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Headword: Φράτορες
Adler number: phi,694
Translated headword: phratry-members
Vetting Status: high
[φράτορες ] and φρατρίαι ["phratries"] and φρατρίαρχος ["phratriarch"]: a phratry is the third part of the tribe [φυλή ], so he who led this part used to be called phratriarch; he was enrolled among the phratry-members on his father's side at the festival of the Apatouria.[1] But they say that the same race is a τριττύς , that is the φρατρία or φρατορία .[2]
But they call one's relatives φράτορες . They are those who share in the same φρατρία , as if of a certain paternal lineage [πατριά ]. Homer indeed calls the same [group] also a πάτρη ["body of persons descended from the same father"]. "Indeed for both [is] the same clan and one family."[3] With a change [of pi to phi it becomes] φάτρη and φράτρη . The letters have been changed, just as in "Zeus Patrios" and "Phatrios."[4] But they considered being enrolled among the phratry-members [φράτορες ] as a sign of relationship.[5]
Greek Original:
Φράτορες καὶ Φρατρίαι καὶ Φρατρίαρχος: φρατρία ἐστὶ τὸ τρίτον μέρος τῆς φυλῆς. ὁ οὖν τούτου τοῦ μέρους ἡγούμενος φρατρίαρχος ἐκαλεῖτο: ἐγγράφεται δὲ πατρόθεν εἰς τοὺς φράτορας τῇ τῶν Ἀπατουρίων ἑορτῇ. φασὶ δὲ τὸ αὐτὸ ἔθνος εἶναι τριττύν, ἤτοι τὴν φρατρίαν ἢ φρατορίαν. Φράτορας δὲ τοὺς συγγενεῖς καλοῦσιν. εἰσὶ δὲ οἱ τῆς αὐτῆς φρατρίας μετέχοντες, οἷον πατριᾶς τινος. ὁ γοῦν Ὅμηρος τὴν αὐτὴν καὶ πάτρην λέγει. ἦ μὰν ἀμφοτέροισιν ὁμὸν γένος ἠδ' ἴα πάτρη. μεταφορᾷ φάτρη καὶ φράτρη. μεταπέπτωκε δὲ τὰ στοιχεῖα: καθάπερ ἐπὶ τοῦ Πάτριος Ζεὺς καὶ Φάτριος. τὸ δὲ γράφεσθαι εἰς τοὺς φράτορας σύμβολον εἶχον τῆς συγγενείας.
The term φράτηρ (Ionic φρήτηρ ) is the Greek cognate of Latin frater, Sanskrit bhrātar-, English "brother," etc., but was used to designate a member of a larger kinship group, the "brotherhood" (φράτρα or φρατρία ). In the various dialects, the second rho is often dropped by dissimilation. Φράτωρ is a later (according to Herodian) variant of φράτηρ with a different vowel-grade, perhaps extracted from compounds like ἀφράτωρ /ἀφρήτωρ . See Chantraine s.v. φράτηρ for fuller discussion.
See also phi 693, and cf. phi 136, phi 281, phi 711, gamma 146, gamma 147.
[1] Likewise in Lexica Segueriana 313.27-31, and cf. a scholion on Plato, Timaeus 21B.
[2] Entry so far = Photius, Lexicon phi290 Theodoridis. The source of this final sentence, additional to what is found elsewhere (see preceding note), is unidentifiable. The word 'race' is textually shaky; the mss vary between ἔθνος and ἔθος ; but Theodoridis declares ἔθνος correct, citing Pollux 8.111.
[3] Homer, Iliad 13.354 (web address 1).
[4] cf. a scholion on Aristophanes, Knights 255 (web address 2). Πάτρη , πατριά and πάτριος come from πατήρ "father," but in some dialects may be confused with forms from φράτηρ (see LSJ s.v. φράτρα ).
[5] cf. a scholion on Aristophanes, Birds 1669 (web address 3).
P. Chantraine, Dictionnaire étymologique de la langue grecque, ed. 2, Paris 2009.
Associated internet addresses:
Web address 1,
Web address 2,
Web address 3
Keywords: comedy; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; epic; history; philosophy; religion
Translated by: Catharine Roth on 27 March 2011@01:51:04.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (augmented notes; tweaks and cosmetics) on 27 March 2011@04:19:08.
Catharine Roth (expanded note 4, added links) on 27 March 2011@12:11:32.
David Whitehead (typo; other tweaks) on 9 August 2011@07:43:41.
David Whitehead (tweaked and expanded 2 notes) on 18 December 2013@03:50:23.
David Whitehead (codings) on 31 May 2016@07:17:54.
David Whitehead (cosmetic) on 1 June 2016@02:27:59.
Catharine Roth (tweaked note, added bibliography) on 1 June 2016@11:00:25.


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