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Headword: Philopoimên
Adler number: phi,409
Translated headword: Philopoimen, Philopoemen
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
Cavalry-commander of the Achaeans, who was one of the most impressive men in Arkadia. First, he was well-born, and was brought up and educated by Kleandros of Mantineia, who happened to be a paternal guest-friend to them. Then, coming to adulthood, he became a devotee of Ekdemos and Demophanes, who were from Megalopolis but had fled the tyrants and came to live with the philosopher Arkesilaos.[1] They collaborated in the deposition of Neokles, tyrant of the Sikyonians. And he was careful about his way of life and plain in his external appearance. He had received from the aforesaid men opinions such as that it is not possible for a man who neglects the affairs of his own life to be a good leader in communal matters; nor, indeed, for a man who lives more luxuriously than his own availability of resource to refrain from grasping at the fatherland. Taking over a force of cavalrymen who were in every manner run down, and in which the very souls of the men were being defeated, he made them not only better than themselves, but also stronger than the enemy in a short time, embarking them upon real training and successful zeal. For most of the men appointed to this office -- [2] well, some through their personal lack of ability in cavalary matters do not even dare to give appropriate leadership in any matters to those around them,[3] while others, aspiring to reach the generalship by way of this office, canvass support among the young men and prepare benevolent partisans for the future, not criticizing the man who needs it (by which practice communal interests are secured), [but] conniving at the covering up of mistakes and, through small-scale generosity, causing large-scale harm to those trusting in them. But if ever any of the rulers might be both capable in terms of bodily service[4] and eager to refrain from grasping at the community's property, they commit more wrongs upon the infantry through their misplaced zeal than those who are neglectful, and even more to the cavalry.[5]
The Arkadians hold the memory of Philopoimen especially dear, because of both his wisdom and the deeds he dared. His father was Kraugis, a man second to none of the Arkadians in Megalopolis in the fame of his lineage. When he died, he [Philopoimen] kept company with, among other teachers, Megalophanes and Ekdelos, pupils of Arkesilaos of Pitane.[6] In size and in bodily strength he was second to none of the Peloponnesians, but in facial appearance he was ugly. He thought himself above training for contests for which garlands were awarded, but in working the land he owned he did not neglect to remove the wild beasts. He also used to read books by the distinguished wise men of the Hellenes, and those to do with war, and any that he knew contained teaching about stratagems, wishing to make his entire life an imitation of the wisdom of Epameinondas and of that man's deeds,[7] though he was not able to equal him in all things: for Epameinondas, among other things, had a soul that was particularly mild in the matter of anger, but the Arkadian had a certain tendency towards rage. When Kleomenes[8] captured Megalopolis, Philopoimen was not at all stricken by the unexpected nature of the calamity, but rescued about two parts[9] of the adult males, plus women and children, and took them to Messene. When Kleomenes announced that he was now repenting of his daring act and wished to lead the Megalopolitans back to their own land, Philopoimen persuaded them to make good their return by means of weapons and not a truce. When the battle against Kleomenes took place, Philopoimen, though assigned to the cavalry, saw that the infantry was being left behind[10] and voluntarily became a hoplite. As he faced danger in a valorous manner one of the Lakedaimonians pierced him through both thighs. But Philopoimen, even though handicapped in this way, bent his knees and made his way forwards by force, with the result that he actually snapped the spear by the movement of his legs. After the victory, when he was carried to the camp, the doctors there drew it out of both thighs: the butt-spike in one direction, the blade in the other. And Antigonos, when he saw Philopoimen's daring acts, was eager to take him to Macedonia. Philopoimen was not interested in him at all, but crossed to Crete as a mercenary leader, returned again to Megalopolis, and was chosen to lead the Achaians.
