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Headword: *)/abaris
Adler number: alpha,18
Translated headword: Abaris, Avars
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
Scythian, son of Seuthes. He wrote the so-called Scythinian Oracles[1] and Marriage of the river Hebros and Purifications and a Theogony in prose and Arrival of Apollo among the Hyperboreans in meter. He came from Scythia to Greece.
The legendary arrow belongs to him, the one he flew on from Greece to Hyperborean Scythia. It was given to him by Apollo.[2]
Gregory the Theologian mentioned this man in his Epitaphios for Basil the Great.[3]
They say[4] that once, when there was a plague throughout the entire inhabited world, Apollo told the Greeks and barbarians who had come to consult his oracle that the Athenian people should make prayers on behalf of all of them. So, many peoples sent ambassadors to them, and Abaris, they say, came as ambassador of the Hyperboreans in the third Olympiad.[5]
[Note] that the Bulgarians thoroughly destroyed the Avars[6] by force.
[Note] that these Avars drove out the Sabinorians, when they themselves had been expelled by peoples living near the shore of the Ocean, who left their own land when a mist formed in the flood of the Ocean and a crowd of griffins appeared; the story was that they would not stop until they had devoured the race of men. So the people driven away by these monsters invaded their neighbors. As the invaders were stronger, the others submitted and left, just as the Saragurians, when they were driven out, went to the Akatziri Huns.[7]
The declension is Abaris, Abaridos [genitive singular], Abaridas [accusative plural], and with apocope Abaris [nominative plural].
See about these things under 'Bulgarians'.[8]
Greek Original:
*)/abaris: *sku/qhs, *seu/qou ui(o/s. sunegra/yato de\ xrhsmou\s tou\s kaloume/nous *skuqinou\s kai\ *ga/mon *(/ebrou tou= potamou= kai\ *kaqarmou\s kai\ *qeogoni/an kataloga/dhn kai\ *)apo/llwnos a)/ficin ei)s *(uperbore/ous e)mme/trws. h(=ke de\ e)k *skuqw=n ei)s *(ella/da. tou/tou o( muqologou/menos o)i+sto\s, tou= petome/nou a)po\ th=s *(ella/dos me/xri tw=n *(uperbore/wn *skuqw=n: e)do/qh de\ au)tw=| para\ tou= *)apo/llwnos. tou/tou kai\ *grhgo/rios o( *qeolo/gos e)n tw=| ei)s to\n me/gan *basi/leion *)epitafi/w| mnh/mhn pepoi/htai. fasi\ de\ o(/ti loimou= kata\ pa=san th\n oi)koume/nhn gegono/tos a)nei=len o( *)apo/llwn manteuome/nois *(/ellhsi kai\ barba/rois to\n *)aqhnai/wn dh=mon u(pe\r pa/ntwn eu)xa\s poih/sasqai. presbeuome/nwn de\ pollw=n e)qnw=n pro\s au)tou\s, kai\ *)/abarin e)c *(uperbore/wn presbeuth\n a)fike/sqai le/gousi kata\ th\n g# *)olumpia/da. o(/ti tou\s *)aba/ris oi( *bou/lgaroi kata\ kra/tos a)/rdhn h)fa/nisan. o(/ti oi( *)aba/ris ou(=toi e)ch/lasan *sabi/nwras, metana/stai geno/menoi u(po\ e)qnw=n oi)kou/ntwn me\n th\n parwkeani=tin a)kth/n, th\n de\ xw/ran a)polipo/ntwn dia\ to\ e)c a)naxu/sews tou= *)wkeanou= o(mixlw=des gino/menon, kai\ grupw=n de\ plh=qos a)nafane/n: o(/per h)=n lo/gos mh\ pro/teron pau/sasqai pri\n h)\ bora\n poih=sai to\ tw=n a)nqrw/pwn ge/nos. dio\ dh\ u(po\ tw=nde e)launo/menoi tw=n deinw=n toi=s plhsioxw/rois e)ne/ballon: kai\ tw=n e)pio/ntwn dunatwte/rwn o)/ntwn oi( th\n e)/fodon u(fista/menoi metani/stanto, w(/sper kai\ oi( *sara/gouroi e)laqe/ntes pro\s toi=s *)akati/rois *ou)/nnois e)ge/nonto. kli/netai de\ *)/abaris, *)aba/ridos, tou\s *)aba/ridas, kai\ kata\ a)pokoph\n *)aba/ris. zh/tei peri\ tw=n au)tw=n e)n tw=| *bou/lgaroi.
