek) on 3 June 2015@23:24:46.
Catharine Roth (added bibliography) on 27 January 2016@22:44:10.

Headword: Ἁβροκόμας
Adler number: alpha,83
Translated headword: Abrokomas, Habrokomas, Abrocomas
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
This man was satrap[1] under Artaxerxes, king of the Persians.[2]
Greek Original:
Ἁβροκόμας: οὗτος σατράπης ἦν Ἀρταξέρξου τοῦ Περσῶν βασιλέως.
Notes:
From Harpokration (and Photius) s.v. The name has a smooth breathing (Abrokomas) there, as in Xenophon before them (below); in the Suda it is rough (Habrokomas).
[1] Provincial governor; see sigma 153 (and generally OCD(4) p.1321).
[2] There were several Persian kings of this name (see generally OCD(4) p.175), but probably Artaxerxes II (405/4-359/8) is meant; he had a general called Abrokomas, mentioned by Xenophon in the Anabasis.
Keywords: biography; chronology; dialects, grammar, and etymology; geography; historiography; history; military affairs; politics
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 26 August 1998@19:36:18.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (added headword, notes, keyword; cosmetics) on 29 September 2000@05:33:34.
William Hutton (Cosmetics) on 1 February 2001@00:51:03.
David Whitehead (augmented notes and keywords) on 19 July 2011@09:44:36.
Catharine Roth (cosmeticule) on 21 December 2011@01:44:30.
David Whitehead (updated 2 refs) on 29 July 2014@12:13:20.
David Whitehead (more keywords) on 2 April 2015@11:02:29.

Headword: Ἁβρόν
Adler number: alpha,86
Translated headword: delicate
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
In Herodotus [sc. this means something] beautiful, stubborn, awe-inspiring, dainty.
Greek Original:
Ἁβρόν: παρὰ Ἡροδότῳ καλὸν, αὔθαδες, σεμνὸν, τρυφερόν.
Note:
The headword adjective is neuter nominative (and accusative) singular of alpha 87 (and cf. alpha 88), extracted here from Herodotus 1.71.4 (web address 1), and accompanied by ancient glosses on that passage. In fact, 'luxurious' or 'soft-living' would be more appropriate; cf. ἁβρότατοι in 4.104 (web address 2), and Powell s.v.
Reference:
J.E. Powell, A Lexicon to Herodotus. Hildesheim: George Olms 1977
Associated internet addresses:
Web address 1,
Web address 2
Keywords: daily life; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; ethics; historiography
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 26 August 1998@19:38:32.
Vetted by:
William Hutton (Modified translation, augmented note, added bibliography and keywords, set status) on 1 February 2001@09:51:15.
William Hutton (Modified my own note, added links) on 1 February 2001@14:00:33.
David Whitehead (modified note; cosmetics) on 5 February 2003@09:50:33.
David Whitehead (more keywords; tweaks and cosmetics) on 20 December 2011@09:37:09.
Catharine Roth (upgraded links) on 21 December 2011@01:53:17.

Headword: Ἀγαθά
Adler number: alpha,108
Translated headword: goods, goodies
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
Xenophon used the word of foodstuffs and drinks which bring enjoyment and good cheer.[1]
Also [sc. attested is the phrase] "Good Things Kilikon" - with "has" omitted. Kilikon [is] a proper name. He was wealthy.[2]
Greek Original:
Ἀγαθά: ἐπὶ τῶν πρὸς ἀπόλαυσιν καὶ εὐωχίαν σιτίων καὶ ποτῶν ἐχρήσατο Ξενοφῶν τῇ λέξει. καὶ Ἀγαθὰ Κιλίκων, λείπει τὸ ἔχει. Κιλίκων δὲ ὄνομα κύριον. εὔπορος δὲ ἦν.
Notes:
[1] Xenophon, Anabasis 4.4.9 (web address 1 below).
[2] This is only one possible explanation of the proverbial phrase. For another, probably better one - with another version of the name (Killikon: apparently authentic, as it derives from Aristophanes, Peace 363 [web address 2 below]) - see kappa 1610; but note also kappa 223 and pi 2040 on "Kallikon".
Associated internet addresses:
Web address 1,
Web address 2
Keywords: aetiology; biography; daily life; definition; economics; ethics; food; historiography; proverbs
Translated by: David Whitehead on 10 February 2001@09:14:18.
Vetted by:
William Hutton (Cosmetics, added links, set status) on 8 June 2001@01:15:16.
David Whitehead (added keywords) on 17 September 2002@05:00:27.
Jennifer Benedict (cosmetics) on 26 March 2008@00:19:27.
David Whitehead (another keyword; cosmetics) on 27 March 2008@07:18:17.
David Whitehead (more keywords) on 22 December 2011@03:59:55.
Catharine Roth (upgraded links) on 23 December 2011@18:41:14.

