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Headword: *)aarw/n
Adler number: alpha,6
Translated headword: Aaron
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
Proper name.
Greek Original:
*)aarw/n: o)/noma ku/rion.
Notes:
Same entry, according to Adler, in the Ambrosian Lexicon.
Hebrew אהרון, brother of Moses (mu 1348); Aaron is also mentioned in nu 1, omicron 68.
See web address 1 below for the entry in the Catholic Encyclopedia on Aaron.
Associated internet address:
Web address 1
Keywords: biography; definition; religion
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 21 August 1998@16:48:52.
Vetted by:
Samuel Huskey (added link to Catholic Encyclopedia entry "Aaron") on 15 July 2000@14:22:28.
David Whitehead (added keywords) on 27 February 2003@07:07:28.
David Whitehead (added a note) on 13 April 2004@09:17:08.
William Hutton (augmented note, set status) on 20 August 2007@04:30:20.
William Hutton (typo) on 20 August 2007@09:00:32.
Jennifer Benedict (added note (citation of link)) on 25 March 2008@00:12:22.
David Whitehead (another note) on 18 December 2011@10:16:36.

Headword: *)aba/nteios
Adler number: alpha,15
Translated headword: Abanteios, Abantius, Abantian
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
The [house][1] of Abas.[2] Also [attested is] Abantiades.[3]
Greek Original:
*)aba/nteios: o( tou= *)/abantos. kai\ *)abantia/dhs.
Notes:
Adler cites as a comparandum Lexicon Ambrosianum 22, 23, 28.
[1] This suppletion is suggested by the corresponding entry in the Lexicon of pseudo-Zonaras 5.1, which is identical to this entry apart from the headword phrase: vs. *)aba/nteios here, ps.-Zonaras has *)aba/nteios do/mos ('Abantian house'). The headword here could serve as a modifier for any substantive of the masculine gender, including a son or descendant, as is suggested by the subsequent reference to a patronymic form. The adjective is unattested outside of grammars and lexica, and ps.-Zonaras provides the only example of it modifying a specific substantive. Stephanus of Byzantium in his entry on 'Abantis', an early name for Euboea (cf. Hesiod fr. 296 Merkelbach-West), notes it as the possessive adjective relating to the Abantes or to their legendary founder Abas, whom Stephanos identifies either as the son of Lynkeus (see note 2 below) or a homonymous son of Poseidon. Cf. also Herodianus Peri orthographias 3.2.429.34 and 465.14.
[2] Not the Abas of alpha 20, but one of the mythological figures of that name; in fact almost certainly A. the son of Lynkeus, king of Argos [Myth, Place] after Danaos and father of the twins Akrisios and Proitos (Pausanias 2.16.2 (web address 1); Apollodorus, Library 2.2.1 (web address 2)).
[3] This term is used by (e.g.) Ovid both for an actual son of Abas (Metamorphoses 4.607 (Acrisius): web address 3) and in the sense of a more distant descendant (4.673 (Perseus, great-grandson of Abas; cf. pi 1372): web address 4).
Associated internet addresses:
Web address 1,
Web address 2,
Web address 3,
Web address 4
Keywords: biography; dialects, grammar, and etymology; geography; mythology; poetry
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 22 August 1998@12:47:27.
Vetted by:
William Hutton (Entered headword, modified note, added keywords, raised status) on 18 January 2001@09:34:40.
David Whitehead (augmented and modified note; added keyword) on 27 February 2003@07:23:08.
David Whitehead (tweaked tr; augmented notes and keywords; raised status) on 23 August 2007@07:12:31.
William Hutton (augmented notes, tweaked translation) on 23 August 2007@13:11:02.
William Hutton (tweaks and typos) on 24 August 2007@02:44:20.
Jennifer Benedict (cosmetics) on 24 March 2008@23:38:57.
Catharine Roth (upgraded links) on 5 August 2013@01:08:34.

Headword: *)/abaci
Adler number: alpha,16
Translated headword: planks, abacuses
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
What we call a)ba/kia.[1] The Lawmaker [says] in the Martyrdom of Saint Thecla: "Tryphaina was overcome by suffering, and was seen lying like the dead on the slabs."[2] So he says.
Greek Original:
*)/abaci: toi=s par' h(mi=n legome/nois a)baki/ois. o( *logoqe/ths e)n tw=| th=s a(gi/as *qe/klhs marturi/w|: *tru/faina de\ pa/qei lhfqei=sa nekroi=s o(moi/a pro\s toi=s a)/bacin w(ra=to keime/nh. ou(/tw fhsi/n.
Notes:
This entry occurs after alpha 17 in ms A (= Parisinus 2625), after alpha 9 in ms S (= Vaticanus 1296) and in the margin of ms D (Bodleianus Auct. V 52).
[1] The given form is a dative plural of a)/bac, ("abacus"), and the lexicographer explains it by reference to the diminutive a)ba/kion. The primary sense is a table topped by a slab, or the slab itself; a "calculator" is a secondary meaning.
[2] Symeon Metaphrastes (also known as the Logothete ('Lawmaker')) Patrologia Graeca 115.837c. On Thecla, cf. tau 1108.
Keywords: biography; Christianity; dialects, grammar, and etymology; gender and sexuality; history; mathematics; religion; science and technology; women
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 22 August 1998@12:53:59.
Vetted by:
William Hutton (Modified translation and notes, added keywords, raised status) on 18 January 2001@09:46:37.
Catharine Roth (modified translation, augmented note) on 7 November 2002@15:06:33.
Catharine Roth (cosmetics) on 7 November 2002@15:08:44.
David Whitehead (another keyword) on 9 November 2005@09:20:27.
Catharine Roth (added keyword) on 6 September 2006@23:44:05.
William Hutton (modified headword and translation, augmented notes, set status) on 24 August 2007@09:36:45.
William Hutton on 24 August 2007@09:42:51.
Jennifer Benedict (tweaks) on 24 March 2008@23:50:31.
David Whitehead (cosmetics) on 18 December 2011@10:35:22.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 7 February 2015@23:44:46.

