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Headword: *tu/xaios
Adler number: tau,1231
Translated headword: Tyche-temple, Fortune-temple
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
[Meaning] the temple of Tyche.
Greek Original:
*tu/xaios: o( th=s *tu/xhs nao/s.
Notes:
No temple of this name is known in the masculine gender transmitted here. Adler commends Valkenaer's proposal to emend to *Tu/xaion.
There is a list of temples of Tyche in Pauly-Wissowa, RE 7A.1677-80; cf. OCD(4) 1521-2. Of these, the great temple at Alexandria to all the gods was known as the *tu/xaion, because the goddess was in the centre, wearing a crown to celebrate King Ptolemy Soter's victories, as Libanius describes it (*tou= *tuxai/ou = Progymnasmata 12.25, presumably in the neuter; cf. Theophylact Simocatta, Histories 8.13.10). Cassius Dio refers to one or more of the temples of Fortuna at Rome as the *tu/xaion (22.76.2, 42.26.4, 50.10.2).
As a divinity, Tyche first appears among the daughters of Ocean (Homeric Hymn to Demeter 420). She is invoked as a goddess by Pindar in the Twelfth Olympian, but she was not widely worshipped until the fourth century BC and in Roman times. See bibliography.
On tyche as an abstraction see also tau 1234, tau 1232, tau 1233; cf. tau 1230.
References:
Herzog-Hauser, G. in RE 7A (1948) 1643-89
Kershaw, S.P., Personification in the Hellenistic World: Tyche, Kairos, Nemesis (Diss. Bristol, 1987)
LIMC 8.1 (1997): L. Villard, "Tyche. Personnification de la chance ou de la fortune" (115-125); F. Rausa, "Tyche/Fortuna" (in the Roman world, 125-41)
Reallexikon für Antike und Christentum 8 (1972) 182-97
Sfameni Gasparro, G., "Daimon und Tyche in the Hellenistic religious experience," in Conventional Values of the Hellenistic Greeks, ed. P. Bilde et al. (Studies in Hellenistic civilization, vol. 8, Aarhus, 1997) 67-109
Smith, Amy C., "The Transition to Tyche on Southern Black Sea Coins," in XII Internationaler Numismatischer Kongress Berlin 1997: I, ed. B. Kluge & B. Weisser (Berlin, 2000) 212-16
Vogt-Spira, G., "La Tyché de héros ou l'individu et la contingenece: un concept paradoxal? L'exemple de la Fortune de César," in Le Paradox de héros ou d'Homère à Malraux, ed. J. Dion (Paris, 1999) 95-107
Keywords: architecture; art history; biography; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; geography; historiography; mythology; poetry; religion
Translated by: Robert Dyer on 5 May 2003@10:09:22.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (added keywords; cosmetics) on 5 May 2003@11:24:00.
David Whitehead (tweaking) on 16 January 2014@08:25:58.
David Whitehead (updated a ref) on 2 August 2014@11:28:28.
David Whitehead (my typo) on 29 May 2016@08:19:10.

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