Headword: Ἀγαθοεργοί
Adler number: alpha,115
Translated headword: agathoergoi, benefactors
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
Men selected according to valor.
From the Ephors.[1]
Greek Original:
Ἀγαθοεργοί: αἱρετοὶ κατ' ἀνδραγαθίαν. ἐκ τῶν Ἐφόρων.
Notes:
This is the name for a select group of Spartan elders. According to Herodotus (1.67.5: web address 1) five were selected each year from the eldest members of the cavalry, not from the ephors.
[1] Adler called these final three words locus dubius, and capitalized, as here, the word Ephors. For a speculative argument that this phrase should actually read "from the [sc. writings] of Ephoros", see D. Whitehead, 'Ephorus(?) on the Spartan constitution', Classical Quarterly n.s. 55 (2005) 299-301. [The suggestion has been taken up in Brill's New Jacoby s.v. Ephorus, by Victor Parker. However, the evidential basis for it is illusory, according to I.C. Cunningham, CQ n.s. 61 (2011) 312-314.]
Associated internet address:
Web address 1
Keywords: definition; ethics; geography; historiography; history; law; military affairs
Translated by: William Hutton on 31 March 2001@23:24:43.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (augmented note; added keyword) on 2 April 2001@03:36:30.
David Whitehead (augmented note and keywords) on 17 June 2005@09:32:07.
David Whitehead (expanded note) on 25 May 2011@06:46:44.
Catharine Roth (cosmetics) on 25 May 2011@11:04:04.
David Whitehead (expanded note; more keywords; cosmetics) on 22 December 2011@06:04:44.

Headword: Ἀγαθοθέλεια
Adler number: alpha,116
Translated headword: desire for the good
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
[Meaning] the choice of good things.[1]
"When it comes to getting things done a desire for the good alone does not suffice; there is also a need for strength and perseverence."[2]
Greek Original:
Ἀγαθοθέλεια: ἡ τῶν ἀγαθῶν ἐκλογή. οὐκ ἀρκεῖ τοῖς πράγμασιν ἡ ἀγαθοθέλεια μόνον, ἀλλὰ δεῖ καὶ ῥώμης καὶ ἐπιστρεφείας.
Notes:
[1] The headword (a single word in the Greek) is a very rare feminine noun. It is glossed with this same phrase in the parallel entry in ps.-Zonaras.
[2] 'Anon.': LSJ s.v. Perhaps Polybius, according to Adler. But suggested as a fragment of Damascius by Asmus (fr. 20), and accepted as such by Zintzen (fr. 25) and Athanassiadi (fr. 158).
Keywords: definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; ethics; historiography; philosophy
Translated by: William Hutton on 31 March 2001@23:33:22.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (added note and keywords; cosmetics) on 25 April 2002@03:16:20.
Catharine Roth (augmented note) on 6 February 2003@00:06:33.
David Whitehead (another keyword) on 12 October 2005@07:59:40.
David Whitehead (augmented notes; tweaks and cosmetics) on 22 December 2011@06:13:57.
David Whitehead (tweaking) on 4 April 2015@09:11:44.