Headword: *)/abaris
Adler number: alpha,18
Translated headword: Abaris, Avars
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
Scythian, son of Seuthes. He wrote the so-called Scythinian Oracles[1] and Marriage of the river Hebros and Purifications and a Theogony in prose and Arrival of Apollo among the Hyperboreans in meter. He came from Scythia to Greece.
The legendary arrow belongs to him, the one he flew on from Greece to Hyperborean Scythia. It was given to him by Apollo.[2]
Gregory the Theologian mentioned this man in his Epitaphios for Basil the Great.[3]
They say[4] that once, when there was a plague throughout the entire inhabited world, Apollo told the Greeks and barbarians who had come to consult his oracle that the Athenian people should make prayers on behalf of all of them. So, many peoples sent ambassadors to them, and Abaris, they say, came as ambassador of the Hyperboreans in the third Olympiad.[5]
[Note] that the Bulgarians thoroughly destroyed the Avars[6] by force.
[Note] that these Avars drove out the Sabinorians, when they themselves had been expelled by peoples living near the shore of the Ocean, who left their own land when a mist formed in the flood of the Ocean and a crowd of griffins appeared; the story was that they would not stop until they had devoured the race of men. So the people driven away by these monsters invaded their neighbors. As the invaders were stronger, the others submitted and left, just as the Saragurians, when they were driven out, went to the Akatziri Huns.[7]
The declension is Abaris, Abaridos [genitive singular], Abaridas [accusative plural], and with apocope Abaris [nominative plural].
See about these things under 'Bulgarians'.[8]
Greek Original:
*)/abaris: *sku/qhs, *seu/qou ui(o/s. sunegra/yato de\ xrhsmou\s tou\s kaloume/nous *skuqinou\s kai\ *ga/mon *(/ebrou tou= potamou= kai\ *kaqarmou\s kai\ *qeogoni/an kataloga/dhn kai\ *)apo/llwnos a)/ficin ei)s *(uperbore/ous e)mme/trws. h(=ke de\ e)k *skuqw=n ei)s *(ella/da. tou/tou o( muqologou/menos o)i+sto\s, tou= petome/nou a)po\ th=s *(ella/dos me/xri tw=n *(uperbore/wn *skuqw=n: e)do/qh de\ au)tw=| para\ tou= *)apo/llwnos. tou/tou kai\ *grhgo/rios o( *qeolo/gos e)n tw=| ei)s to\n me/gan *basi/leion *)epitafi/w| mnh/mhn pepoi/htai. fasi\ de\ o(/ti loimou= kata\ pa=san th\n oi)koume/nhn gegono/tos a)nei=len o( *)apo/llwn manteuome/nois *(/ellhsi kai\ barba/rois to\n *)aqhnai/wn dh=mon u(pe\r pa/ntwn eu)xa\s poih/sasqai. presbeuome/nwn de\ pollw=n e)qnw=n pro\s au)tou\s, kai\ *)/abarin e)c *(uperbore/wn presbeuth\n a)fike/sqai le/gousi kata\ th\n g# *)olumpia/da. o(/ti tou\s *)aba/ris oi( *bou/lgaroi kata\ kra/tos a)/rdhn h)fa/nisan. o(/ti oi( *)aba/ris ou(=toi e)ch/lasan *sabi/nwras, metana/stai geno/menoi u(po\ e)qnw=n oi)kou/ntwn me\n th\n parwkeani=tin a)kth/n, th\n de\ xw/ran a)polipo/ntwn dia\ to\ e)c a)naxu/sews tou= *)wkeanou= o(mixlw=des gino/menon, kai\ grupw=n de\ plh=qos a)nafane/n: o(/per h)=n lo/gos mh\ pro/teron pau/sasqai pri\n h)\ bora\n poih=sai to\ tw=n a)nqrw/pwn ge/nos. dio\ dh\ u(po\ tw=nde e)launo/menoi tw=n deinw=n toi=s plhsioxw/rois e)ne/ballon: kai\ tw=n e)pio/ntwn dunatwte/rwn o)/ntwn oi( th\n e)/fodon u(fista/menoi metani/stanto, w(/sper kai\ oi( *sara/gouroi e)laqe/ntes pro\s toi=s *)akati/rois *ou)/nnois e)ge/nonto. kli/netai de\ *)/abaris, *)aba/ridos, tou\s *)aba/ridas, kai\ kata\ a)pokoph\n *)aba/ris. zh/tei peri\ tw=n au)tw=n e)n tw=| *bou/lgaroi.
Notes:
See generally A.H. Griffiths in OCD(4) p.1: "legendary devotee of Apollo from the far north, a shamanistic missionary and saviour-figure like Aristeas [alpha 3900]". Adler credits this part of the entry to the Epitome Onomatologi Hesychii Milesii.
[1] Or in one manuscript, 'Skythian'.
[2] Perhaps from a scholion on the passage about to be cited (so Adler). Cf. Herodotos 4.36.1 (web address 1).
[3] Gregory of Nazianzus PG 36.524b.
[4] This material is from Harpokration s.v. *)/abaris
[5] 768-765 BCE. Harpokration (see preceding note) cites Hippostratos (FGrH 568 F4) to this effect, but adds that there were later alternatives: the twenty-first Olympiad (696-693) or "the time of Croesus, king of Lydia" (so Pindar, fr.270 Snell-Maehler), i.e. c.560-546.
[6] The word used for the Avars here, *)aba/ris, is a homograph for the name of the Hyperborean wise man Abaris, so this separate section on the Avars is included in this entry. There is no indication that the lexicographer sees any connection between the two topics.
[7] Priscus fr.30 FHG (4.104), still 30 Bornmann. The final part reappears at alpha 820 and sigma 111.
[8] beta 423.
References:
RE Abaris (1) I.16-17
Macartney, C.A. "On the Greek Sources for the History of the Turks in the Sixth Century." BSOAS 11 (1944): 266-275
Associated internet address:
Web address 1
Keywords: biography; Christianity; dialects, grammar, and etymology; geography; historiography; history; mythology; philosophy; poetry; religion; rhetoric
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 21 August 1998@17:03:41.
Vetted by:
William Hutton (Modified translation and notes, added keywords, set status.) on 19 January 2001@14:57:43.
David Whitehead (augmented notes and bibliography; cosmetics) on 9 February 2001@05:20:43.
David Whitehead (added note) on 14 February 2001@06:09:48.
Mihai Olteanu (The only thracian item concerning Abaris is his father's name. Everything else pledes for his sythian ('hyperborean') origin. This is why I suppose we deal here with a copist mistake, and I propose the emendation: ́Αβαρις: Σκύθης, *Σκύθου υἱός (for Σκύθης as mythological character, see for example Herodotos 4,10).) on 22 January 2002@21:55:20.
David Whitehead (augmented notes and keywords; cosmetics) on 23 January 2002@03:11:25.
David Whitehead (augmented n.6 and added a keyword) on 5 October 2004@03:21:13.
William Hutton (augmented notes, added link and keywords, set status) on 24 August 2007@11:05:00.
Jennifer Benedict (cosmeticule) on 25 March 2008@00:16:43.
David Whitehead (another note; cosmetics) on 28 March 2014@06:23:27.
David Whitehead (updated a ref) on 29 July 2014@12:06:21.
David Whitehead (updated a ref) on 31 January 2015@09:22:24.