Notes:
See generally A.H. Griffiths in OCD(4) p.1: "legendary devotee of Apollo from the far north, a shamanistic missionary and saviour-figure like Aristeas [alpha 3900]". Adler credits this part of the entry to the Epitome Onomatologi Hesychii Milesii.
[1] Or in one manuscript, 'Skythian'.
[2] Perhaps from a scholion on the passage about to be cited (so Adler). Cf. Herodotos 4.36.1 (web address 1).
[3] Gregory of Nazianzus PG 36.524b.
[4] This material is from Harpokration s.v. *)/abaris
[5] 768-765 BCE. Harpokration (see preceding note) cites Hippostratos (FGrH 568 F4) to this effect, but adds that there were later alternatives: the twenty-first Olympiad (696-693) or "the time of Croesus, king of Lydia" (so Pindar, fr.270 Snell-Maehler), i.e. c.560-546.
[6] The word used for the Avars here, *)aba/ris, is a homograph for the name of the Hyperborean wise man Abaris, so this separate section on the Avars is included in this entry. There is no indication that the lexicographer sees any connection between the two topics.
[7] Priscus fr.30 FHG (4.104), still 30 Bornmann. The final part reappears at alpha 820 and sigma 111.
[8] beta 423.
References:
RE Abaris (1) I.16-17
Macartney, C.A. "On the Greek Sources for the History of the Turks in the Sixth Century." BSOAS 11 (1944): 266-275
Associated internet address:
Web address 1
Keywords: biography; Christianity; dialects, grammar, and etymology; geography; historiography; history; mythology; philosophy; poetry; religion; rhetoric
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 21 August 1998@17:03:41.
Vetted by:
William Hutton (Modified translation and notes, added keywords, set status.) on 19 January 2001@14:57:43.
David Whitehead (augmented notes and bibliography; cosmetics) on 9 February 2001@05:20:43.
David Whitehead (added note) on 14 February 2001@06:09:48.
Mihai Olteanu (The only thracian item concerning Abaris is his father's name. Everything else pledes for his sythian ('hyperborean') origin. This is why I suppose we deal here with a copist mistake, and I propose the emendation: ́Αβαρις: Σκύθης, *Σκύθου υἱός (for Σκύθης as mythological character, see for example Herodotos 4,10).) on 22 January 2002@21:55:20.
David Whitehead (augmented notes and keywords; cosmetics) on 23 January 2002@03:11:25.
David Whitehead (augmented n.6 and added a keyword) on 5 October 2004@03:21:13.
William Hutton (augmented notes, added link and keywords, set status) on 24 August 2007@11:05:00.
Jennifer Benedict (cosmeticule) on 25 March 2008@00:16:43.
David Whitehead (another note; cosmetics) on 28 March 2014@06:23:27.
David Whitehead (updated a ref) on 29 July 2014@12:06:21.
David Whitehead (updated a ref) on 31 January 2015@09:22:24.

Headword: *)/abas
Adler number: alpha,20
Translated headword: Abas
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
A sophist, who left Historical Commentaries and an Art of Rhetoric.
Greek Original:
*)/abas: sofisth\s, *(istorika\ u(pomnh/mata kai\ *te/xnhn r(htorikh\n katalipw/n.
Notes:
Adler cites Epitome Onomatologi Hesychii Milesii for the entry.
See RE 1.19, Abas(11). Jacoby's Abas, FGrH 46, is a homonym, author of a Troika.
Reference:
Epitome Onomatologi Hesychii Milesii (ed. Wentzel, Texte und Untersuchungen zur Geschichte der altchristlichen Litteratur XIII.3)
Keywords: biography; historiography; philosophy; rhetoric
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 22 August 1998@12:57:09.
