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Headword: *staqero/n
Adler number: sigma,982
Translated headword: straight-up, standing still, straight-over, steadfast
Vetting Status: high
[Meaning something] quick, strong, hot, steady, appearing because of quickness of motion to be standing still.[1] Plato in Phaedrus [writes]: "not yet, O Socrates, until the heat has passed! Do you not see that it already stands near mid-day, the so-called [sc. time when the sun is] standing straight-up?"[2] And it is indeed possible for the [sc. time when the sun is] standing straight-up to be hottest, it being intense; for then, the sun, when it scorches more, is what they are accustomed to call "quick". But it might also indicate a steadiness, associated with the middle part of the day, and not when [sc. the sun] is not inclining to one extremity.[3] And Cratinus in Seriphians [sc. applies the word] to something quick or strong: "thus, the statheros river-crossing seethes with greedy clothes-stealers."[4] Antimachus [sc. writes]: "of statheros summertime."[5] Some people also [sc. apply the headword] to something standing still, such as Aeschylus, in Spirit-Raisers: "standing water."[6] And Aristophanes [sc. writes] in Proagon: "but steadfast [is] the bud of young manhood."[7] It also means stable.[8]
Josephus [writes]: "and seeing that his time of life was stable with experience, he [sc. Nero] appointed him general."[9]
And Eunapius [writes]: "but, by the quickness and foresight of the emperor [sc. Valens], the war was brought back to a stable and also safer standpoint."[10] That is [to say] strong, steady.
[Note] that sta/qeros [comes] from staqh=nai ["to have stood still"], and from this [comes] sta/qeros, and saqro/s ["unsound"] by antiphrasis. Or from "easily shaking" [sei/esqai r(a|di/ws]: or from shaking the limbs [sei/esqai ta\ a)/rqra].[11]
Greek Original:
*staqero/n: o)cu/, i)sxuro/n, qermo/n, sta/simon, to\ dia\ th\n o)cu/thta th=s kinh/sews e(sta/nai dokou=n. *pla/twn e)n *fai/drw|: mh/pws, w)= *sw/krates, pri\n a)\n to\ kau=ma pare/lqh|. ou)x o(ra=|s, w(s sxedo\n h)/dh meshmbri/a i(/statai, h( dh\ kaloume/nh staqera/; du/natai me/ntoi kai\ qermota/th ei)=nai h( staqera/, o)cei=a ou)=sa: kai\ ga\r to\n h(/lion, o(/tan ma=llon e)kkah=|, o)cu\n ei)w/qasi le/gein. shmai/noi d' a)\n kai\ to\ sta/simon, tw=| me/son ti ei)=nai th=s h(me/ras, kai\ mhd' e)f' e(/teron kli/nein. kai\ *krati=nos d' e)n *seri/fois e)pi\ tou= o)ce/os h)\ i)sxurou=: ou(/tw staqero\s toi=s lwpodu/tais o( po/ros peinw=si pafla/zei. *)anti/maxos: qe/reos staqeroi=o. tine\s kai\ e)pi\ tou= stasi/mou, w(s *ai)sxu/los e)n *yuxagwgoi=s: staqerou= xeu/matos. kai\ *)aristofa/nhs e)n *proagw=ni: staqera\ de\ ka/luc neara=s h(/bhs. shmai/nei kai\ to\ mo/nimon. *)iw/shpos: kai\ staqera\n th\n h(liki/an met' e)mpeiri/as o(rw=n proba/lletai strathgo/n. kai\ *eu)na/pios: o( de\ po/lemos th=| tou= basile/ws o)cu/thti kai\ pronoi/a| kathne/xqh e)pi\ to\ staqero/n te kai\ a)sfale/steron. toute/stin i)sxuro/n, be/baion. o(/ti *staqero\s a)po\ tou= staqh=nai, a)po\ de\ tou/tou staqero/s, kai\ saqro\s kata\ a)nti/frasin. h)\ a)po\ tou= sei/esqai r(a|di/ws: h)\ a)po\ tou= sei/esqai ta\ a)/rqra.
The headword, as glossed, is the masculine neuter nominative/vocative/accusative singular (rather than the masculine accusative singular) of the adjective staqero/s, -a/, -o/n; see LSJ s.v.
[1] The headword is similarly glossed in Hesychius and in Lexica Segueriana 379.23 and 369.18; cf. Etymologicum Magnum 724.41; the scholia to Apollonius Rhodius, Argonautica 1.450; Anecdota Graeca I (Becker) 305.7; ps.-Didymus of Alexandria in Miller, p. 402 s.v. staqero/n; and Synagoge sigma189. [In her critical apparatus Adler reports that ms V gives the gloss as to\ o)cu\ kai\ isxuro\n kai\ qermo/n, what is direct, strong, and hot; also that in the margin of ms A (= Parisinus 2626) there is added staqhro\s de, a late form (but in the masculine) of the headword (see LSJ s.v.); cf. ps.-Zonaras 1668.17. Photius' Lexicon and mss GFVM (so Adler) all remove the optative shmai/noi and read shmai/nei, it indicates.]
[2] Plato, Phaedrus 242A (web address 1), with material from the scholia there: Socrates gets up, about to ford the stream and trek back to Athens, but the youth invites him to linger, by reason of the midday heat. Here, staqero/n metaphorically refers to the time of day when the sun is straight up in the sky and seems to pause as if it were standing still; cf. Hermias, In Platonis Phaedrum scholia 65.8 and Timaeus' Platonic Lexicon s.v. staqera/. None too subtly, Phaedrus plays upon the literal meaning of the word (Cobb, p. 196). [Adler reports that ms F replaced the text from *pla/twn through me/ntoi with le/getai kai\ staqera\ meshmbri/a: "[sc. the time when the sun is] standing straight-up is also said at mid-day."]
