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Headword: *fra/tores
Adler number: phi,694
Translated headword: phratry-members
Vetting Status: high
[fra/tores] and fratri/ai ["phratries"] and fratri/arxos ["phratriarch"]: a phratry is the third part of the tribe [fulh/], so he who led this part used to be called phratriarch; he was enrolled among the phratry-members on his father's side at the festival of the Apatouria.[1] But they say that the same race is a trittu/s, that is the fratri/a or fratori/a.[2]
But they call one's relatives fra/tores. They are those who share in the same fratri/a, as if of a certain paternal lineage [patria/]. Homer indeed calls the same [group] also a pa/trh ["body of persons descended from the same father"]. "Indeed for both [is] the same clan and one family."[3] With a change [of pi to phi it becomes] fa/trh and fra/trh. The letters have been changed, just as in "Zeus Patrios" and "Phatrios."[4] But they considered being enrolled among the phratry-members [fra/tores] as a sign of relationship.[5]
Greek Original:
*fra/tores kai\ *fratri/ai kai\ *fratri/arxos: fratri/a e)sti\ to\ tri/ton me/ros th=s fulh=s. o( ou)=n tou/tou tou= me/rous h(gou/menos fratri/arxos e)kalei=to: e)ggra/fetai de\ patro/qen ei)s tou\s fra/toras th=| tw=n *)apatouri/wn e(orth=|. fasi\ de\ to\ au)to\ e)/qnos ei)=nai trittu/n, h)/toi th\n fratri/an h)\ fratori/an. *fra/toras de\ tou\s suggenei=s kalou=sin. ei)si\ de\ oi( th=s au)th=s fratri/as mete/xontes, oi(=on patria=s tinos. o( gou=n *(/omhros th\n au)th\n kai\ pa/trhn le/gei. h)= ma\n a)mfote/roisin o(mo\n ge/nos h)d' i)/a pa/trh. metafora=| fa/trh kai\ fra/trh. metape/ptwke de\ ta\ stoixei=a: kaqa/per e)pi\ tou= *pa/trios *zeu\s kai\ *fa/trios. to\ de\ gra/fesqai ei)s tou\s fra/toras su/mbolon ei)=xon th=s suggenei/as.
The term fra/thr (Ionic frh/thr) is the Greek cognate of Latin frater, Sanskrit bhrātar-, English "brother," etc., but was used to designate a member of a larger kinship group, the "brotherhood" (fra/tra or fratri/a). In the various dialects, the second rho is often dropped by dissimilation. *fra/twr is a later (according to Herodian) variant of fra/thr with a different vowel-grade, perhaps extracted from compounds like a)fra/twr/a)frh/twr. See Chantraine s.v. fra/thr for fuller discussion.
See also phi 693, and cf. phi 136, phi 281, phi 711, gamma 146, gamma 147.
[1] Likewise in Lexica Segueriana 313.27-31, and cf. a scholion on Plato, Timaeus 21B.
[2] Entry so far = Photius, Lexicon phi290 Theodoridis. The source of this final sentence, additional to what is found elsewhere (see preceding note), is unidentifiable. The word 'race' is textually shaky; the mss vary between e)/qnos and e)/qos; but Theodoridis declares e)/qnos correct, citing Pollux 8.111.
[3] Homer, Iliad 13.354 (web address 1).
[4] cf. a scholion on Aristophanes, Knights 255 (web address 2). *pa/trh, patria/ and pa/trios come from path/r "father," but in some dialects may be confused with forms from fra/thr (see LSJ s.v. fra/tra).
[5] cf. a scholion on Aristophanes, Birds 1669 (web address 3).
P. Chantraine, Dictionnaire étymologique de la langue grecque, ed. 2, Paris 2009.
Associated internet addresses:
Web address 1,
Web address 2,
Web address 3
Keywords: comedy; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; epic; history; philosophy; religion
Translated by: Catharine Roth on 27 March 2011@01:51:04.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (augmented notes; tweaks and cosmetics) on 27 March 2011@04:19:08.
Catharine Roth (expanded note 4, added links) on 27 March 2011@12:11:32.
David Whitehead (typo; other tweaks) on 9 August 2011@07:43:41.
David Whitehead (tweaked and expanded 2 notes) on 18 December 2013@03:50:23.
David Whitehead (codings) on 31 May 2016@07:17:54.
David Whitehead (cosmetic) on 1 June 2016@02:27:59.
Catharine Roth (tweaked note, added bibliography) on 1 June 2016@11:00:25.


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