Headword: Ἀγαθοκλῆς
Adler number: alpha,117
Translated headword: Agathokles, Agathocles
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
This man became tyrant [of Syracuse] and, as Timaeus says, in his early youth was a common prostitute, ready [to give himself] to the most debauched, a jackdaw, a buzzard,[1] presenting his backside to all who wanted it. When he died, says [Timaeus], his wife cried out to him in lamentation, "What [did] I not [carnally do to] you? And what [did] you not [reciprocate to] me?"[2] That nature had endowed Agathokles with great advantages is clear. For escaping the wheel, the smoke[of the kiln and] the clay,[3] he came to Syracuse, at about the age of eighteen, and in a short time, starting from such beginnings, he became master of the whole of Sicily, exposed the Carthaginians to extreme dangers, and finally, having grown old in the role of dynast, ended his life with the title of king.[4]
Greek Original:
Ἀγαθοκλῆς: οὗτος ἐγένετο τύραννος καὶ, ὥς φησι Τίμαιος, κατὰ τὴν πρώτην ἡλικίαν κοινὸς πόρνος, ἕτοιμος τοῖς ἀκρατεστάτοις, κολοιὸς, τριόρχης, πάντων τῶν βουλομένων τοῖς ὄπισθεν ἔμπροσθεν γεγονώς. ὃς ὅτε ἀπέθανε, τὴν γυναῖκα φησὶ κατακλαιομένην αὐτὸν οὕτω θρηνεῖν: τί δ' οὐκ ἐγὼ σέ; τί δ' οὐκ ἐμὲ σύ; ὅτι δὲ ἐκ φύσεως ἀνάγκη μεγάλα προτερήματα γεγονέναι περὶ τὸν Ἀγαθοκλέα, τοῦτο δῆλον. εἰς γὰρ τὰς Συρακούσας παρεγενήθη φεύγων τὸν τροχὸν, τὸν καπνὸν, τὸν πηλὸν, περί τε τὴν ἡλικίαν ὀκτωκαίδεκα ἔτη γεγονὼς, καὶ μετά τινα χρόνον ὁρμηθεὶς ὑπὸ τοιαύτης ὑποθέσεως, κύριος μὲν ἐγενήθη πάσης Σικελίας, μεγίστοις δὲ κινδύνοις περιέστησε Καρχηδονίους, τέλος ἐγγηράσας τῇ δυναστείᾳ, κατέστρεψε τὸν βίον βασιλεὺς προσαγορευόμενος.
Notes:
360-289 BCE; he ruled Syracuse from 317-289. See generally OCD(4) p.36, under Agathocles(1).
The entry presents a semi-verbatim and mildly abridged extract from Polybius (12.15.2-7: web address 1 below), who is in turn citing, disapprovingly, Timaeus of Tauromenium (FGrH 566 F124b).
[1] On this passage K.J. Dover, Greek Homosexuality (London 1978) p.103 writes: 'The jackdaw here probably sybolises impudence and shamelessness; the buzzard, in Greek triorkhes, having three testicles, presumably symbolises insatiable lust, which is assumed to characterise the true pornos'. Cf. tau 995, where the first part of this quotation reappears.
[2] Probably Theoxene, the daughter or stepdaughter of Ptolemy I Soter and the third wife of Agathokles. See F.W. Walbank, A historical commentary on Polybius (Oxford, 1967) v.2 p.361.
[3] His father owned a large pottery. See Diodorus 19.2.7; 20.63.4. As with equivalent figures in (e.g.) late-C5 Athens, such as Kleon, we see here the conceit that those whose wealth lay in manufacture would actually participate in (and be debased by) the actual manufacturing.
[4] Agathokles assumed the title of king in 305. See Diodorus 20.54.1.
References:
Berve, H., Die Herrschaft des Agathokles (Verlag der Bayerischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, 1953)
Agathokles(15) in RE 1.1 748-757
Associated internet address:
Web address 1
Keywords: biography; constitution; daily life; ethics; gender and sexuality; historiography; history; politics; trade and manufacture; women; zoology
Translated by: David Whitehead on 10 February 2001@10:07:49.
Vetted by:
William Hutton (Modified translation, cosmetics, added keywords, set status) on 6 June 2001@00:10:30.
Tony Natoli (Modified translation, added notes and bibliography, raised status.) on 12 August 2001@02:19:21.
David Whitehead (restorative and other cosmetics) on 17 September 2002@05:10:41.
David Whitehead (more keywords) on 9 October 2005@10:59:41.
David Whitehead (more keywords) on 20 November 2005@10:37:08.
Jennifer Benedict (added link) on 26 March 2008@00:30:36.
David Whitehead (cosmetics) on 22 December 2011@06:16:09.
David Whitehead (updated a ref) on 29 July 2014@12:23:59.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 1 January 2015@23:51:52.
Catharine Roth (tweaked link) on 17 February 2018@23:14:40.