[3] Except for sta/simon (neuter nominative singular of the two-ending adjective sta/simos, -on; stable, steadfast, firm, solid; see LSJ s.v.), which has been inserted into the gloss, the entire passage to this point closely approximates Timaeus' Platonic Lexicon s.v. staqero/n. Timaeus' next entry, staqero/s, however, contains sta/simon as a gloss word; cf. n.8 below.
[4] Cratinus fr.206 Kock (220 K.-A.). The Seriphians is a lost comedy. Seriphos (Barrington Atlas, map 58 grid G3-H3) is a small Aegean island, one of the western Cyclades. Although the Suda transmits *seri/fois, it should evidently read *Serifi/ois, as Porson noted; cf. tau 257. [Adler reports that ms A, besides Photius' Lexicon and Meineke, all read o)ce/ws (sharply, keenly, quickly) instead of o)ce/os (quick), genitive singular of o)cu/s. Meineke further substituted i)sxurw=s (strongly) for i)sxurou= (strong). Ms V lacks this fragment (so Adler).]
[5] Antimachus fr. 95 Kinkel (30 Wyss). [Adler reports that ms V lacks the attribution of this fragment to Antimachus.]
[6] Aeschylus fr. 276 Radt. [This sentence is omitted by ms V (so Adler).]
[7] Aristophanes fr. 467 Kock (483 K.-A.). [Ms V lacks this sentence (so Adler).]
[8] The entire entry to this point, except for sta/simon in the gloss (cf. n. 3 above), is given by the third entry for the headword in Photius' Lexicon (sigma489 Theodoridis); sta/simon, however, does appear as a gloss word in the first Photius entry for staqero/n (sigma487). The Synagoge also glosses sta/simon and mo/nimon for the headword at sigma189.
[9] An approximation of Josephus, Jewish War 3.6-7; cf. pi 2732. In late 66 CE, Nero Claudius Caesar (37-68, emperor 54-68; OCD(4) s.v.) sent the Roman general Titus Flavius Vespasianus (9-79, emperor 69-79; OCD(4) s.v. Vespasian) to quash the revolt in Judaea.
[10] Eunapius fr.37 FHG (4.28); cf. Constantine Porphyrogenitus, Excerpta de legationibus 595.4,7-8 and Blockley, vol. II, pp. 54-55. Having battled the Goths from 366 CE, Valens (Roman emperor 364-378; OCD(4) s.v. and omicron 764) negotiated a treaty in 369 with their chieftain, Athanaric (d. 381; OCD(4) s.v. and Heather, pp. 118-20). The passage quoted here is a continuation from alpha 4332 (end). Although he had originally cited this sentence (eg. alpha 4332 together with this fragment) as exemplary Eunapian hyperbole that might leave readers questioning the historian's judgment (vol. I, pp. 13-4), Blockley could later find Eunapius' hyperbole deliberate and considerable sarcasm beneath it (vol. II, p. 138). [Adler reports that in ms V, the references to a war and an emperor are dropped, and Eunapius attributes the quotation to Polybius: "Polybius [sc. writes] but by quickness and foresight it was brought back to a stable and also safer standpoint."]
[11] This final part of the passage is paraphrased by Etymologicum Magnum 707.27 s.v. saqro/s (unsound, shaky) and 724.43; cf. Anecdota Oxoniensia (Cramer) 2.409.25. [Ms M, Adler reports, marginally notes a variant reading: o(/ti staqero\s a)po\ tw=n staqmw=n kai\ sapro\s kata\ a)nti/frasin: "because statheros [is] applied to upright standing-posts and to a rotten [one] by antiphrasis."]
E. Miller, Mélanges de littérature grecque, Paris: L'Impremerie Impériale, 1868
W.S. Cobb, Plato's Erotic Dialogues: The Symposium and the Phaedrus, Albany, NY: State University of New York Press, 1993
R.C. Blockley, The Fragmentary Classicising Historians of the Later Roman Empire: Eunapius, Olympiodorus, Priscus and Malchus, vol. II, Liverpool: Francis Cairns, 1983
P.J. Heather, Goths and Romans: 332-489, Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1991
R.C. Blockley, The Fragmentary Classicising Historians of the Later Roman Empire: Eunapius, Olympiodorus, Priscus and Malchus, vol. I, Liverpool: Francis Cairns, 1981
Associated internet address:
Web address 1
Keywords: biography; clothing; comedy; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; gender and sexuality; historiography; history; imagery; military affairs; philosophy; politics; religion; tragedy
Translated by: Ronald Allen on 24 April 2009@02:48:46.
Vetted by:
Catharine Roth (tweaked translation) on 24 April 2009@20:18:06.
David Whitehead (tweaks and cosmetics) on 27 April 2009@07:43:40.
Catharine Roth (my typo) on 27 April 2009@10:06:29.
David Whitehead (tweaks and cosmetics; raised status) on 31 December 2013@08:21:13.
David Whitehead on 9 August 2014@11:54:59.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 6 December 2014@00:11:40.
Catharine Roth (cosmetics) on 6 December 2014@00:19:08.
Catharine Roth (tweaked translation) on 6 December 2014@23:12:22.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 6 August 2016@22:02:27.
Catharine Roth (cosmeticule) on 31 March 2022@00:17:44.


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