Headword: *)/abas
Adler number: alpha,20
Translated headword: Abas
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
A sophist, who left Historical Commentaries and an Art of Rhetoric.
Greek Original:
*)/abas: sofisth\s, *(istorika\ u(pomnh/mata kai\ *te/xnhn r(htorikh\n katalipw/n.
Notes:
Adler cites Epitome Onomatologi Hesychii Milesii for the entry.
See RE 1.19, Abas(11). Jacoby's Abas, FGrH 46, is a homonym, author of a Troika.
Reference:
Epitome Onomatologi Hesychii Milesii (ed. Wentzel, Texte und Untersuchungen zur Geschichte der altchristlichen Litteratur XIII.3)
Keywords: biography; historiography; philosophy; rhetoric
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 22 August 1998@12:57:09.
Vetted by:
Svetla Slaveva on 31 January 2000@23:27:03.
Svetla Slaveva on 1 February 2000@11:17:32.
David Whitehead (modified translation and keywords; augmented note; cosmetics) on 8 July 2003@08:27:47.
William Hutton (augmented note, set status) on 24 August 2007@23:41:32.
David Whitehead (expanded note) on 19 December 2011@06:10:09.
Catharine Roth (typo) on 5 August 2013@00:50:02.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 1 January 2015@23:49:14.

Headword: *)aba/skanos
Adler number: alpha,22
Translated headword: unprejudiced
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
[Meaning someone/something] deceit-free, envy-free.
"He [Mithradates] became an unprejudiced witness to Caesar of the achievements of Antipater."[1]
Greek Original:
*)aba/skanos: a)yeudh\s, a)nepi/fqonos. o( de\ ma/rtus a)ba/skanos gi/netai pro\s *kai/sara tw=n *)antipa/trou katorqwma/twn.
Notes:
For the etymology of the (rare) headword adjective cf. beta 167, beta 168, beta 169.
[1] Josephus, Jewish War 1.192 (see web address 1 below). For Antipater, father of Herod the Great, see OCD(4) s.v. Antipater(6), pp.107-8. 'Caesar' is Julius Caesar. Mithradates is not one of the six kings of Pontus who bore that name (cf. mu 1044) but the half-caste son of the last of them: a.k.a. M. of Pergamum.
Associated internet address:
Web address 1
Keywords: biography; definition; ethics; geography; historiography; history
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 22 August 1998@12:59:41.
Vetted by:
Catharine Roth (Altered wording, added note and link.) on 29 July 2000@23:43:06.
David Whitehead (cosmetics) on 27 February 2003@07:58:27.
David Whitehead (tweaked tr; augmented notes and keywords; raised status) on 27 August 2007@09:00:04.
Jennifer Benedict (cosmeticule) on 25 March 2008@00:17:46.
David Whitehead (another keyword) on 19 December 2011@06:13:12.
Catharine Roth (tweaked link) on 20 December 2011@00:53:00.
David Whitehead (updated a ref) on 29 July 2014@12:07:55.
David Whitehead (expanded a note; tweaks and cosmetics) on 2 April 2015@09:05:10.
Catharine Roth (tweaked link) on 2 October 2018@02:01:48.

Headword: *)abdiou/
Adler number: alpha,27
Translated headword: Abdiou, Obadiah
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
Proper name.
Greek Original:
*)abdiou/: o)/noma ku/rion.
Notes:
Same entry, according to Adler, in the Ambrosian Lexicon (30).
Accented as it is (oxytone), nominative. The book of the prophet Obadiah in the Septuagint has the title *a*b*d*i*o*u and *(/orasis *)abdiou "Obadiah's Vision"; the name has no accent, as a Hebrew name, so its case cannot be determined. Hesychius gives the name as oxytone, with the gloss e(rmhneu/etai dou=los e)comologhto/s "it is interpreted as acknowledged servant."
Keywords: biography; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; religion
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 23 August 1998@16:25:23.
Vetted by:
William Hutton (Set status) on 20 January 2001@22:55:17.
David Whitehead (added note; changed keyword) on 21 January 2001@05:52:35.
Catharine Roth (augmented note) on 4 October 2007@01:17:58.
David Whitehead (another note; more keywords) on 19 December 2011@06:35:03.
David Whitehead (coding) on 15 August 2015@06:58:15.