Headword: Ἀγαθός
Adler number: alpha,121
Translated headword: good
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
[Meaning one who is] prudent. But the prudent man and the good man are not equivalents. For the 'good' man [has] something extra. For the prudent man [is] good, [as is] the brave man and others. Those who have some knowledge are also called good.[1]
"...the Daoi [were also called] good spearmen, and good too at hand-to-hand fighting."[2]
Greek Original:
Ἀγαθός: ὁ φρόνιμος. οὐκ ἐπίσης δὲ ὁ φρόνιμος καὶ ὁ ἀγαθός. ἐπιπλέον γὰρ ὁ ἀγαθός. ἀγαθὸς γὰρ ὁ σώφρων, ὁ ἀνδρεῖος καὶ οἱ λοιποί. ἀγαθοὶ λέγονται καὶ οἱ ἐπιστήμονες. τοὺς δὲ Δάους ἀγαθοὺς μὲν ἀκοντιστὰς, ἀγαθοὺς δὲ καὶ ἐν χερσὶ ποιήσασθαι μάχην.
Notes:
[1] This material (from an unidentifiable source) is found only in the parallel entry in ps.-Zonaras. From the second sentence onwards it seems to be disputing the initial, simple equivalence.
[2] Quotation unidentifiable, but for the Daoi, a Danubian people, see Strabo 7.3.12 (web address 1); Steph.Byz, s.v. Dakia; OCD(4) p.409 s.v. Dacia, and Herodotus 1.125.4 (web address 2).
Associated internet addresses:
Web address 1,
Web address 2
Keywords: definition; ethics; geography; historiography; military affairs
Translated by: William Hutton on 31 March 2001@23:55:10.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (added note and keyword; cosmetics) on 25 April 2002@03:29:15.
Marcelo Boeri (Added reference.) on 10 July 2002@15:56:58.
Marcelo Boeri (Cosmetics) on 10 July 2002@16:26:19.
David Whitehead (another keyword) on 12 October 2005@08:01:34.
Jennifer Benedict (added links) on 26 March 2008@00:42:46.
David Whitehead (augmented notes; another keyword; tweaks) on 22 December 2011@07:07:38.
David Whitehead (updated a ref) on 29 July 2014@12:25:12.
David Whitehead (tweaking) on 4 April 2015@10:25:28.
Catharine Roth (tweaked links) on 2 January 2017@01:58:18.

Headword: Ἀγαθώνιος
Adler number: alpha,125
Translated headword: Agathonios, Agathonius
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
A proper name.[1]
[The man] who was king of Tartessos.[2]
Also [sc. attested is the phrase] "Agathon's pipe-playing": the soft and relaxed [kind]; alternatively that which is neither loose nor harsh, but temperate and very sweet.[3]
Greek Original:
Ἀγαθώνιος: ὄνομα κύριον. ὃς ἐβασίλευσε τῆς Ταρτησσοῦ. καὶ Ἀγαθώνιος αὔλησις: ἡ μαλακὴ καὶ ἐκλελυμένη: ἢ ἡ μήτε χαλαρὰ, μήτε πικρὰ, ἀλλ' εὔκρατος καὶ ἡδίστη.
Notes:
[1] Herodotus 1.163 gives it as Arganthonios (text at web address 1). See also tau 137.
[2] In southern Spain; probably the Biblical Tarshish. See generally tau 137 and OCD(4) s.v. (p.1433).
[3] Zenobius 1.2. On Agathon (an Athenian poet of the late C5 BC) and his reputation for softness see alpha 124; and on his aulos music, M.L. West, Ancient Greek Music (Oxford 1992) 354-5.
Associated internet address:
Web address 1
Keywords: biography; daily life; definition; ethics; geography; historiography; history; imagery; meter and music; proverbs; tragedy
Translated by: David Whitehead on 10 February 2001@09:33:27.
Vetted by:
Catharine Roth (added link) on 25 April 2002@11:17:50.
David Whitehead (augmented notes and keywords) on 17 September 2002@05:14:00.
Catharine Roth (cross-reference, italics, keyword) on 18 September 2006@18:09:26.
David Whitehead (tweaks) on 22 December 2011@07:42:50.
David Whitehead on 22 December 2011@07:43:09.
David Whitehead (updated a ref) on 29 July 2014@12:34:58.