Greek Original:
Philopoimên, Achaiôn hipparchês: hos ên ex andrôn tôn epiphanestatôn en Arkadiai: hos prôta men ephu kalôs, trapheis kai paideutheis hupo Kleandron ton Mantinea, patrikon men autois xenon huparchonta: paragenomenos de eis hêlikian egeneto zêlôtês Ekdêmou kai Dêmophanous, hoi êsan ek Megalês poleôs, pheugontes de tous turannous kai sumbiôsantes Arkesilai tôi philosophôi: hoi sunepelabonto tês kataluseôs Neokleous tou Sikuôniôn turannou. ên de kai peri ton bion epimelês kai litos kata tên perikopên, pareilêphôs para tôn proeirêmenôn andrôn tas toiautas doxas hôs ouch hoion te tôn koinôn prostatein kalôs ton oligôrounta tôn kata ton idion bion, oute mên aposchesthai tês patridos, hostis polutelesteron zêi tês kata tên idian huparxin chorêgias. paralabôn de tous hippeis panti tropôi katephtharmenous kai tas psuchas tôn andrôn hêttêmenas ou monon autous heautôn beltious, alla kai tôn hupenantiôn kreittous en oligôi chronôi kateskeuase, pantas eis alêthinên askêsin kai zêlon epiteuktikon embibasas. tôn men gar allôn hoi pleistoi tôn kathistamenôn epi tên archên tautên, hoi men dia tên oikeian adunamian en tois hippikois oude tois plêsion tolmôsin oudenôn kathêkein prostatein, hoi de tês stratêgias oregomenoi dia tautês tês archês exeritheuontai tous neous kai paraskeuazousin eunous sunagônistas eis to mellon, ouk epitimôntes tôi deomenôi, di' hou tropou sôizetai ta koina, sumperistellontes tas hamartias kai mikrai chariti megala blaptontes tous pisteuontas. ei de pote kai genointo tôn archontôn tines têi te kata sôma chreiai dunatoi pros te to tôn koinôn apechesthai prothumoi, pleiô kaka tôn oligôrountôn dia tên kakozêlian apergazontai tous pezous, eti de mallon tous hippeis. Philopoimenos Arkades malista echousi mnêmên, gnômês te heneka kai ergôn hôn etolmêse. patêr men oun ên autôi Kraugis, oudenos Arkadôn tôn en Megalêi polei ta es genous doxan leipomenos: hou teleutêsantos, didaskalois te allois hômilêse kai Megalophanei te kai Ekdêlôi, tois Arkesilaou tou Pitanaiou mathêtou. megethos men dê kai sômatos rhômên apedei Peloponnêsiôn oudenos, to de eidos ên tou prosôpou kakos. kai epi men tous stephanitas agônas huperephronêsen askêsai, gên de hên ekektêto ergazomenos oude ta thêria êmelei ta agria exairein. epelegeto de kai biblia sophôn te tôn eudokimôn par' Hellêsi kai hosa es polemôn mnêmên kai ei ti êidei echein didaskalian stratêgêmatôn: katastêsasthai de ton bion panta thelôn gnômês tês Epaminônda kai ergôn einai tôn ekeinou mimêsin, ou panta ên exisôthênai dunatos: Epaminôndai gar ta te alla hê psuchê kai praos malista ta es orgên, tôi de Arkadi metên ge thumou. katalabontos de Kleomenous Megalên polin, Philopoimên oute tês sumphoras exeplagê to aprosdokêton, kai tôn en hêlikiai ta duo malista merê kai gunaikas kai paidas apesôsen es Messênên. epikêrukeuomenou de Kleomenous, hôs metaginôskontos epi tôi tolmêmati kai thelontos katagesthai Megalopolitas eis tên heautôn, Philopoimên epeise meth' hoplôn kai ou meta spondôn tên kathodon poiêsasthai: genomenês de pros Kleomenên machês, ho Philopoimên en tois hippeusi tattomenos, horôn to pezon leipomenon hoplitês hekôn egeneto kai auton logou axiôs kinduneuonta tôn tis Lakedaimoniôn di' amphoterôn epeire tôn mêrôn. ho de kaitoi houtôs pepedêmenos ta te gonata enekline kai es to prosô chôrein ebiazeto, hôste kai hupo tôn podôn tou kinêmatos to doru eklase: meta de tên nikên es to stratopedon achthentos entautha ex amphoterôn autôn tôn mêrôn hoi iatroi têi men ton saurôtêra exeilkon, têi de tên aichmên. Antigonos de, hôs eiden autou ta tolmêmata, espeuden agagein auton es Makedonian. Philopoimeni de toutou men ouden emelêse: peraiôtheis de es Krêtên misthophoros hêgemôn authis epanêken es Megalên polin kai hêirethê archein tôn Achaiôn.
Notes:
c.253-182 BCE. Primary source (besides the two used here): Plutarch, Life of Philopoimen.
P's modern biographer [see Bibliography below] has contributed the entry in OCD3/4 s.v. Philopoemen.
[1] alpha 3950.
[2] The syntax is interrupted: the subject 'most' governs no main verb.
[3] Again the syntax seems faulty; the standard text of Polybios [see n. 5 below] reads ou)de\ toi=s plhsi/on tolmw=sin ou)de\n w(=n kaqh/kei prosta/ttein, 'do not even dare to give those around them any of the orders that are appropriate', which seems sounder.
[4] i.e. military service.
[5] From the start to this point, the Suda follows Polybios 10.22.1-10 (with omissions); cf. epsilon 1647. Thereafter, the entry closely follows Pausanias 8.49.1-7.
[6] The plural 'pupils' is from Pausanias; the Suda mss transmit the singular.
[7] epsilon 1949.
[8] Kleomenes III of Sparta (c.235-222).
[9] i.e. two-thirds.
[10] In place of leipo/menon the standard text of Pausanias reads lhyo/menon th\n kri/sin, 'was about to seize the judgement' (i.e. decide the issue).
Reference:
R.M. Errington, Philopoemen (1969)
Keywords: agriculture; athletics; biography; children; economics; ethics; geography; historiography; history; medicine; military affairs; philosophy; politics; women; zoology
Translated by: D. Graham J. Shipley on 11 July 2003@04:23:22.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (augmented notes and keyword; added bibliography; cosmetics) on 11 July 2003@05:40:04.
Catharine Roth (cosmetics) on 11 July 2003@17:47:02.
David Whitehead (more keywords; tweaks and cosmetics; raised status) on 11 December 2013@08:36:19.
David Whitehead (updated a ref) on 7 August 2014@03:20:29.
Catharine Roth (Greek typo) on 19 February 2018@01:46:57.

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