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Headword: *kroi=sos
Adler number: kappa,2500
Translated headword: Croesus, Kroisos
Vetting Status: high
Croesus, king of [the] Lydians, having reigned supreme over Asia in his excessive wealth surpassed all the kings of the Assyrians, and wrote to Cyrus the king of the Assyrians thus: "we command you to surrender your kingdom, since it was ours from the beginning and belongs to [= within] our borders. For you will not withstand our rising up against you, nor will you enjoy good fortune against such a power as ours." Cyrus replied thus: "if all the world is not enough for you, in your fantasy, then these are fine things you say to us! But if as ruler of so much land you desire ours too, this prosperous course of good fortune would not last for you in the struggle against us." And having written these things, Cyrus intended to move to the Indian territory and flee the cruelty of Croesus. But Cyrus' wife Bardane, seeing him planning these things, told him to seek out Daniel, the man who had often been a prophet for her and for Darius, and to learn from him what he needed to do with regard to the war against Croesus. On hearing this Cyrus summoned the man and learned from him that he would defeat Croesus; and having learned this he made ready for the war. Likewise Croesus also sent to the [Delphic] oracle and thus was it forecast:[1] "I know the number of the sands and the measure of the sea; I perceive the mute and I hear what does not speak; the smell of a hard-shelled tortoise has come into my head, boiling with lamb's meat in bronze, with bronze below and bronze above." Thinking he was mocked, he sent again and the Pythia replied: "once he has crossed the river [H]alys, Croesus will destroy a great kingdom." And he destroyed his own. But Cyrus set free his Jewish captives and founded Jerusalem.
Greek Original:
*kroi=sos: o(/ti *kroi=sos, basileu\s *ludw=n, katadunasteu/sas th=s *)asi/as e)n u(perba/llonti plou/tw|, u(perhfa/nei pa/ntas tou\s basilei=s tw=n *)assuri/wn kai\ gra/fei *ku/rw| tw=| basilei= tw=n *)assuri/wn ou(/tws: e)pitre/pome/n soi paraxwrh=sai th=s basilei/as, h(mete/ras te ou)/shs e)c a)rxh=s kai\ toi=s h(mw=n diaferou/shs o(/rois. ou) ga\r u(posth/sh| e)panistame/nwn h(mw=n kata\ sou=, ou)de\ pro\s th\n tosau/thn h(mw=n eu)tuxi/an a)nqe/ch|. o( de\ *ku=ros a)nte/grayen ou(/tws: ei) me\n o( pa=s ko/smos ou)k a)rkei= soi tosau/thn e)/xonti fantasi/an, kalw=s h(mi=n tau=ta le/geis: ei) de\ tosau/ths gh=s despo/zwn kai\ th=s h(mete/ras e)ra=|s, ou)k a)/n soi pro\s to\n kaq' h(mw=n a)gw=na h( th=s tu/xhs eu)/roia diamei/noi. kai\ tau=ta gra/yas *ku=ros e)bou/leto pro\s th\n *)indikh\n xw/ran metoikei=n kai\ fugei=n th\n w)mo/thta tou= *kroi/sou. a)ll' h( tou/tou gunh\ *barda/nh e(wrakui=a to\n *ku=ron tau=ta bouleuo/menon ei)=pen au)tw=| zhth=sai to\n *danih\l to\n au)th=| kai\ *darei/w| profhteu/santa polla/kis kai\ par' au)tou= maqei=n, ti/ dei= pra/cai pro\s to\n *kroi/sou po/lemon. o(/per a)kou/sas o( *ku=ros metepe/myato to\n a)/ndra kai\ memaqhkw\s par' au)tou=, w(s nikh/sei to\n *kroi=son, tou=to maqw\n ta\ pro\s to\n po/lemon pareskeu/azen. o(moi/ws de\ kai\ *kroi=sos ei)s to\ mantei=on e)/pemye kai\ e)xrhsmodoth/qh ou(/tws: oi)=da d' e)gw\ ya/mmou t' a)riqmo\n kai\ me/tra qala/sshs kai\ kwfou= cuni/hmi kai\ ou) lale/ontos a)kou/w. o)dmh/ m' e)s fre/nas h)=lqe krateri/noio xelw/nhs, e(yome/nhs e)n xalkw=| a(/m' a)rnei/ois kre/asin, h(=| xalko\s me\n u(pe/rkeitai, xalko\s d' u(po/keitai. gnou\s de/, w(s e)nepai/xqh, pa/lin ste/llei, kai\ a)nei=len h( *puqi/a: *kroi=sos *(/alun diaba\s potamo\n mega/lhn a)rxh\n katalu/sei. kai\ kate/luse th\n e(autou=. o( de\ *ku=ros tou\s ai)xmalw/tous tw=n *)ioudai/wn a)pe/luse kai\ kti/zei th\n *(ierousalh/m.
For Croesus see already kappa 2497, kappa 2498, kappa 2499. For the present entry cf. John Malalas VI 7-11 pp.153-8 Dindorf = pp. 119-22 Thurn.
[1] The primary source for this is Herodotus 1.47.
Keywords: biography; economics; food; geography; historiography; history; imagery; military affairs; mythology; religion; women; zoology
Translated by: Jennifer Benedict on 13 June 2000@21:46:27.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (modified translation; added notes, bibliography, keywords) on 25 May 2001@08:01:12.
David Whitehead (another keyword) on 4 December 2005@09:19:36.
David Whitehead (more keywords; tweaks and cosmetics) on 19 May 2008@10:21:36.
David Whitehead on 18 March 2013@08:25:54.
Catharine Roth (tweaked translation) on 12 February 2020@20:14:30.
Olivier Gengler (Correction to the translation and addition of ref.) on 25 August 2022@09:12:07.


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