Headword: Ἀγάμενος
Adler number: alpha,141
Translated headword: admiring, wondering at, marveling at
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
[Meaning someone] being amazed at.[1]
"Admiring this man for his high spirits they let him ride on the horse."[2]
Greek Original:
Ἀγάμενος: θαυμάζων. ἀγάμενοι τοῦτον τῆς εὐψυχίας ἐποχοῦσι τῷ ἵππῳ.
Notes:
The headword is present participle, masculine nominative singular, of ἄγαμαι . Same or similar glossing in other lexica (references at Photius alpha99 Theodoridis). The headword is evidently quoted from somewhere (other than the quotation given here, which has the corresponding plural); extant possibilities begin with Xenophon and Plato.
[1] cf. alpha 138.
[2] Theophylact Simocatta, Histories 2.6.4.
Keywords: biography; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; ethics; historiography; history; philosophy; zoology
Translated by: William Hutton on 28 March 2000@00:49:02.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (added note and keywords; cosmetics) on 9 February 2001@10:43:58.
David Whitehead (added note and keyword) on 25 April 2002@04:22:39.
David Whitehead (augmented notes and keywords; tweaks) on 23 December 2011@05:19:02.
David Whitehead on 16 August 2013@08:04:58.
David Whitehead (expanded primary note; added a keyword) on 4 April 2015@11:40:30.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 4 April 2015@23:28:28.

Headword: Ἄγγαρος
Adler number: alpha,164
Translated headword: angaros, courier
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
This is what the Persians used to call the royal messengers.[1]
"He sent one of his most trusty men as messenger [ἄγγαρος ] to the Babylonian" - because of the nobleman Parsondes.[2]
Greek Original:
Ἄγγαρος: οὕτως ἐκάλουν οἱ Πέρσαι τοὺς βασιλέων ἀγγέλους. πέμπει τῶν πιστοτάτων ἄγγαρον παρὰ τὸν Βαβυλώνιον διὰ Παρσώνδην τὸν ἄριστον.
Notes:
See also alpha 162, alpha 163, and alpha 165.
[1] cf. Etymologicum Magnum 7.24.
[2] Nicolaus of Damascus FGrH 90 F4 (vol. IIA p. 333), with an explanatory gloss drawn from the context of the quotation; cf. pi 731. [Additional note contributed by Jan Stronk. The context of this situation is as follows: there were two rivals, Nanaros and Parsondes. The latter wanted the position of the former, because he thought Nanaros too effeminate. Nanaros heard of Parsondes' schemes and, with the help of some merchants, captured him. Nanaros then ordered one of his eunuchs to dress Parsondes as a woman, teach him to sing and dance like a woman etc. Parsondes' ordeal continued for 7 years, until he succeeded in warning the king, his friend. The king sent a messenger, the ἄγγαρος , to Nanaros to demand Parsondes' release.]
Keywords: biography; definition; geography; historiography; history
Translated by: Gregory Hays on 16 December 2004@08:24:52.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (restored previous vetting status) on 16 December 2004@08:41:08.
Catharine Roth (removed stray character) on 16 December 2004@12:12:52.
Catharine Roth (added credit) on 17 December 2004@11:31:05.
Jennifer Benedict (removed false link) on 26 March 2008@01:33:40.
David Whitehead (augmented notes and keywords; cosmetics) on 23 December 2011@08:06:17.
Catharine Roth (expanded abbreviation) on 5 April 2015@23:35:58.

