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Headword: *)/abaris
Adler number: alpha,18
Translated headword: Abaris, Avars
Vetting Status: high
Scythian, son of Seuthes. He wrote the so-called Scythinian Oracles[1] and Marriage of the river Hebros and Purifications and a Theogony in prose and Arrival of Apollo among the Hyperboreans in meter. He came from Scythia to Greece.
The legendary arrow belongs to him, the one he flew on from Greece to Hyperborean Scythia. It was given to him by Apollo.[2]
Gregory the Theologian mentioned this man in his Epitaphios for Basil the Great.[3]
They say[4] that once, when there was a plague throughout the entire inhabited world, Apollo told the Greeks and barbarians who had come to consult his oracle that the Athenian people should make prayers on behalf of all of them. So, many peoples sent ambassadors to them, and Abaris, they say, came as ambassador of the Hyperboreans in the third Olympiad.[5]
[Note] that the Bulgarians thoroughly destroyed the Avars[6] by force.
[Note] that these Avars drove out the Sabinorians, when they themselves had been expelled by peoples living near the shore of the Ocean, who left their own land when a mist formed in the flood of the Ocean and a crowd of griffins appeared; the story was that they would not stop until they had devoured the race of men. So the people driven away by these monsters invaded their neighbors. As the invaders were stronger, the others submitted and left, just as the Saragurians, when they were driven out, went to the Akatziri Huns.[7]
The declension is Abaris, Abaridos [genitive singular], Abaridas [accusative plural], and with apocope Abaris [nominative plural].
See about these things under 'Bulgarians'.[8]
Greek Original:
*)/abaris: *sku/qhs, *seu/qou ui(o/s. sunegra/yato de\ xrhsmou\s tou\s kaloume/nous *skuqinou\s kai\ *ga/mon *(/ebrou tou= potamou= kai\ *kaqarmou\s kai\ *qeogoni/an kataloga/dhn kai\ *)apo/llwnos a)/ficin ei)s *(uperbore/ous e)mme/trws. h(=ke de\ e)k *skuqw=n ei)s *(ella/da. tou/tou o( muqologou/menos o)i+sto\s, tou= petome/nou a)po\ th=s *(ella/dos me/xri tw=n *(uperbore/wn *skuqw=n: e)do/qh de\ au)tw=| para\ tou= *)apo/llwnos. tou/tou kai\ *grhgo/rios o( *qeolo/gos e)n tw=| ei)s to\n me/gan *basi/leion *)epitafi/w| mnh/mhn pepoi/htai. fasi\ de\ o(/ti loimou= kata\ pa=san th\n oi)koume/nhn gegono/tos a)nei=len o( *)apo/llwn manteuome/nois *(/ellhsi kai\ barba/rois to\n *)aqhnai/wn dh=mon u(pe\r pa/ntwn eu)xa\s poih/sasqai. presbeuome/nwn de\ pollw=n e)qnw=n pro\s au)tou\s, kai\ *)/abarin e)c *(uperbore/wn presbeuth\n a)fike/sqai le/gousi kata\ th\n g# *)olumpia/da. o(/ti tou\s *)aba/ris oi( *bou/lgaroi kata\ kra/tos a)/rdhn h)fa/nisan. o(/ti oi( *)aba/ris ou(=toi e)ch/lasan *sabi/nwras, metana/stai geno/menoi u(po\ e)qnw=n oi)kou/ntwn me\n th\n parwkeani=tin a)kth/n, th\n de\ xw/ran a)polipo/ntwn dia\ to\ e)c a)naxu/sews tou= *)wkeanou= o(mixlw=des gino/menon, kai\ grupw=n de\ plh=qos a)nafane/n: o(/per h)=n lo/gos mh\ pro/teron pau/sasqai pri\n h)\ bora\n poih=sai to\ tw=n a)nqrw/pwn ge/nos. dio\ dh\ u(po\ tw=nde e)launo/menoi tw=n deinw=n toi=s plhsioxw/rois e)ne/ballon: kai\ tw=n e)pio/ntwn dunatwte/rwn o)/ntwn oi( th\n e)/fodon u(fista/menoi metani/stanto, w(/sper kai\ oi( *sara/gouroi e)laqe/ntes pro\s toi=s *)akati/rois *ou)/nnois e)ge/nonto. kli/netai de\ *)/abaris, *)aba/ridos, tou\s *)aba/ridas, kai\ kata\ a)pokoph\n *)aba/ris. zh/tei peri\ tw=n au)tw=n e)n tw=| *bou/lgaroi.
See generally A.H. Griffiths in OCD(4) p.1: "legendary devotee of Apollo from the far north, a shamanistic missionary and saviour-figure like Aristeas [alpha 3900]". Adler credits this part of the entry to the Epitome Onomatologi Hesychii Milesii.
[1] Or in one manuscript, 'Skythian'.
[2] Perhaps from a scholion on the passage about to be cited (so Adler). Cf. Herodotos 4.36.1 (web address 1).
[3] Gregory of Nazianzus PG 36.524b.
[4] This material is from Harpokration s.v. *)/abaris
[5] 768-765 BCE. Harpokration (see preceding note) cites Hippostratos (FGrH 568 F4) to this effect, but adds that there were later alternatives: the twenty-first Olympiad (696-693) or "the time of Croesus, king of Lydia" (so Pindar, fr.270 Snell-Maehler), i.e. c.560-546.
[6] The word used for the Avars here, *)aba/ris, is a homograph for the name of the Hyperborean wise man Abaris, so this separate section on the Avars is included in this entry. There is no indication that the lexicographer sees any connection between the two topics.
[7] Priscus fr.30 FHG (4.104), still 30 Bornmann. The final part reappears at alpha 820 and sigma 111.
[8] beta 423.
RE Abaris (1) I.16-17
Macartney, C.A. "On the Greek Sources for the History of the Turks in the Sixth Century." BSOAS 11 (1944): 266-275
Associated internet address:
Web address 1
Keywords: biography; Christianity; dialects, grammar, and etymology; geography; historiography; history; mythology; philosophy; poetry; religion; rhetoric
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 21 August 1998@17:03:41.
Vetted by:
William Hutton (Modified translation and notes, added keywords, set status.) on 19 January 2001@14:57:43.
David Whitehead (augmented notes and bibliography; cosmetics) on 9 February 2001@05:20:43.
David Whitehead (added note) on 14 February 2001@06:09:48.
Mihai Olteanu (The only thracian item concerning Abaris is his father's name. Everything else pledes for his sythian ('hyperborean') origin. This is why I suppose we deal here with a copist mistake, and I propose the emendation: ́Αβαρις: Σκύθης, *Σκύθου υἱός (for Σκύθης as mythological character, see for example Herodotos 4,10).) on 22 January 2002@21:55:20.
David Whitehead (augmented notes and keywords; cosmetics) on 23 January 2002@03:11:25.
David Whitehead (augmented n.6 and added a keyword) on 5 October 2004@03:21:13.
William Hutton (augmented notes, added link and keywords, set status) on 24 August 2007@11:05:00.
Jennifer Benedict (cosmeticule) on 25 March 2008@00:16:43.
David Whitehead (another note; cosmetics) on 28 March 2014@06:23:27.
David Whitehead (updated a ref) on 29 July 2014@12:06:21.
David Whitehead (updated a ref) on 31 January 2015@09:22:24.

