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Headword: Πνεύμων
Adler number: pi,1826
Translated headword: lung
Vetting Status: high
It is also spelled with “l”.[1]
[Note] that[2] not all the animals have a voice, but only those that are furnished with lung and respiration; for the inhaled air is the matter of the voice. Insects do not breathe, nor do animals without blood nor any of the amphibious animals have a voice nor do the molluscs, such as the land-snails, nor the crustaceans, such as crabs [and] skytalai. But of the amphibious animals, the hippopotamus and crocodile do have a voice;[3] for this one has a voice briefly. But the fishes of the Achelous,[4] although they seem to have a voice, do not have a voice. For they do not have a voice through phonetic organs, but [that sound is due to] a certain movement of their gills. Effectively, when they swim in the surface of water, they enclose a lot of it in their gills; and then, when they contract their gills, they send out the water and disturb their sending out. But what is disturbed encloses a certain air which, when squeezed out, sounds with the stroke, and so [the fishes] seem to have a voice. The cicadas, on account of a membrane implanted in the surface underneath their breast, have a voice when they squeeze that membrane out and the air is agitated by their wings. In fact, they have no voice through phonetic organs. But flies strike the air with their wings, which are rough, and produce a sound. Indeed, when they stand still, they do not make a humming noise any longer. And the parrot-wrasses,[5] when squirting water out through the mouth, produce a piping sound; doubtless when they are in the deeps they have no voice.
Greek Original:
Πνεύμων: λέγεται καὶ διὰ τοῦ λ. ὅτι οὐ πάντα τὰ ζῷα ἔχει φωνήν, μόνα δὲ τὰ ἔχοντα πνεύμονα καὶ ἀναπνέοντα: ὕλη γάρ ἐστι τῆς φωνῆς ὁ ἀναπνεόμενος ἀήρ. οὔτε δὲ τὰ ἔντομα ἀναπνεῖ οὔτε τὰ ἄναιμα οὔτε πάντα τὰ ἀμφίβια φωνοῦσιν οὔτε τὰ ὀστρακόδερμα, οἷον οἱ κοχλίαι, οὔτε τὰ μαλακόστρακα, οἷον καρκίνοι, σκυτάλαι. φωνοῦσι δὲ τῶν ἀμφιβίων ποτάμιος ἵππος καὶ κροκόδειλος: φωνεῖ γὰρ οὗτος κατὰ βραχύ. οἱ δὲ περὶ τὸν Ἀχελῷον ἰχθύες δοκοῦντες φωνεῖν οὐ φωνοῦσιν: οὐ γὰρ διὰ τῶν φωνητικῶν ὀργάνων φωνοῦσιν, ἀλλὰ κατά τινα τῶν βραγχίων κίνησιν: νηχόμενοι γὰρ κατὰ τὴν τοῦ ὕδατος ἐπιφάνειαν, ἐναπολαμβάνοντες πολὺ ὕδωρ ἐν τοῖς βραγχίοις, εἶτα συστέλλοντες τὰ βραγχία ἐκπέμπουσι τὸ ὕδωρ καὶ ταράττουσι τῇ ἐκπομπῇ: τὸ δὲ ταραττόμενον ἐναπολαμβάνει τινὰ ἀέρα, ὃς ἐκθλιβόμενος τῇ πληγῇ ἠχεῖ, καὶ ταύτῃ δοκοῦσι φωνεῖν. οἱ δὲ τέττιγες δι' ὑμένος τινὸς ὑπὸ τὸ στῆθος κατὰ τὴν ἐπιφάνειαν ἐμπεφυκότος, ὃν θλίβοντες ταῖς πτέρυξι τὸν ἐναπειλημμένον ἀέρα, φωνοῦσιν: οὐ γὰρ διὰ τῶν φωνητικῶν ὀργάνων φωνοῦσιν. αἱ δὲ μυῖαι τοῖς πτεροῖς τραχέσιν οὖσι πλήττουσι τὸν ἀέρα καὶ ἠχοῦσιν: ἀμέλει σταθεῖσαι οὐκέτι βομβοῦσι. καὶ οἱ σκάροι τῷ στόματι ὕδωρ ἐξωθοῦντες μετὰ ῥοίζου τὸν ἦχον ἀποτελοῦσιν: ἀμέλει ἐν τῷ βάθει ὄντες οὐ φωνοῦσι.
[1] That is, πλεύμων ; cf. nu 182 and the scholia to Aristophanes, Peace 1069, where this version appears.
[2] This part of the entry is taken (with some significant changes) from John Philoponus, Commentary on Aristotle's De anima 377.15-378.25.
[3] That is, 'they produce a sound like a voice'.
[4] Name of several rivers; in poets any stream or source of water (see Homer, Iliad 21.194; Hesiod, Theogony 340). See also Aristotle, Meteorology 350b15 and 352a35.
[5] Or the scarus, 'the only fish that appears to chew the cud', according to Aristotle (History of animals 508b11-12).
Keywords: comedy; dialects, grammar, and etymology; geography; medicine; science and technology; zoology
Translated by: Marcelo Boeri on 12 November 2004@19:41:15.
Vetted by:
Catharine Roth (cosmetics) on 12 November 2004@20:27:39.
Catharine Roth (modified translation, added cross-reference, set status) on 12 November 2004@22:03:53.
David Whitehead (augmented notes; augmented and modified keywords) on 14 November 2004@05:12:45.
David Whitehead (tweaking) on 7 October 2013@06:36:05.
David Whitehead (coding) on 23 May 2016@09:11:19.


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