Headword: Ἄγγαροι
Adler number: alpha,165
Translated headword: messengers
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
[Meaning] those who carry letters in relays.[1] They are also [called] 'couriers' [ἀστάνδαι ].[2] The words [are] Persian. Aeschylus in Agamemnon [writes]: "beacon sent beacon hither with relaying fire."[3] The word is also used for conveyors of freight and more generally of inanimate objects and slaves. Also [sc. attested is] the [verb] ἀγγαροφορεῖν in reference to carrying burdens. And [the verb] ἀγγαρεύεσθαι means what we now speak of as being impressed to carry burdens and labor of that sort. Menander offers this example in the Sikyonios: "someone arriving by sea puts in? He is labelled an enemy. And if he has anything nice it's pressed into service [ἀγγαρεύεται ]."[4]
Greek Original:
Ἄγγαροι: οἱ ἐκ διαδοχῆς γραμματοφόροι. οἱ δὲ αὐτοὶ καὶ ἀστάνδαι. τὰ δὲ ὀνόματα Περσικά. Αἰσχύλος Ἀγαμέμνονι: φρυκτὸς δὲ φρυκτὸν δεῦρο ἀπ' ἀγγάρου πυρὸς ἔπεμπε. τίθεται τὸ ὄνομα καὶ ἐπὶ τῶν φορτηγῶν καὶ ὅλως τῶν ἀναισθήτων καὶ ἀνδραποδωδῶν. καὶ τὸ Ἀγγαροφορεῖν ἐπὶ τοῦ φορτία φέρειν. καὶ Ἀγγαρεύεσθαι καλοῦσιν ὥσπερ ἡμεῖς νῦν τὸ εἰς φορτηγίαν καὶ τοιαύτην τινὰ ὑπηρεσίαν ἄγεσθαι. Μένανδρος καὶ τοῦτο ἐν τῷ Σικυωνίῳ παρίστησιν: ὁ πλέων κατήχθη; κρίνεθ' οὗτος πολέμιος. ἐὰν ἔχῃ τὶ μαλακὸν, ἀγγαρεύεται.
Notes:
Same entry in Photius, similar ones elsewhere.
LSJ entry at web address 1. See also alpha 162, alpha 163, alpha 164.
[1] cf. Herodotus 3.126 (web address 2) and esp. 8.98 (web address 3).
[2] cf. alpha 4420. The word appears also at Athenaeus, Deipnosophists 3.122A (3.94 Kaibel); Eustathius Commentaries on Homer's Odyssey vol. 2 p. 189.6; Hesychius alpha7814; Plutarch, Alexander 18 (bis); De Alex. fort. virt. 326E; 340C.
[3] Aeschylus, Agamemnon 282f. (web address 4), where the mss have ἀγγέλου , an obvious gloss.
[4] Menander, Sikyonios fr.4 Sandbach [= fr 440 Kock].
Associated internet addresses:
Web address 1,
Web address 2,
Web address 3,
Web address 4
Keywords: comedy; daily life; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; historiography; history; military affairs; science and technology; tragedy; zoology
Translated by: Gregory Hays on 23 June 1999@13:13:42.
Vetted by:
William Hutton (Cosmetics, modified translation, added cross-references, keywords, links, set status) on 5 July 2001@12:26:03.
William Hutton (Fixed faulty linksz) on 5 July 2001@12:31:12.
Catharine Roth (added keyword and link; cosmetic) on 5 July 2001@13:14:47.
Anne Mahoney (make the Greek beta-code) on 6 July 2001@11:37:41.
David Whitehead (added keywords; cosmetics) on 25 April 2002@09:14:56.
Jennifer Benedict (betacoding, reordered links, cosmetics) on 26 March 2008@01:38:57.
David Whitehead (cosmetics) on 27 March 2008@08:32:31.
David Whitehead (augmented notes; tweaks and cosmetics) on 23 December 2011@08:14:35.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 12 August 2013@22:38:38.
Catharine Roth (typo) on 12 August 2013@23:22:50.
David Whitehead (tweaked a ref) on 14 January 2015@03:18:54.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 5 April 2015@23:40:43.