Vetted by:
Svetla Slaveva on 31 January 2000@23:27:03.
Svetla Slaveva on 1 February 2000@11:17:32.
David Whitehead (modified translation and keywords; augmented note; cosmetics) on 8 July 2003@08:27:47.
William Hutton (augmented note, set status) on 24 August 2007@23:41:32.
David Whitehead (expanded note) on 19 December 2011@06:10:09.
Catharine Roth (typo) on 5 August 2013@00:50:02.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 1 January 2015@23:49:14.

Headword: *)aba/skanos
Adler number: alpha,22
Translated headword: unprejudiced
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
[Meaning someone/something] deceit-free, envy-free.
"He [Mithradates] became an unprejudiced witness to Caesar of the achievements of Antipater."[1]
Greek Original:
*)aba/skanos: a)yeudh\s, a)nepi/fqonos. o( de\ ma/rtus a)ba/skanos gi/netai pro\s *kai/sara tw=n *)antipa/trou katorqwma/twn.
Notes:
For the etymology of the (rare) headword adjective cf. beta 167, beta 168, beta 169.
[1] Josephus, Jewish War 1.192 (see web address 1 below). For Antipater, father of Herod the Great, see OCD(4) s.v. Antipater(6), pp.107-8. 'Caesar' is Julius Caesar. Mithradates is not one of the six kings of Pontus who bore that name (cf. mu 1044) but the half-caste son of the last of them: a.k.a. M. of Pergamum.
Associated internet address:
Web address 1
Keywords: biography; definition; ethics; geography; historiography; history
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 22 August 1998@12:59:41.
Vetted by:
Catharine Roth (Altered wording, added note and link.) on 29 July 2000@23:43:06.
David Whitehead (cosmetics) on 27 February 2003@07:58:27.
David Whitehead (tweaked tr; augmented notes and keywords; raised status) on 27 August 2007@09:00:04.
Jennifer Benedict (cosmeticule) on 25 March 2008@00:17:46.
David Whitehead (another keyword) on 19 December 2011@06:13:12.
Catharine Roth (tweaked link) on 20 December 2011@00:53:00.
David Whitehead (updated a ref) on 29 July 2014@12:07:55.
David Whitehead (expanded a note; tweaks and cosmetics) on 2 April 2015@09:05:10.
Catharine Roth (tweaked link) on 2 October 2018@02:01:48.

Headword: *)/abel
Adler number: alpha,30
Translated headword: Abel
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
Son of Adam.[1] This man was chaste and just from the beginning and a shepherd of flocks; out of these he offered a sacrifice to God and was accepted, but was then killed because he was envied by his brother Cain.[2] Cain happened to be a farmer and after the judgement he lived worse, with groaning and trembling. For Abel, by dedicating the firstborn [of the flock] to God, recommended himself as more God-loving than self-loving,[3] and because this was a good choice, he was accepted. But Cain impiously kept his first-fruits for himself and gave the seconds to God, and for this reason was rightly rejected. For it says: "and after some days it happened that Cain offered from the fruits of the earth."[4] Cain was disgraced by the fact that the produce he offered was not the first-fruits but that which was some days old and second-best.
Greek Original:
*)/abel: ui(o\s *)ada/m. ou(=tos parqe/nos kai\ di/kaios u(ph=rxe kai\ poimh\n proba/twn: e)c w(=n kai\ qusi/an tw=| qew=| prosagagw\n kai\ dexqei\s a)nairei=tai, fqonhqei\s u(po\ tou= a)delfou= au)tou= *ka/i+n. o( *ka/i+n de\ gewrgo\s tugxa/nwn kai\ meta\ th\n di/khn xeiro/nws biw/sas ste/nwn kai\ tre/mwn h)=n. o( ga\r *)/abel ta\ prwto/toka tw=| qew=| kaqierw=n filo/qeon ma=llon h)\ fi/lauton e(auto\n suni/sth, o(/qen kai\ dia\ th=s a)gaqh=s au)tou= proaire/sews a)pede/xqh. o( de\ *ka/i+n dussebw=s e(autw=| a)pone/mwn ta\ prwtogennh/mata, qew=| de\ ta\ deu/tera, ei)ko/tws kai\ a)peblh/qh. fhsi\ ga/r: kai\ e)ge/neto meq' h(me/ras, prosh/negke *ka/i+n a)po\ tw=n karpw=n th=s gh=s. w(/ste dia\ tou=to *ka/i+n e)le/gxetai, o(/ti mh\ ta\ a)kroqi/nia gennh/mata prosh/negke tw=| qew=|, a)lla\ ta\ meq' h(me/ras kai\ deu/tera.