Headword: *)/abel
Adler number: alpha,30
Translated headword: Abel
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
Son of Adam.[1] This man was chaste and just from the beginning and a shepherd of flocks; out of these he offered a sacrifice to God and was accepted, but was then killed because he was envied by his brother Cain.[2] Cain happened to be a farmer and after the judgement he lived worse, with groaning and trembling. For Abel, by dedicating the firstborn [of the flock] to God, recommended himself as more God-loving than self-loving,[3] and because this was a good choice, he was accepted. But Cain impiously kept his first-fruits for himself and gave the seconds to God, and for this reason was rightly rejected. For it says: "and after some days it happened that Cain offered from the fruits of the earth."[4] Cain was disgraced by the fact that the produce he offered was not the first-fruits but that which was some days old and second-best.
Greek Original:
*)/abel: ui(o\s *)ada/m. ou(=tos parqe/nos kai\ di/kaios u(ph=rxe kai\ poimh\n proba/twn: e)c w(=n kai\ qusi/an tw=| qew=| prosagagw\n kai\ dexqei\s a)nairei=tai, fqonhqei\s u(po\ tou= a)delfou= au)tou= *ka/i+n. o( *ka/i+n de\ gewrgo\s tugxa/nwn kai\ meta\ th\n di/khn xeiro/nws biw/sas ste/nwn kai\ tre/mwn h)=n. o( ga\r *)/abel ta\ prwto/toka tw=| qew=| kaqierw=n filo/qeon ma=llon h)\ fi/lauton e(auto\n suni/sth, o(/qen kai\ dia\ th=s a)gaqh=s au)tou= proaire/sews a)pede/xqh. o( de\ *ka/i+n dussebw=s e(autw=| a)pone/mwn ta\ prwtogennh/mata, qew=| de\ ta\ deu/tera, ei)ko/tws kai\ a)peblh/qh. fhsi\ ga/r: kai\ e)ge/neto meq' h(me/ras, prosh/negke *ka/i+n a)po\ tw=n karpw=n th=s gh=s. w(/ste dia\ tou=to *ka/i+n e)le/gxetai, o(/ti mh\ ta\ a)kroqi/nia gennh/mata prosh/negke tw=| qew=|, a)lla\ ta\ meq' h(me/ras kai\ deu/tera.
Notes:
George the Monk, Chronicon 6.10-7.16.
[1] alpha 425.
[2] kappa 27.
[3] Again at sigma 1580.
[4] Genesis 4:3.
Keywords: agriculture; biography; botany; Christianity; daily life; ethics; food; historiography; religion; zoology
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 20 August 1998@17:57:27.
Vetted by:
William Hutton (Modified translation, cosmetics, keywords, set status) on 27 January 2001@12:23:00.
David Whitehead (augmented notes and keywords) on 27 February 2003@08:28:31.
David Whitehead (another x-ref) on 8 September 2003@06:15:32.
David Whitehead (another keyword) on 2 October 2005@10:57:50.
David Whitehead (more keywords; cosmetics; raised status) on 22 June 2011@07:14:12.
David Whitehead (another keyword; tweaks) on 29 August 2012@10:24:09.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 5 August 2013@01:03:34.

Headword: *)abesalw/m
Adler number: alpha,35
Translated headword: Abesalom, Absalom
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
Proper name.[1]
[The man] who rose up against his own father David and was destroyed by him in the war.[2]
Greek Original:
*)abesalw/m: o)/noma ku/rion. o(\s tou= i)di/ou patro\s *dabi\d katecane/sth kai\ a)nh|re/qh u(p' au)tou= e)n tw=| pole/mw|.
Notes:
[1] So too, according to Adler, in the Ambrosian Lexicon.
[2] See generally 2 Samuel 15-18 LXX.
Keywords: biography; children; definition; ethics; history; military affairs; religion
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 26 August 1998@18:50:03.
Vetted by:
Catharine Roth (Added keywords.) on 30 July 2000@22:45:00.
David Whitehead (added keywords; cosmetics) on 9 June 2003@07:27:13.
David Whitehead on 1 August 2011@07:34:26.
David Whitehead (augmented notes; another keyword) on 19 December 2011@06:57:32.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 7 August 2013@23:28:44.
David Whitehead (coding) on 15 August 2015@07:26:43.

Headword: *)abeirw/n
Adler number: alpha,36
Translated headword: Abeiron
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
Proper name.
Greek Original:
*)abeirw/n: o)/noma ku/rion.
Notes:
Same entry, according to Adler, in the Ambrosian Lexicon.
See Numbers 16 LXX; son of Eliab.
Keywords: biography; definition; religion
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 26 August 1998@18:50:39.
Vetted by:
William Hutton (Cosmetics, set status) on 26 January 2001@23:14:21.
David Whitehead (augmented keywords) on 27 February 2003@08:29:56.
David Whitehead on 1 August 2011@07:34:50.
David Whitehead (another note) on 19 December 2011@06:58:47.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 7 August 2013@23:29:32.
David Whitehead on 15 August 2015@07:27:40.

Headword: *)abia/
Adler number: alpha,39
Translated headword: Abia, Abijah
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
Proper name.
Greek Original:
*)abia/: o)/noma ku/rion.
Notes:
(Entry lacking, Adler reports, in ms S.)
1 Kings 15:1-8 LXX, Matthew 1.7. Son of Rehoboam and father of Asaph (Asa); king of Judah. See also alpha 42, *)abi/as, a different transliteration of the name, but the same figure.
Keywords: biography; Christianity; definition; religion
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 26 August 1998@18:52:26.
Vetted by:
William Hutton (Cosmetics, set status) on 26 January 2001@23:18:53.
David Whitehead (augmented keywords) on 27 February 2003@08:32:42.
Jennifer Benedict (Added headword, expanded note) on 23 March 2008@14:11:16.
Jennifer Benedict (added x-ref, more expansion of note) on 23 March 2008@14:15:19.
Catharine Roth (tweaked betacode) on 24 March 2008@00:09:30.
David Whitehead on 1 August 2011@07:35:19.
David Whitehead (another keyword; cosmetics) on 19 December 2011@07:04:03.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 7 August 2013@23:32:01.
David Whitehead (another note) on 28 March 2014@06:28:33.
David Whitehead (coding) on 15 August 2015@07:28:24.