Headword: Ἀγασθέντος
Adler number: alpha,167
Translated headword: amazed
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
[Meaning] dumbstruck, marvelling. "With him amazed at the conduct".[1]
Also [sc. attested is the nominative] ἀγασθείς .[2] "Amazed at both the city and the people he remained for three days."[3]
Greek Original:
Ἀγασθέντος: ἐκπλαγέντος, θαυμάσαντος. τοῦ δὲ ἀγασθέντος ἐπὶ τῇ προαιρέσει. καὶ Ἀγασθείς. ὁ δὲ ἀγασθεὶς ἐπί τε τῇ πόλει καὶ τοῖς ἀνθρώποις ἐπέμενε τρεῖς ἡμέρας.
Notes:
The headword--presumably extracted from the first quotation given--is the masculine (and neuter) genitive singular, aorist passive participle, of ἄγαμαι . The words used to gloss it are likewise genitive aorist participles.
cf. generally alpha 138, alpha 141, alpha 166.
[1] A possible echo (as Adler noted) of Polybius 39.3.11 ἀγασθὲν τὸ πλῆθος αὐτοῦ τὴν προαίρεσιν ("the people, admiring his conduct").
[2] Again, this is presumably extracted from the quotation which now follows (transmitted, in Adler's view, via the Excerpta Constantini Porphyrogeniti).
[3] Quotation unidentifiable.
Keywords: biography; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; geography; historiography; history
Translated by: Gregory Hays on 23 June 1999@13:16:08.
Vetted by:
William Hutton (Cosmetics, added notes, raised status) on 30 October 2001@14:39:01.
David Whitehead (added keyword; cosmetics) on 3 February 2003@07:41:18.
Jennifer Benedict (added link, betacoding) on 26 March 2008@01:43:38.
David Whitehead (another keyword; tweaks and cosmetics) on 18 February 2011@07:41:10.
Catharine Roth (betacode typo) on 18 February 2011@21:24:54.
David Whitehead (x-refs; tweaks) on 23 December 2011@08:26:21.
David Whitehead (more tweaking) on 5 April 2015@10:13:26.
Catharine Roth (coding, tweaked link) on 5 April 2015@19:27:03.
Catharine Roth (deleted link) on 19 February 2018@19:49:01.

Headword: Ἀγασθῶ τινι
Adler number: alpha,168
Translated headword: I was amazed at someone, I was impressed by someone
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
Meaning I would wonder at someone. Xenophon [writes]: "whenever I was impressed by any of the soldiers."[1]
Greek Original:
Ἀγασθῶ τινι: ἀντὶ τοῦ θαυμάσω τινά. Ξενοφῶν: ὅταν τινὶ ἀγασθῶ τῶν στρατιωτῶν.
Notes:
Same entry in other lexica; references at Photius alpha125 Theodoridis. The headword, extracted from the quotation given, is aorist subjunctive (first person singular) of ἄγαμαι .
cf. generally alpha 138, alpha 141, alpha 166, alpha 167.
[1] Xenophon, Cyropedia 2.4.9 (web address 1).
Associated internet address:
Web address 1
Keywords: definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; historiography; military affairs
Translated by: Gregory Hays on 4 June 1999@14:13:58.
Vetted by:
William Hutton (Altered headword and translation for consistency with other entries, set status to low) on 31 October 2001@09:57:04.
David Whitehead (added keywords; cosmetics) on 3 February 2003@07:43:44.
Jennifer Benedict (cosmeticule) on 26 March 2008@01:44:34.
David Whitehead (augmented notes; tweaks) on 23 December 2011@08:36:44.
David Whitehead (expanded primary note) on 18 August 2013@05:50:47.
Catharine Roth (tweaked link) on 5 April 2015@21:46:04.

Headword: Ἀγάστου
Adler number: alpha,174
Translated headword: of an admirable
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
[Of an admirable] death.
Greek Original:
Ἀγάστου: θανάτου.
Note:
The unanimous reading of the mss for the gloss, θανάτου , is shared with Zonaras p.14 Tittmann and Eudemus (according to Adler's apparatus). Other sources (Photius; Bachmann, Anecdota graeca I p.7, 21) have the more comprehensible θαυμαστοῦ , "wondrous" (cf. alpha 173). Tittmann proposes ἀγάστου θανάτου θαυμαστοῦ . However, the enigma of the present entry was probably solved by Richard Porson (1759-1808), who noted that ἀγαστός and θάνατος appear in close proximity at Xenophon, Hellenica 2.3.56; see web address 1. (When death was hanging over him, Theramenes, in the view of Xenophon, said something admirable.) It may therefore be that an illustrative quotation here has been accidentally disassembled.
Associated internet address:
Web address 1
Keywords: biography; definition; ethics; historiography; history
Translated by: Gregory Hays on 4 June 1999@14:53:47.
Vetted by:
Eric Nelson on 31 December 1999@20:54:27.
David Whitehead (expanded note; added keywords; cosmetics) on 26 June 2001@06:57:16.
Jennifer Benedict (added link, betacode) on 26 March 2008@01:57:48.
David Whitehead (more keywords; cosmetics) on 23 December 2011@09:05:34.
Catharine Roth (coding, tweaked link) on 29 December 2014@00:20:03.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 6 August 2016@07:48:50.