Headword: *)abi/gas
Adler number: alpha,43
Translated headword: Abigas
Vetting Status: high
A river.
Greek Original:
*)abi/gas: potamo/s.
In Numidia; the present-day Oued bou Roughal, in (present-day) Algeria. Barrington Atlas Map 34 grid F2. Mentioned in (e.g.) Procopius, History of the Wars of Justinian 4.19.7.
See again under rho 270.
Keywords: definition; geography; historiography
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 26 August 1998@18:57:23.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (added headword and note) on 9 October 2000@06:42:22.
David Whitehead (augmented note (with info supplied by Nicholas Fincher) and keywords) on 8 September 2004@06:58:03.
David Whitehead on 19 July 2011@08:01:42.
David Whitehead (x-ref) on 25 August 2011@05:20:08.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 7 August 2013@23:40:15.

Headword: *)abrio/rhc
Adler number: alpha,80
Translated headword: Abriorex, Abriorix
Vetting Status: high
Proper name.
Greek Original:
*)abrio/rhc: o)/noma ku/rion.
Attested only here and, according to Adler, in the Ambrosian Lexicon in this form ending eta-xi; nevertheless this is surely Abriorix (a.k.a. Ambiorix), leader of the Gallic Eburones against Julius Caesar in 54-53 BCE.
Keywords: biography; definition; geography; historiography; history; military affairs
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 26 August 1998@19:34:00.
Vetted by:
William Hutton (Added headword, set keyword and status) on 31 January 2001@13:24:23.
David Whitehead (modified headword; added keyword) on 1 February 2001@03:55:16.
David Whitehead (note) on 19 July 2011@09:00:27.
David Whitehead (expanded note) on 19 December 2011@09:57:15.
David Whitehead (augmented note and keywords) on 2 April 2015@11:00:30.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 7 May 2015@00:19:45.