Notes:
George the Monk, Chronicon 6.10-7.16.
[1] alpha 425.
[2] kappa 27.
[3] Again at sigma 1580.
[4] Genesis 4:3.
Keywords: agriculture; biography; botany; Christianity; daily life; ethics; food; historiography; religion; zoology
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 20 August 1998@17:57:27.
Vetted by:
William Hutton (Modified translation, cosmetics, keywords, set status) on 27 January 2001@12:23:00.
David Whitehead (augmented notes and keywords) on 27 February 2003@08:28:31.
David Whitehead (another x-ref) on 8 September 2003@06:15:32.
David Whitehead (another keyword) on 2 October 2005@10:57:50.
David Whitehead (more keywords; cosmetics; raised status) on 22 June 2011@07:14:12.
David Whitehead (another keyword; tweaks) on 29 August 2012@10:24:09.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 5 August 2013@01:03:34.

Headword: *)abe/lteros
Adler number: alpha,32
Translated headword: thoughtless
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
[Meaning] mindless, stupid. For the intelligent man [is] be/lteros ["thoughtful, superior"].[1]
"No, by Zeus, not the greedy and thoughtless fellow, but the mindless and conceitedly slow-witted."[2] Menander in Perinthia [writes]: "any servant who takes an idle and easy master and deceives him does not know what a great accomplishment it is to make a greater fool of one who is already thoughtless".[3] They also call a)belthri/a ["thoughtlessness"] an a)belth/rion ["thoughtless thing"]. Anaxandrides in Helen[4] [writes]: "[A:] an anchor, a little boat, - call it what vessel you want. [B:] O Heracles of the sacred precinct of thoughtlessness. [A:] But one could not estimate its size."
Also [sc. attested is] a)belthri/a, [meaning] stupidity.
Or mindlessness.
Menander [writes]: "their mind drove them to such thoughtlessness that they prayed for victory over each other rather than over the enemy."[5]
Greek Original:
*)abe/lteros: a)no/htos, a)su/netos. be/lteros ga\r o( fro/nimos. ou) ma\ *di/' ou)x o( pleone/kths kai\ a)gnw/mwn, a)ll' o( a)no/htos kai\ eu)h/qhs meta\ xauno/thtos. *me/nandros *perinqi/a|: o(/stis paralabw\n despo/thn a)pra/gmona kai\ kou=fon e)capata=| qera/pwn, ou)k oi)=d' o(/ ti ou(=tos megalei=o/n e)sti diapepragme/nos, e)pabelterw/sas to/n pote a)be/lteron. le/gousi de\ kai\ a)belth/rion th\n a)belthri/an. *)alecandri/dhs *(ele/nh|: a)/gkura, le/mbos, skeu=os o(/ ti bou/lei le/ge. w)= *(hra/kleis a)belthri/ou temenikou=. a)ll' ou)d' a)\n ei)pei=n to\ me/geqos du/naito/ tis. kai\ *)abelthri/a, h( a)frosu/nh. h)\ a)nohsi/a. *me/nandros: ei)s tou=to de\ a)belthri/as h)/lasen au)toi=s o( nou=s, w(/ste qa/teron me/ros th\n kata\ qate/rou ma=llon h)\ th\n kata\ tw=n polemi/wn eu)/xesqai ni/khn.
Notes:
On this headword, a comic formation literally meaning non-superior, see generally LSJ s.v. (web address 1 below); and cf. alpha 31, alpha 33.