Headword: *)abia/qar
Adler number: alpha,41
Translated headword: Abiathar
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
Proper name.
Greek Original:
*)abia/qar: o)/noma ku/rion.
Notes:
In Mark 2.26, Abiathar is a priest who gives sacred food to David and his men.
In 1 Samuel 21.4-8, the priest is Ahimilech, and Abiathar is his son; cf. 1 Samuel 22.20.
Keywords: biography; Christianity; definition; food; religion
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 26 August 1998@18:53:54.
Vetted by:
William Hutton (Added headword, set status.) on 26 January 2001@23:22:05.
David Whitehead (augmented keywords) on 27 February 2003@08:34:57.
David Whitehead on 1 August 2011@07:36:15.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 7 August 2013@23:37:32.

Headword: *)abi/as
Adler number: alpha,42
Translated headword: Abijah, Abias
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
Son of Rehoboam the son of Solomon. He fought against Jeroboam, Solomon's slave, and in one day killed 1500 powerful men.
Greek Original:
*)abi/as: ui(o\s *(roboa\m, tou= ui(ou= *solomw=ntos, o(\s e)pole/mhsen *(ieroboa\m tw=| dou/lw| *solomw=ntos kai\ e)n mia=| h(me/ra| a)nei=len a)/ndras dunatou\s #22af#.
Notes:
2 Chronicles 13; cf. 1 Kings 1-8.
See also alpha 39, *)abia/, a different transliteration of the name, but clearly the same figure.
Keywords: biography; definition; military affairs; religion
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 26 August 1998@18:56:51.
Vetted by:
William Hutton (Added headword, set status) on 28 January 2001@20:41:59.
David Whitehead (augmented keywords) on 27 February 2003@08:35:59.
Jennifer Benedict (expanded note and added x-ref) on 23 March 2008@14:18:15.
Catharine Roth (tweaked betacode) on 24 March 2008@00:11:04.
David Whitehead on 19 December 2011@07:07:21.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 7 August 2013@23:39:02.

Headword: *)abie/zer
Adler number: alpha,44
Translated headword: Abiezer
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
Proper name.
Greek Original:
*)abie/zer: o)/noma ku/rion.
Notes:
Same entry, according to Adler, in the Ambrosian Lexicon (15).
For A., ancestor of Gideon, see Judges 6:34, 8:2, etc.
Keywords: biography; definition; religion
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 26 August 1998@18:57:51.
Vetted by:
William Hutton (Added headword, keyword, set status) on 27 January 2001@11:45:30.
David Whitehead (added note and keyword) on 27 February 2003@08:41:51.
David Whitehead (augmented notes and keywords) on 19 December 2011@07:14:38.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 7 August 2013@23:41:01.