Headword: Ἀγελαῖος
Adler number: alpha,187
Translated headword: ordinary
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
[Meaning] no-account fellow [ἰδιώτης ]. Or the lead animal in the herd.[1]
Also [sc. attested is the genitive plural] "of ἀγελαῖοι ", of no-account fellows, of rustics.
"Such-and-such is likely enough of [= in] ordinary men". Meaning common ones.[2]
Also [sc. attested is] "of ἀγελαῖοι ", of the random masses. It would be used metaphorically from animals in herds or from fish,[3] which they say feed lavishly and in schools [ἀγεληδόν ].[4]
Greek Original:
Ἀγελαῖος: ἰδιώτης. ἢ ὁ ἐν ἀγέλῃ διάγων. καὶ Ἀγελαίων, ἰδιωτῶν, ῥεμβωδῶν. τῶν ἀγελαίων ἔοικεν ἀνθρώπων εἶναι ὁ τοιοῦτος. ἀντὶ τοῦ εὐτελῶν. καὶ Ἀγελαίων, τῶν πολλῶν καὶ τυχόντων. εἴη δ' ἂν ἐκ μεταφορᾶς τῶν ἀγελαίων ζῴων ἢ ἀπὸ τῶν ἰχθύων, οὓς βόσκεσθαι ῥύδην καὶ ἀγεληδόν φασιν.
Notes:
The closest comparanda for this entry in its entirety are found in the Platonic Lexicon ascribed to Timaeus (971b.10); Synagoge (Codex B) alpha99; Photius, Lexicon alpha134 and alpha141 Theodoridis; none of these matches up precisely, however. Snippets evidently from the same source appear elsewhere, as noted below.
[1] For the distinction see already alpha 186. Thus far the entry = Synagoge alpha49; cf. Aelius Dionysius alpha17; Eudemus 3.20; Hesychius alpha424, omicron3.
[2] Julian, Oration 7 (205D), where "such-and-such" = the invention of myth. The glosses (minus the quotation) in this and the previous sentence are paralleled in Etymologicum Gudianum 4.3 and Etymologicum Magnum 7.41.
[3] cf. alpha 189.
[4] The reference is probably to Herodotus 2.93.1, where both ἰχθύες ἀγελαῖοι and the adverb ἀγεληδόν (alpha 191) appear (see web address 1). This etymological information also appears in Harpokration alpha8 Keaney (4.13 Dindorf) as well as in some of the sources cited above.
Associated internet address:
Web address 1
Keywords: definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; ethics; historiography; imagery; rhetoric; zoology
Translated by: Gregory Hays on 23 June 1999@13:23:22.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (added keyword; cosmetics) on 25 April 2002@09:44:27.
David Whitehead (another keyword) on 18 October 2005@05:38:36.
Catharine Roth (betacode typos) on 12 October 2007@01:13:40.
Catharine Roth (tweaked translation, added betacode, augmented note, raised status) on 12 October 2007@19:46:19.
Catharine Roth (added link) on 12 October 2007@22:34:25.
William Hutton (Augmented and modified notes) on 12 November 2007@06:25:26.
William Hutton (cosmetics) on 5 August 2009@13:42:54.
David Whitehead (more keywords; cosmetics) on 29 December 2011@06:55:10.
Catharine Roth (upgraded link) on 29 December 2011@11:48:32.
David Whitehead on 18 August 2013@06:16:07.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 3 September 2014@23:37:00.

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