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Headword: *ka/ranos
Adler number: kappa,356
Translated headword: Karanos, Caranus
Vetting Status: high
One of the Heraclids,[1] he gathered an army from Greece and went into Macedonia, which at that time was an obscure place. He ruled there and handed down the rule so that it proceeded in succession all the way down to Philip.[2] Amyntas, the father of Philip, married Eurydike, an Illyrian woman, and had the following children: Alexandros, Perdikkas, and Philip, whom some claim were spurious children that Eurydike introduced. After a war with the Thebans, [Amyntas] gave them as a hostage Philip, who was still young, and a Theban named Pammenes became his lover, or so they say. When Amyntas died, Pausanias, who had been driven into exile by him earlier, returned and seized power, forcing out the sons [of Amyntas]. But Eurydike formed an alliance with a general of the Athenians who was operating in the vicinity of Macedonia and expelled Pausanias. Up to that point, then, rule passed to the eldest, and nothing unusual happened. Philip came to power at the age of twenty-two and conquered many peoples, both barbarians and Greeks, and he took Amphipolis from the Athenians and made Thessaly subject to his authority along with the thirty-two cities of the Chalcidian league, of which the Olynthians were the leaders. He took Potidaia from the Athenians, and then deceitfully made a gift of it to them. Similarly the Athenians sent forty ships as aid [to Olynthos] with Chares as general. But Chares was hit by a storm, and Euthykrates and Lasthenes betrayed Olynthos, so [Philip] removed the population of Olynthos and captured the other cities. The Athenians granted citizenship to those who were rescued. He lost an eye while fighting against the Methonians who live near Thrace; a certain Aster hit him with an arrow. Aster had written on the arrow, "Aster sends this death-dealing arrow to Philip," in return for which Philip had written and sent on an arrow the following: "Philip, if he catches Aster, will kill him." Later, while offering peace he demanded [Aster] and once he got hold of him, he hanged him. He also captured Kersobleptes, a Thracian king and an ally of the Athenians, and he captured [the island of] Halon(n)esus,[3] and other cities; and after this the Phocian war arose.
Greek Original:
*ka/ranos, ei(=s tw=n *(hrakleidw=n, stratologh/sas e)k th=s *(ella/dos, h)=lqen ei)s *makedoni/an a)/docon ou)=san to/te kai\ e)basi/leuse kai\ diadoxh=| ke/xrhtai me/xri *fili/ppou. *)amu/ntas de\ o( *fili/ppou path\r *eu)rudi/khn *)illuri/da gh/mas e)/sxe pai=das *)ale/candron, *perdi/kkan, *fi/lippon: ou(\s e)/nioi kai\ u(pobeblh=sqai th\n *eu)rudi/khn fasi/. polemh/sas de\ *qhbai/ois o(/mhron e)/dwke ne/on o)/nta to\n *fi/lippon: ou(= gene/sqai *qhbai=o/n tina *pamme/nhn o)/noma e)rasth/n, w(/s fasin. *)amu/ntou de\ teleuth/santos, *pausani/as fugadeuqei\s u(p' au)tou= pro/teron, katelqw\n e)bia/sato tou\s pai=das kai\ kate/sxe th\n a)rxh/n. *eu)rudi/kh de\ *)aqhnai/wn strathgw=| diatri/bonti peri\ th\n *makedoni/an xrhsame/nh summa/xw|, to\n *pausani/an e)kba/llei. e(/ws me\n ou)=n h)=rxon oi( presbu/teroi, ou)de\n e)newteri/zeto: *fi/lippos de\ a)/rcas du/o kai\ ei)/kosin e)/th gegonw\s pollou\s katestre/feto barba/rous te kai\ *(/ellhnas, e)/labe de\ kai\ *)aqhnai/wn *)amfi/polin kai\ *qettali/an u(f' e(autw=| e)poih/sato kai\ ta\s *xalkidika\s po/leis du/o kai\ tria/konta, w(=n e)prw/teuon *)olu/nqioi. o(\s *poti/daian a)felo/menos *)aqhnai/wn, e)dwrh/sato a)patw=n au)tou/s. o(/mws de\ bohqou\s e)/pemyan *)aqhnai=oi nau=s m# kai\ *xa/rhta strathgo/n: ou(= xeimw=ni a)polhfqe/ntos, prodo/ntwn de\ th\n *)/olunqon *eu)qukra/tous kai\ *lasqe/nous, th\n me\n a)na/staton e)poi/hse, ta\s de\ a)/llas po/leis ei(=len: *)aqhnai=oi de\ tou\s periswqe/ntas poli/tas e)poih/santo. *meqwnai/ois de\ toi=s e)pi\ *qra/|khs polemw=n to\n o)fqalmo\n e)phrw/qh, *)aste/ros tino\s o)/noma balo/ntos au)to\n be/lei, e)pigra/yanto/s te tw=| be/lei: *)asth\r *fili/ppw| qana/simon pe/mpei be/los. pro\s o(\n a)ntigra/yas e)/pemye be/los o( *fi/lippos: *)aste/ra *fi/lippos, h)\n la/bh|, kremh/setai. kai\ u(posxo/menos ei)rh/nhn e)ch/|thse kai\ labw\n e)kre/masen. ei(=le de\ kai\ *kersoble/pthn, *qra|kw=n basile/a kai\ fi/lon *)aqhnai/wn, kai\ *(alo/nhson e)/labe, kai\ a)/llas po/leis: meq' a(\ o( po/lemos o( *fwkiko\s sune/sth.
[1] In mythology, the descendants of Heracles, returning to Greece after exile. See generally OCD(4) s.v. Heraclidae. On Caranus, specifically, see N.G.L. Hammond and G.T. Griffith, A History of Macedonia, ii (Oxford 1979) 3-14.
[2] phi 354 = OCD(4) s.v. Philip(1): Philip II (father of Alexander the Great), King of Macedon 359-336, to whom the entry now turns. (If Justin 11.2.3 is to be believed, Philip named his own youngest son Karanos, but the issues are complex; see Yardley and Heckel [below] 81-2.) The source of this material on Philip and his early-career activities is unknown, but the quality and accuracy of the information inspires some respect.
[3] See alpha 1327.
J.C. Yardley and Waldemar Heckel (eds., Justin, Epitome of the Philippic History of Pompeius Trogus books 11-12: Alexander the Great (Clarendon Ancient History Series: Oxford 1997)
Keywords: biography; children; chronology; gender and sexuality; geography; historiography; history; medicine; military affairs; mythology; women
Translated by: William Hutton on 26 March 2000@01:14:19.
Vetted by:
William Hutton on 26 March 2000@10:45:24.
David Whitehead (added notes, bibliography, keywords; cosmetics) on 27 May 2001@09:43:02.
David Whitehead (augmented n.2; more keywords; cosmetics) on 11 March 2008@07:56:12.
David Whitehead (cosmetics; more bibliography) on 27 January 2013@07:50:45.
Catharine Roth (deleted link) on 7 September 2013@00:42:16.
David Whitehead (updated 2 refs) on 4 August 2014@05:12:29.
Catharine Roth (cosmeticule, cross-reference) on 10 April 2019@01:05:44.


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