Headword: *)abime/lex
Adler number: alpha,45
Translated headword: Abimelech
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
Proper name.[1]
The son of Gideon.[2] He smote his brothers, seventy sons of Gideon's wives,[3] upon a single stone, and none of them was left except Jotham the youngest son,[4] who ran away. As Abimelech was passing through with his people, Jotham went up to the top of the mountain and, raising his voice, told the following parable. "Listen to me, men of Shechem, and God will listen to you. The trees set out[5] to anoint a king over themselves. And they said to the olive, 'Rule over us.' And the olive said to them, 'Should I give up my rich oil, by which -- through me -- God[6] and men receive honor,[7] and go rule over trees?' Then the trees said to the fig, 'Come, rule over us.' And the fig said to them, 'Should I give up my sweetness, my excellent product, and go to rule over the trees?' And the trees said to the vine, 'Come, rule over us.' And the vine said to them, 'Should I give up my wine, merriment for men, and go to rule over the trees?' And all the trees said to the thornbush, 'Come, you rule over us.' And the thornbush said to the trees, 'If you are truly anointing me to rule over you, come stand under[8] my shade. But if not, may fire come from me and consume the cedars of Lebanon.' Now, if you have dealt with my father and his family truthfully and in an upright way, and have made his concubine's son Abimelech king over the men of Shechem, then may you rejoice in him and may he indeed rejoice in you. But if not, may fire issue from Abimelech and consume your leaders and their families. And may fire issue from the men of Shechem and consume Abimelech." And Jotham ran from the presence of Abimelech his brother. But Abimelech ruled over Israel for three years. Then God sent an evil spirit between[9] Abimelech and the men of Shechem. And the men of Shechem dealt treacherously[10] with the house of Abimelech so to lay at Abimelech's feet[11] the blood of Gideon's seventy sons. And so Abimilech set out to beseige the tower.[12] As he approached the tower gate to burn it, a woman threw a piece of a millstone onto his head and crushed his skull. He at once called out to his armor bearer[13], saying, "Draw your sword and kill me, so they can never say I was killed by a woman." So the young man took up his sword and ran him through. And God recompensed the wickedness Abimelech had done to his father in killing his seventy brothers. God also recompensed[14] all the wickedness of the men of Shechem, in accord with the message and parable of Jotham.
Greek Original:
*)abime/lex: o)/noma ku/rion. ui(o\s *gedew/n. ou(=tos e)pa/tace tou\s a)delfou\s au)tou= e)k tw=n e)leuqe/rwn a)/ndras e)bdomh/konta e)pi\ li/qon e(/na, e)c w(=n ou)k a)pelei/fqh plh\n *)iwa/qam tou= newte/rou diadra/ntos. o(\s kai\ paraporeuome/nou tou= *)abime/lex meta\ tou= laou= a)nh=lqen e)pi\ th\n korufh\n tou= o)/rous, kai\ e)pa/ras th\n fwnh\n au)tou= e)/fh pro\s au)tou\s parabolh\n toiau/thn. a)kou/sate/ mou, a)/ndres *siki/mwn, kai\ a)kou/sei u(mw=n o( qeo/s. poreuo/mena e)poreu/qhsan ta\ cu/la tou= xri/sai basile/a e)f' e(autw=n. kai\ ei)=pan th=| e)lai/a|: basi/leuson e)f' h(mw=n. kai\ ei)=pen au)toi=s h( e)lai/a: a)fei=sa th\n pio/thta/ mou, h(\n e)do/casen e)n e)moi\ o( qeo\s kai\ oi( a)/nqrwpoi, poreuqw= a)/rxein tw=n cu/lwn; kai\ ei)=pon ta\ cu/la th=| sukh=|: deu=ro, basi/leuson e)f' h(ma=s. kai\ ei)=pen au)toi=s h( sukh=: a)fei=sa th\n gluku/thta/ mou kai\ to\ ge/nnhma/ mou to\ a)gaqo\n poreuqw= a)/rxein tw=n cu/lwn; kai\ ei)=pon ta\ cu/la pro\s th\n a)/mpelon: deu=ro, basi/leuson e)f' h(mw=n. kai\ ei)=pen au)toi=s h( a)/mpelos: a)fei=sa to\n oi)=no/n mou kai\ th\n eu)frosu/nhn tw=n a)nqrw/pwn poreuqw= a)/rxein tw=n cu/lwn; kai\ ei)=pon pa/nta ta\ cu/la th=| r(a/mnw|: deu=ro, su\ basi/leuson e)f' h(ma=s. kai\ ei)=pen h( r(a/mnos pro\s ta\ cu/la: ei) e)n a)lhqei/a| xri/ete/ me u(mei=s tou= basileu/ein e)f' u(ma=s, deu=te, u(posth=te e)n th=| skia=| mou, kai\ ei) mh\, e)ce/lqoi pu=r a)p' e)mou= kai\ katafa/gh| ta\s ke/drous tou= *liba/nou. kai\ nu=n ei) e)n a)lhqei/a| kai\ o(sio/thti e)poih/sate meta\ tou= patro/s mou kai\ meta\ tou= oi)/kou au)tou= kai\ e)basileu/sate to\n *)abime/lex ui(o\n th=s paidi/skhs au)tou= e)pi\ tou\s a)/ndras *siki/mwn, eu)franqei/hte e)n au)tw=|, kai\ eu)franqei/h kai/ ge au)to\s e)n u(mi=n: ei) de\ mh\, e)ce/lqoi pu=r e)c *)abime/lex kai\ katafa/goi tou\s a)/rxontas u(mw=n kai\ tou\s oi)/kous au)tw=n: kai\ e)ce/lqoi pu=r e)k tw=n a)ndrw=n *siki/mwn kai\ katafa/goi to\n *)abime/lex. kai\ a)pe/dra *)iwa/qam a)po\ prosw/pou *)abime/lex a)delfou= au)tou=. o( de\ *)abime/lex h)=rcen e)pi\ to\n *)israh\l e)/th tri/a. kai\ e)cape/steilen o( qeo\s pneu=ma ponhro\n a)na\ me/son *)abime/lex kai\ a)na\ me/son a)ndrw=n *siki/mwn. kai\ h)qe/thsan oi( a)/ndres *siki/mwn e)n tw=| oi)/kw| *)abime/lex tou= e)pagagei=n a)diki/an kai\ to\ ai(=ma tw=n o# ui(w=n *gedew\n e)pi\ th\n kefalh\n *)abime/lex. kai\ ga\r a)pelqw\n polemh=sai pu/rgon kai\ proseggi/sas th=| qu/ra| tou= pu/rgou e)mprh=sai au)th\n, e)/rriye gunh\ kla/sma mu/lou e)pi\ th\n kefalh\n au)tou= kai\ sune/triye to\ kra/nion au)tou=. kai\ e)piboh/sas taxu\ ei)=pe pro\s to\n ai)/ronta au)tou= ta\ skeu/h: spa/son th\n r(omfai/an sou kai\ qana/twso/n me, mh/ pote ei)/pwsin: gunh\ au)to\n a)pe/kteine. kai\ kenth=san au)to\n to\ paida/rion a)nei=le. kai\ e)pe/streyen o( qeo\s th\n ponhri/an *)abime/lex, h(\n e)poi/hse tw=| patri\ au)tou= a)poktei/nas tou\s o# a)delfou\s au)tou=. kai\ pa=san th\n ponhri/an a)ndrw=n *siki/mwn e)pe/streyen o( qeo\s ei)s th\n kefalh\n au)tw=n kata\ to\n lo/gon kai\ th\n paroimi/an *)iwa/qam.
Notes:
Source for the main paragraph (after the initial gloss): George the Monk, Chronicon 148.2-149.20.
[1] Hebrew: אבימלך "my father is king." Used derogatorily and incessantly (31 times) throughout the Abimelech episode in Judges 9 (Boling, NSRV at Judges 9:1).
[2] Literally, "by his wives." The use of e)leuqe/rwn here indicates "married women/wives" (see L-S-J). The Massoretic Text (MT) (Judges 8:30; Kohlenberger, Vol. 2, 101) shows נשים našīm, which here means "wives" (Brown, Driver, Briggs {BDB}, 61). The term is to be distinguished from that for Abimelech's mother — פלגש pilegeš "concubine" in the sense of a legitimate wife of secondary rank (Kohlenberger for the suffixed MT form; Boling, NRSV at Judges 8:31).
