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Headword: Πόνηρος
Adler number: pi,2040
Translated headword: grievous, laborious, troublesome
Vetting Status: high
[Meaning] toilsome. The first [syllable] takes an acute accent.[1]
In reference to the body the acute accent falls on the antepenultimate: [as in] 'with a grievous sore'.[2] But in reference to the soul it is oxytone.
Also attested is [the phrase] 'troublesome water'.[3]
"We use the wicked and those who are born from the wicked for everything -- those whom, before now, the city would not have used randomly [and] readily even as scapegoats." That is, for the so-called expiatory sacrifices of a city.[4]
"Nothing troublesome, but just what Kallikon too [did]." This Kallikon betrayed Samos, though some [say it was] Miletos. [It is] as if he said, 'I am doing nothing wrong, but I am committing sacrilege'. For this Kallikon, who handed Miletos over to the Prienians, is famed for malignancy. Often, when people asked him what he intended to do, he would reply 'all good deeds'. So he is saying 'I do all good deeds, as Kallikon used to say'. Subsequently, however, he went into the house of a certain Theogenes to buy some meat. Theogenes told him to indicate where he wanted the piece to be cut from. When [Kallikon] stretched out his hand, [Theogenes] cut it off and said: 'with this hand you will not betray another city!' Callimachus, too, mentions it: 'but aren't you, Theogenes, the one who cut off Kallikon’s hand?' When Kallikon handed Miletos over to the enemy and someone asked asked why he did this, he answered: 'Kallikon [does] good deeds'.[5]
Aristophanes also says '[a man] of grievous stamp'. From [a metaphor of] forged money.[6]
Greek Original:
Πόνηρος: ἐπίπονος. ἡ πρώτη ὀξεῖα. ἐπὶ σώματος προπαροξύνεται: ἕλκει πονήρῳ. ἐπὶ δὲ ψυχῆς ὀξυτόνως. λέγεται δὲ καὶ Πονηρὸν ὕδωρ. πονηροῖς κἀκ πονηρῶν εἰς πάντα χρώμεθα, οἷσιν ἡ πόλις πρὸ τοῦ οὐδὲ φαρμακοῖσιν εἰκῆ ῥᾳδίως χρήσαιτ' ἄν. τουτέστι τοῖς λεγομένοις καθάρμασι πόλεως. οὐδὲν πονηρόν, ἀλλ' ὅπερ καὶ Καλλικῶν. ὁ Καλλικῶν οὗτος προὔδωκε Σάμον, οἱ δὲ Μίλητον. ὡσεὶ εἶπεν, οὐδὲν κακὸν ποιῶ, ἀλλ' ἱεροσυλῶ. ἐπὶ πονηρίᾳ γὰρ τεθρύλληται ὁ Καλλικῶν οὗτος, ὃς προὔδωκε Μίλητον Πριηνεῦσι. πυνθανομένων δὲ πολλάκις αὐτοῦ τινων, τί μέλλει ποιεῖν, ἔλεγε, πάντα ἀγαθά. πάντα οὖν ἀγαθά, φησί, ποιῶ, ὡς ἔλεγε Καλλικῶν. ὕστερον μέντοι παρὰ Θεαγένους τινὸς εἰσῆλθεν ὠνησόμενος κρέα. κἀκεῖνος ὑποδεῖξαι ἐκέλευσε, πόθεν κόψαι θέλει. προτείναντος δὲ τὴν χεῖρα, ἀπέκοψε καὶ εἶπε: ταύτῃ τῇ χειρὶ οὐ προδώσεις πόλιν ἑτέραν. μέμνηται δὲ καὶ Καλλίμαχος: μὴ σύ γε, Θειόγενες, κόψας χέρα Καλλικόωντος. προδοὺς δὲ Μίλητον τοῖς πολεμίοις, πυνθανομένου τινός, ὅ τι τοῦτο ἐποίησεν, ἀποκρίνασθαι, ἀγαθὰ Καλλικῶν. καὶ Ἀριστοφάνης φησὶ τοῦ πονηροῦ κόμματος. ἀπὸ τοῦ παρακεκομμένου ἀργυρίου.
[1] The entry thus far = Photius, Lexicon pi1084 Theodoridis. For comparable material see the references there. On the variation of accent, see mu 1310 and LSJ s.v. μοχθηρός (end).
[2] Quotation not identified by Adler but it is a phrase from Job 2:7 LXX, much repeated in commentary on the passage.
[3] Quoted, according to Adler, from Arrian, Anabasis 4.4.9 -- but cf. also Longus, Daphnis and Chloe 1.14.3; in any event, again under pi 2041.
[4] An approximation of Aristophanes, Frogs 731-733, with scholion to 733; cf. phi 104.
[5] Aristophanes, Peace 363, with scholion (which = Theopompus FGrH 115 F111); cf. kappa 223, kappa 1610. Callimachus = fr. incertae sedis 607.
[6] Aristophanes, Plutus [Wealth] 220, with scholion; cf. kappa 1981.
R. Pfeiffer (ed.), Callimachus vol. 1: Fragmenta, Oxford 1949
Aitia. Libro terzo e quarto. Callimaco, introduzione, testo critico, traduzione e commento a cura di G. Massimilla, Pisa-Roma 2010
L. Lehnus, 'Notizie callimachee VII', Eikasmos 16 (2005) 155-160
Keywords: biography; Christianity; comedy; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; ethics; food; geography; historiography; imagery; medicine; poetry; politics; religion; science and technology; trade and manufacture
Translated by: Pierluigi Leone Gatti on 3 September 2013@17:00:30.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead on 4 September 2013@04:09:39.
David Whitehead (augmented notes and keywords; tweaks and cosmetics) on 4 September 2013@04:11:28.
Catharine Roth (expanded note) on 4 September 2013@14:55:36.
David Whitehead on 9 October 2013@08:12:49.
David Whitehead (expanded n.5) on 5 February 2014@07:00:02.
David Whitehead (coding) on 23 May 2016@11:49:41.


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