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Headword: Συβαριτικαῖς
Adler number: sigma,1271
Translated headword: Sybaritic
Vetting Status: high
and Sybaric: luxurious, magnificent, extravagant: for the Sybarites are addicted to luxury.[1]
For these men lived so luxuriously, that they even taught their horses to dance to a pipe.[2]
Also [sc. attested is the related verb] 'to Sybarize', [meaning] to live luxuriously, or to cause an uproar. Also [sc. attested is the phrase] 'Sybareian refrains', in Epicharmus.[3]
Also [sc. attested is the phrase] 'Sybaritic tales', [i.e.] those of Aesop.[4]
Also [sc. attested is the aorist infinitive] to have Sybarized, [meaning] to have practised the customs of the Sybarites.[5]
And [there is] a saying: "a Sybarite through the street", in reference to those proceeding pompously [σοβαρῶς ].[6]
"Sybarites were gluttons and addicted to luxury. So great was devotion to luxury among them that of the peoples abroad they regarded Ionians and Tyrrhenians [= Etruscans] with special affection, on account of the fact that the former were foremost among the Greeks, and the latter among the barbarians, in the extravagance of their way of life. [...] Among them Mindyrides,[7] it is said, excelled in luxury. For when Cleisthenes, the tyrant of Sicyon, had won in a chariot race and issued a proclamation requiring the attendance of those men who proposed to marry his daughter, who was considered of outstanding beauty, this [Mindyrides] put to sea from Sybaris in a ship with fifty oars, having as rowers his own household slaves, some of them fishermen, others fowlers. Upon coming into Sicyon, by the opulence of his equipage he surpassed not only the rival suitors but also the tyrant himself, even though the entire city joined him in vying for this honour. At the dinner after his arrival, when a certain man approached with the intention of reclining beside him, he remarked that he was there in accordance with the proclamation and would recline either with a lady of Cleisthenes’ [house] or alone.[8]
Greek Original:
Συβαριτικαῖς καὶ Συβαρικαῖς: τρυφηλαῖς, λαμπραῖς, πολυτελέσι: τρυφηταὶ γὰρ οἱ Συβαρῖται. οὗτοι γὰρ οὕτω διῆγον τρυφηλῶς, ὡς καὶ τοὺς ἵππους διδάσκειν πρὸς αὐλὸν ὀρχεῖσθαι. καὶ Συβαρίζειν, τὸ τρυφᾶν, ἢ τὸ θορυβεῖν. καὶ Συβάρεια ἐπιφθέγματα παρ' Ἐπιχάρμῳ. καὶ Συβαριτικοὶ λόγοι, οἱ Αἰσώπειοι. καὶ Συβαρίσαι, τὰ τῶν Συβαριτῶν ποιῆσαι. καὶ παροιμία: Συβαρίτης διὰ πλατείας, ἐπὶ τῶν σοβαρῶς διαπορευομένων. Συβαρῖται δὲ γάστριες ἦσαν καὶ τρυφηταί. τοσοῦτος δὲ ἦν ζῆλος παρ' αὐτοῖς τρυφῆς, ὥστε καὶ τῶν ἔξωθεν ἐθνῶν μάλιστα ἠγάπων Ἴωνας καὶ Τυρρηνούς, διότι συνέβαινεν αὐτοὺς τοὺς μὲν τῶν Ἑλλήνων, τοὺς δὲ τῶν βαρβάρων προέχειν τῇ κατὰ τὸ ζῆν πολυτελείᾳ. παρὰ τούτοις δὲ Μινδυρίδης λέγεται περιουσιάσαι τρυφῇ: οὗτος γὰρ Κλεισθένους τοῦ Σικυωνίων τυράννου νικήσαντος ἅρματι καὶ κηρύξαντος παραγενέσθαι τοὺς προαιρουμένους γαμεῖν αὐτοῦ τὴν θυγατέρα, δοκοῦσαν κάλλει διαφέρειν, ἀναχθῆναί τινα ἐκ Συβάρεως νηὶ̈ πεντήκοντα τοὺς ἐρέτας ἔχοντα ἰδίους οἰκέτας, τοὺς μὲν ἁλιεῖς, τοὺς δὲ ὀρνιθοθήρας. παραγενόμενος δὲ εἰς Σικυῶνα, ταῖς κατὰ τὴν οὐσίαν παρασκευαῖς οὐ μόνον τοὺς ἀντιμνηστεύοντας, ἀλλὰ καὶ τὸν τύραννον αὐτὸν ὑπερᾶραι, καίπερ τῆς πόλεως αὐτῷ πάσης συμφιλοτιμουμένης. ἐν δὲ τῷ μετὰ τὴν ἄφιξιν δείπνῳ προσιόντος τινός, ὅπως κατακλιθῇ πρὸς αὐτόν, εἰπεῖν, ὅτι κατὰ τὸ κήρυγμα πάρεστιν ἢ μετὰ Κλεισθένους γυναικὸς ἢ μόνος κατακλιθησόμενος.
See also sigma 1269, sigma 1270, sigma 1272, and generally OCD4 s.v. Sybaris.
[1] The twin headwords with their glossing are derived from the Synagoge sigma269 (Cunningham), which is also the source of Photius, Lexicon sigma658 Theodoridis (Porson 545.22-3); cf. also Hesychius sigma2130, 2133, 2134, 2276 (Hansen). The two headwords are feminine dative plural adjectives without a governing noun. However, in the Synagoge the gloss concludes Συβαριτικαῖς τραπέζαις, 'Sybaritic tables', presumably with the sense of luxurious banquets; this appears to supply the missing noun, although the significance of the dative case and the original context remain unclear.
[2] Athenaeus, Deipnosophists 12.520C (12.19 Kaibel).
[3] Scholion on Aristophanes, Peace 344b (Holwerda) = Epicharmus fr. 222 Kassel/Austin = fr. 215 Kaibel.
[4] See likewise Photius, Lexicon sigma659 Theodoridis (Porson 546.1), and similarly Hesychius sigma2131, 2276 for a more expansive explanation. See also scholia on Aristophanes, Wasps 1259 and Birds 471; Diogenianus pr. 1.
[5] Attested only here.
[6] The saying is documented from the second century AD in collections of proverbs, which drew on earlier compilations; see Diogenianus 8.10; Zenobius 5.88. See also Hesychius sigma2132; and cf. generally LSJ s.v. σοβαρός , III.
[7] Summarily cross-referenced at mu 1081.
[8] Diodorus Siculus 8.18.1 and 8.19.1-2 (via Excerpta Constantiniana EV I 215.20-216.8). This celebrated episode of Cleisthenes and the Trial of the Suitors (won by Megacles the Athenian) is recounted in Herodotus 6.126-131; the Sybarite's name there is Smindyrides.
Keywords: athletics; biography; daily life; dialects, grammar, and etymology; ethics; food; gender and sexuality; geography; history; proverbs; women; zoology
Translated by: Philip Rance on 1 February 2012@14:51:16.
Vetted by:
Philip Rance (Added note) on 1 February 2012@15:23:46.
Catharine Roth (added notes) on 2 February 2012@02:18:08.
Philip Rance (augmented/modified notes) on 2 February 2012@03:15:39.
David Whitehead (adjustments to tr; augmented notes and keywords) on 2 February 2012@03:54:43.
David Whitehead on 2 February 2012@04:00:10.
David Whitehead (tweaked two notes) on 2 January 2014@04:29:48.
David Whitehead (updated a ref) on 9 August 2014@12:11:02.


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