[3] Literally, "upon a single stone." MT: על אבן אחת ʿal ʾeḇen ʾeḥat (Judges 9:5). See Boling, Judges (Anchor), 171.5. A direct transference from the Hebrew to the LXX.
[4] (Cf. iota 478.) The Greek new/terou, comparative understood for the superlative (Smyth, 1082.a) from Hebrew הקטן haqqaton, the "young(est) one" (Judges 9:5).
[5] The Suda's poreu/omena e)poreu/qhsan parallels the MT at Judges 9:5 (but not the LXX, which singularizes the finite verb) in its fuller anthropomorphism via the plural finite verb. The participle plus finite verb mimics, but does not parallel, MT usage, which gives infinitive absolute plus finite verb (הלוך הלכו haloḵ halēḵū) (Kautzsch, 342 {113o(1)}; Boling, Judges (Anchor), 173.8). For this genre of fable, see also 2 Kings 14:9-10 and its shadow at 2 Chronicles 25:18-19. the motif bears only general resemblance to Aesop's frog fable. For related motifs, see the source summary in Brown (The New Jerome), 140; Boling, Judges (Anchor), 173.
[6] The Suda singularizes (o( qeo/s), whereas the MT contains אלהים elohīm to be interpreted as "gods" — not "God." That the translation warrants a plural is supported by the antiquity of the original motif (Boling, Judges (Anchor), 173-74.15; 175.20). The plural is the norm in modern Bible translation.
[7] The standard translation of the MT אשר-בי יכבדו אלהים ואנשים ʾašer-bī yeḵaḇdū ʾelohīm waʾanašīm (Judges 9:9) and the Suda's h(\n...a)/nqrwpoi is "by which/whereby gods and men are honored." The Hebrew syntax merits reevaluation. The Jotham parable is a poetic fable cast in prose (Boling, Judges (Anchor) 166, 172-73.8-15, 173.15; for an uncritical opposing view, see Brown (The New Jerome), 140). However, Boling (173.9) and others read the Pi'el active yeḵaḇdū ("ykbdw" in Boling) as a Niph'al passive (are honored). Boling also cites the "kbd" root as Niph'al reflexive in Exodus 14:4, perhaps intending an alternative (but unlikely) reading for Judges 9:9 as "gods and men honor themselves." This approach overlooks the fable's poetic form — a medium that allows the Pi'el to operate intransitively (Kautzsch, 142 {52k}). Relatedly, Kautzsch (Gesenius, in accord with T.K Cheyne) assigns Niph'al senses to Pi'el forms in the poetry of Isaiah 48:8 and 60:11, which just as easily may be read intransitively as "your ear has not opened (responded) [to new things]" and "your gates shall always stand open." In Judges 9:9, the intransitive result is "(by) which, through me, gods and men receive honor." The preposition "bi" (Greek: e)n e)moi\), which in Boling's syntax is left "unexplained", provides an instrumental dative (BDB, 89, III.2): "through me." Boling asserts "bi" to be "a third-person suffix" without further discussion; BDB (citing George F. Moore) suggests the third-person "bo" (by/through it) for the "bi" form. Boling does cite the LXX Vaticanus reading "by it"; however, Vaticanus works a simplified solution: e)n h(=i doca/sousi to\n qeo\n a)/ndres, "by which men shall honor God" (Brenton, 329). In a near parallel to the MT, the Suda records e)do/casen for a Hebraicized-intransitive e)do/casan (yeḵaḇdū): literally, "regarding which (oil), through my agency, God and men receive honor."
[8] The verb u(po/sthte also carries the meaning "submit"; the Hebrew at Judges 9:15 (imperative hasū) carries only the sense "take refuge" (BDB, 340).
[9] The duplicated a)na\ me/son is a Hebraism paralleling Judges 9:22 (בין אבימלך ובין בעלי שכם bēn ʾAḇimeleḵ uḇēn baʿalē šeḵem). See also the MT and LXX at Genesis 1:4. For model Greek syntax, see LXX Genesis 32:16 (Brenton, 43)— with the MT (Genesis 32:17) showing the duplicate pattern (Kohlenberger, Vol 1, 88).
[10] For a)qete/w (deal treacherously), see Lust, Pt. I, 9.
[11] Literally, "to lay upon Abimelech's head his injustice and the blood of Gideon's seventy sons."
[12] For Abimelech's ill-fated siege of the Thebez tower, see Judges 9:50-57.
[13] The term paida/rion reprises the MT נערו naʿarō (his servant or retainer) at Judges 9:54. Translations render the word as "armor bearer." Boling in his Judges (146.10; 182.54) prefers "squire."
[14] Literally, "turned about onto their head."
References:
Boling, R.G. Judges (The Anchor Bible). New York: Doubleday, 1975.
Boling, R.G. Judges in the Harper Collins Study Bible (NRSV). New York: Harper Collins, 1993.
Brenton, C.L.B. The Septuagint with Apocrypha. Peabody: Hendrickson, 1991 (reprint of 1851 ed.).
Brown, F. Driver, S.R., Briggs, C.A. A Hebrew and English Lexicon of the Old Testament. Oxford: Clarendon, 1951.
Brown, R.E. The New Jerome Biblical Commentary. New Jersey: Prentice Hall, 1990.
Kautzsch, E. Gesenius' Hebrew Grammar. Oxford: Clarendon, 1910.
Kohlenberger, J.R. The Interlinear NIV Hebrew-English Old Testament. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1987.
Lust, J. A Greek-English Lexicon of the Septuagint, Part I. Stuttgart: Deutsche Bibelgesellschaft, 1992.
Smyth, H.W. Greek Grammar. Cambridge: Harvard University, 1984.
Keywords: biography; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; gender and sexuality; history; military affairs; poetry; religion; women
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 22 August 1998@13:01:24.
Vetted by:
William Hutton (Cosmetics, added keywords, set status) on 27 January 2001@12:09:36.
Craig Miller (Modified translation, notes and bibliography to follow.) on 5 March 2002@09:51:09.
Craig Miller on 5 March 2002@12:40:52.
Craig Miller (Modified and expanded notes, expanded keywords. Bibliography pending.) on 5 March 2002@15:02:20.
Catharine Roth (corrected typos) on 5 March 2002@16:49:22.
Craig Miller on 5 March 2002@23:39:58.
Craig Miller (Bibliography added, cosmetics.) on 6 March 2002@07:38:16.
Craig Miller on 6 March 2002@12:49:31.
Craig Miller on 6 March 2002@14:59:18.
Craig Miller on 1 April 2002@19:33:02.
Raphael Finkel (Added Hebrew texts.) on 31 October 2002@10:19:01.
David Whitehead (added initial note; added x-ref; cosmetics) on 9 June 2003@07:55:20.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 7 August 2013@23:53:33.
Catharine Roth (cosmetics) on 8 August 2013@16:40:29.
Raphael Finkel (Converted Romanization of Hebrew to ISO 259.) on 7 August 2014@14:15:44.
David Whitehead (coding) on 15 August 2015@07:31:59.

