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Headword: Φάρυγξ
Adler number: phi,117
Translated headword: pharynx, throat
Vetting Status: high
Most people write [φάρυγξ , genitive] φάρυγγος .[1]
Pharynx:[2] when it is spoken in the feminine, means properly the pharynx; it is the wide opening at the base of the tongue; but when masculine, it means frequently the throat. The larynx is the extremity of the arterial windpipe, which is surrounded by the three cartilages, the one called arytenoid[3] and the thyroid[4] and the unnamed one; these when squeezed and dilated by the muscles there regulate the voice. For by such compression and dilation of these, the voice is more or less modulated according to both high and low pitch, and, if so, a change in its shape is observed.
Greek Original:
Φάρυγξ, φάρυγγος γράφουσιν οἱ πολλοί. Φάρυγξ: ὅτε μὲν θηλυκῶς λέγεται, σημαίνει τὴν κυρίως φάρυγγα: ἡ δέ ἐστιν ἡ ἀχανία ἡ μετὰ τὴν τῆς γλώττης ῥίζαν: ὅτε δὲ ἀρσενικῶς, σημαίνει πολλάκις τὸν λάρυγγα. ἔστι δὲ ὁ λάρυγξ τὸ ἔσχατον τῆς τραχείας ἀρτηρίας, ὅπερ ὑπὸ τῶν τριῶν χόνδρων περιέχεται, τοῦ τε ἀρυταινοειδοῦς καλουμένου καὶ τοῦ θυροειδοῦς καὶ τοῦ ἀνωνύμου, οἵτινες συστελλόμενοι καὶ διαστελλόμενοι ὑπὸ τῶν ἐκεῖ μυῶν τὴν φωνὴν ῥυθμίζουσιν. ὑπὸ γὰρ τῆς τοιᾶσδε τούτων ἀναστολῆς καὶ διαστολῆς ἢ μᾶλλον ἢ ἧττον εἰδοποιεῖται ἡ φωνὴ κατά τε τὸ ὀξὺ καὶ τὸ βαρύ, καὶ εἴ τι ἄλλο εἶδος περὶ αὐτὴν θεωρεῖται.
[1] i.e. as opposed to λάρυγξ , λάρυγγος ; cf. already lambda 132 and phi 91 (end). See LSJ entry at web address 1. LSJ s.v. λάρυγξ notes that larynx and pharynx are confused in poetry.
[2] What follows -- the main body of the entry -- derives from John Philoponus, Commentary on Aristotle's de anima 381.22-31 Hayduck.
[3] Literally, "in the shape of an ἀρύταινα ", which is a small ewer; cf. alpha 4065, alpha 4066. The word is still our medical term.
[4] Again, still familiar medical terminology nowadays; meaning originally "in the shape of a door".
Associated internet address:
Web address 1
Keywords: definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; medicine; philosophy; poetry; science and technology
Translated by: Yannick Muller on 4 June 2011@08:47:42.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (some changes to tr; augmented notes and keywords; cosmetics) on 5 June 2011@05:24:45.
David Whitehead (more x-refs) on 5 June 2011@10:05:11.
Catharine Roth (betacode typos) on 5 June 2011@22:19:12.
Catharine Roth (tweaked note) on 15 August 2013@00:45:16.
David Whitehead on 4 December 2013@07:20:24.
David Whitehead (coding) on 30 May 2016@10:20:33.


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