Headword: *(abrodiai/th|
Adler number: alpha,82
Translated headword: with luxurious living
Vetting Status: high
[Meaning] with a soft and dainty life.[1] Also [sc. attested is the related adjective] habrodiaitos: a softy, a soft-liver.[2]
"The lifestyle of the Romans [is] not inclined toward soft-living, especially since they are warlike and hard working."[3]
It also means someone living in affluence.
Also [sc. attested is] a(bro/thti ["in luxury"]: [meaning] in softness, in daintiness.[4]
Greek Original:
*(abrodiai/th|: trufera=| zwh=| kai\ a(palh=|. kai\ *(abrodi/aitos: trufhth\s, trufero/bios. toi=s de\ *(rwmai/ois ou)k e)s to\ a(brodi/aiton o( bi/os: a)/llws de\ w(s filopo/lemoi/ te/ ei)si kai\ fere/ponoi. shmai/nei de\ kai\ to\n plousi/ws zw=nta. kai\ *(abro/thti: trufero/thti, a(palo/thti.
[1] The primary headword -- a single word in the Greek (but described in LSJ s.v. as 'a faulty compound') -- and its glossing phrase are transmitted in the dative case here, but at Photius, Lexicon alpha52 Theodoridis, the editor prints them as nominatives.
[2] Same or similar material in other lexica.
[3] Menander Protector fr. 15.1 Blockley.
[4] Same material in other lexica; references at Photius alpha58 Theodoridis.
Keywords: daily life; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; economics; ethics; historiography; military affairs
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 26 August 1998@19:35:47.
Vetted by:
William Hutton (Altered translation, set keywords and status) on 31 January 2001@23:01:03.
David Whitehead (modified note; cosmetics) on 1 February 2001@04:17:21.
David Whitehead (supplemented translation; augmented notes and keywords; tweaks and cosmetics) on 20 December 2011@04:06:41.
David Whitehead on 20 December 2011@04:07:24.
David Whitehead (updated a reference) on 3 January 2012@04:22:20.
David Whitehead (tweaked notes) on 16 August 2013@07:16:19.

Headword: *(abroko/mas
Adler number: alpha,83
Translated headword: Abrokomas, Habrokomas, Abrocomas
Vetting Status: high
This man was satrap[1] under Artaxerxes, king of the Persians.[2]
Greek Original:
*(abroko/mas: ou(=tos satra/phs h)=n *)artace/rcou tou= *persw=n basile/ws.
From Harpokration (and Photius) s.v. The name has a smooth breathing (Abrokomas) there, as in Xenophon before them (below); in the Suda it is rough (Habrokomas).
[1] Provincial governor; see sigma 153 (and generally OCD(4) p.1321).
[2] There were several Persian kings of this name (see generally OCD(4) p.175), but probably Artaxerxes II (405/4-359/8) is meant; he had a general called Abrokomas, mentioned by Xenophon in the Anabasis.
Keywords: biography; chronology; dialects, grammar, and etymology; geography; historiography; history; military affairs; politics
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 26 August 1998@19:36:18.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (added headword, notes, keyword; cosmetics) on 29 September 2000@05:33:34.
William Hutton (Cosmetics) on 1 February 2001@00:51:03.
David Whitehead (augmented notes and keywords) on 19 July 2011@09:44:36.
Catharine Roth (cosmeticule) on 21 December 2011@01:44:30.
David Whitehead (updated 2 refs) on 29 July 2014@12:13:20.
David Whitehead (more keywords) on 2 April 2015@11:02:29.

Headword: *(abro/s
Adler number: alpha,87
Translated headword: delicate
Vetting Status: high
[Meaning] bright, delicate, tender.[1]
In the Epigrams: "a cicada sat above a cithara delicately murmuring."[2]
"All the same that fellow is dainty and delicate and weakened by the softness of his body and depraved and with his hair done up like the most licentious little courtesans. And when he goes in to see the king his face and his curly hair are always delicately dripping [with perfume], and he takes as much money from the communal difficulties as would satisfy even the legendary Midas."[3]
Greek Original:
*(abro/s: lampro\s, trufero\s, a(palo/s. e)n *)epigra/mmasin: a(bro\n e)pitru/zwn kiqa/ras u(/per e(/zeto te/ttic. o(/mws de\ o( trufero\s e)kei=nos kai\ a(bro\s kai\ u(po\ malaki/as tou= sw/matos kateagw\s kai\ lelugisme/nos kai\ ta/s te ko/mas a)nadou/menos, w(/sper ai( tw=n e(tairi/dwn a)selge/sterai, kai\ a(brostage\s e)/xwn a)ei\ to\ me/twpon kai\ tou\s bostru/xous, labw\n xrusi/on e)k tw=n koinw=n sumforw=n, o(/son i(kano\n h)=n e)mplh=sai kai\ to\n e)k tou= mu/qou *mi/dan, ei)se/rrei pro\s to\n basile/a.
For this adjective see already alpha alpha 73 and alpha 86, and again alpha 88.
[1] Same glossing in other lexica; references at Photius alpha55 Theodoridis.
[2] Greek Anthology 6.54.7 (Paulus Silentarius).
[3] Attributed by Hemsterhuys to Eunapius; again (in part) at alpha 1860.
Keywords: biography; clothing; daily life; definition; ethics; gender and sexuality; historiography; imagery; mythology; poetry; women; zoology
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 26 August 1998@19:39:27.
Vetted by:
William Hutton (Modified translation, cosmetics, augmented note, set keywords and status) on 2 February 2001@12:21:50.
David Whitehead (added note and keyword; cosmetics) on 9 February 2001@06:35:10.
David Whitehead (another keyword) on 3 January 2006@10:26:40.
David Whitehead (augmented notes and keywords; tweaks and cosmetics) on 21 December 2011@04:35:18.
Catharine Roth (cosmeticule) on 22 December 2011@19:16:16.
David Whitehead on 16 August 2013@07:18:56.
David Whitehead (another x-ref) on 17 January 2014@04:31:02.

Headword: *)agaqi/as
Adler number: alpha,112

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