Headword: *)abiou/d
Adler number: alpha,48
Translated headword: Abioud, Abihud
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
Proper name.
Greek Original:
*)abiou/d: o)/noma ku/rion.
Notes:
Exodus 6:23 (etc.): a son of Aaron.
cf. the genealogy of Christ at Matthew 1:13 (son of Zorobabel, father of Eliakim).
Keywords: biography; Christianity; definition; religion
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 26 August 1998@19:00:24.
Vetted by:
William Hutton (Added headword, set status) on 28 January 2001@20:47:42.
William Hutton (Added note and keyword) on 29 January 2001@19:34:27.
David Whitehead (added keywords; cosmetics) on 27 February 2003@08:44:09.
Catharine Roth (cosmetic, keyword) on 17 November 2009@18:43:35.
David Whitehead (expanded notes) on 19 December 2011@07:26:26.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 8 August 2013@00:39:08.

Headword: *)abi/wton
Adler number: alpha,49
Translated headword: unlivable
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
[Meaning something] bad [and] annoying, painful.[1]
"He found it an unlivable situation if he could not control the city".[2]
Also [sc. attested is the masculine] a)bi/wtos, he who is not alive.[3]
Greek Original:
*)abi/wton: kako\n a)hde\s, o)dunhro/n. o( de\ a)biw/tws ei)=xen, ei) mh\ krath/soi th=s po/lews. kai\ *)abi/wtos, o( mh\ zw=n.
Notes:
[1] Same material in other lexica; references at Photius alpha39 Theodoridis. The headword -- shown by the glossing to be neuter nominative/accusative singular rather than masculine accusative singular -- is evidently quoted from somewhere. The possibilities are numerous. (Latte on Hesychius s.v. confidently asserts Euripides, Alcestis 242.)
[2] Quotation unidentifiable -- but perhaps from Plutarch, who has several instances of the idiom a)biw/tws e)/xein.
[3] For this word see also alpha 50.
Keywords: biography; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; ethics; history; politics; tragedy
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 26 August 1998@19:01:02.
Vetted by:
William Hutton (Added headword, modified translation, raised status) on 29 January 2001@17:14:44.
William Hutton (Added note) on 29 January 2001@17:18:16.
David Whitehead (added note and keywords; cosmetics; raised status) on 30 January 2001@03:39:11.
David Whitehead on 30 January 2001@03:40:51.
David Whitehead (restorative cosmetics) on 13 April 2004@09:57:16.
David Whitehead (augmented notes and keywords; tweaks and cosmetics) on 19 December 2011@07:44:30.
David Whitehead on 19 December 2011@07:45:11.
David Whitehead (expanded n.1; another keyword) on 1 February 2012@05:18:15.
David Whitehead on 16 August 2013@06:43:40.

Headword: *)abisa/k
Adler number: alpha,51
Translated headword: Abisak, Abishag
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
Proper name.
Greek Original:
*)abisa/k: o)/noma ku/rion.
Notes:
Same entry, according to Adler, in the Ambrosian Lexicon.
Abishag the Shunammite (sigma 796 = sigma 836) took care of King David in his old age: 1 Kingdoms 1.3 (1 Kings 1.3) etc.
Keywords: biography; definition; religion; women
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 26 August 1998@19:04:25.
Vetted by:
William Hutton on 29 January 2001@19:16:05.
David Whitehead (added keywords) on 30 January 2001@03:43:08.
Catharine Roth (added note and keyword) on 15 September 2002@16:49:04.
David Whitehead (added x-refs) on 25 April 2003@06:43:33.
David Whitehead on 1 August 2011@07:38:24.
David Whitehead (another note) on 19 December 2011@07:48:10.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 8 August 2013@00:41:58.

Headword: *)/abitos
Adler number: alpha,53
Translated headword: Abitos, Abitus
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
Proper name.
"Abitos built himself an ascetic's cell."[1]
Greek Original:
*)/abitos: o)/noma ku/rion. *)/abitos th\n a)skhtikh\n kalu/bhn e)ph/cato.
Note:
[1] Quotation not identified by Adler, but a TLG search reveals it to be Theodoret, Historia religiosa, Vita 3.12 (lightly abridged). See on this Theodoridis' Photius edition, vol.II p.LXXXI.
Keywords: biography; Christianity; definition; ethics; religion
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 26 August 1998@19:05:27.
Vetted by:
William Hutton (Added headword, keyword, set status) on 30 January 2001@08:07:35.
David Whitehead (added note and keyword) on 31 January 2001@03:56:53.
David Whitehead (modified note, with source identification; more keywords) on 18 February 2011@06:43:58.
David Whitehead (expanded note) on 11 October 2011@03:32:47.
David Whitehead on 19 December 2011@07:49:57.

Headword: *)ablepth/mati
Adler number: alpha,55

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