[1] These glosses are paralleled in a variety of other lexica (and in the scholia to Aristophanes, Clouds 1201 and Ecclesiazusae 768).
[2] Quotation (an illustration of the first of the glossing words, not the headword) unidentifiable; also in Photius and Aelius Dionysius.
[3] Menander fr. 393 Kock.
[4] Anaxandrides [see generally alpha 1982] fr. 12 Kock (and K.-A.). But note that Adler prints the manuscript reading "Alexandrides", on the strength of the (apparent) mention of such a playwright in alpha 3824. On the emendation to Anaxandrides, see Toup vol. 1 p. 9; Adler attributes the emendation to 'Iunius' (probably Adriaan de Jonghe, 1511-1575, author of a Greek/Latin Lexicon).
[5] Not M. the comic poet, quoted above, but the C6 CE historian Menander Protector [mu 591]: his fr. 28 Blockley.
Reference:
Toup, Jonathan, and Richard Porson. Emendationes in Suidam Et Hesychium, Et Alios Lexicographos Graecos. Oxford 1790
Associated internet address:
Web address 1
Keywords: comedy; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; ethics; historiography; history; military affairs; religion
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 25 August 1998@19:02:21.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (augmented notes; added keywords; cosmetics) on 9 February 2001@05:52:19.
Jennifer Benedict (betacoding) on 23 March 2008@13:05:56.
David Whitehead (modified headword; augmented notes and keywords; tweaks and cosmetics) on 24 March 2008@04:34:27.
Jennifer Benedict (added link) on 25 March 2008@11:17:06.
Catharine Roth (fixed note number, augmented note, added bibliography, tweaked link) on 15 May 2008@15:34:15.
David Whitehead (typo) on 16 May 2008@07:55:44.
Catharine Roth (augmented note) on 20 May 2008@11:50:13.
David Whitehead (tweaks) on 16 December 2011@05:38:00.
David Whitehead (updated a reference; cosmetics) on 3 January 2012@04:21:06.
David Whitehead (updated a ref) on 22 December 2014@04:27:32.
David Whitehead (tweaks and cosmetics) on 2 April 2015@09:15:50.

Headword: *)abi/gas
Adler number: alpha,43
Translated headword: Abigas
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
A river.
Greek Original:
*)abi/gas: potamo/s.
Notes:
In Numidia; the present-day Oued bou Roughal, in (present-day) Algeria. Barrington Atlas Map 34 grid F2. Mentioned in (e.g.) Procopius, History of the Wars of Justinian 4.19.7.
See again under rho 270.
Keywords: definition; geography; historiography
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 26 August 1998@18:57:23.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (added headword and note) on 9 October 2000@06:42:22.
David Whitehead (augmented note (with info supplied by Nicholas Fincher) and keywords) on 8 September 2004@06:58:03.
David Whitehead on 19 July 2011@08:01:42.
David Whitehead (x-ref) on 25 August 2011@05:20:08.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 7 August 2013@23:40:15.

Headword: *)abi/saros
Adler number: alpha,52
Translated headword: Abisaros, Abisareis
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
Name of a place.
Greek Original:
*)abi/saros: o)/noma to/pou.
Note:
In the mountains of NE India, present-day Hazara: Sanskrit Abhisara; Barrington Atlas map 6 grid C3. The Atlas uses the nominative plural Abisareis, which is found in e.g. Arrian, Indica 4.12, and represents a pluralisation of the (Greek version of the) ruler's name, Abisares; and the Suda's Abisaros is presumably a non-existent nominative derived from the genitive of this name, Abisarou.
Reference:
A.B.Bosworth, Commentary on Arrian's History of Alexander, ii (1995) 177-8.
Keywords: definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; geography; historiography
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 26 August 1998@19:04:58.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (added headword and note) on 9 October 2000@06:54:33.
David Whitehead (augmented note, keywords, bibliog) on 28 August 2006@12:26:54.
Jennifer Benedict (cosmeticule) on 23 March 2008@20:12:21.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 17 November 2009@18:45:50.
David Whitehead on 1 August 2011@07:38:51.

Headword: *)ablepth/mati
Adler number: alpha,55

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