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Headword: *ki/nhsis
Adler number: kappa,1640
Translated headword: motion, movement
Vetting Status: high
The intellect [is] the cause of motion according to place among human beings, for it sets in motion the living being. By contrast, sensation [is the cause of motion] among irrational things. Alongside these there is another factor which sets in motion according to place; for the desiderative faculty [is] a cause of motion according to place. But this is different: for desire is present in the rational faculties, and among the irrational [faculties].
Motion [sc. is of the following kinds]: in accordance with place, in accordance with alteration, in accordance with growth, in accordance with decay.
Motion [sc. takes six forms]: 1, growth; 2, diminution; 3, locomotion; 4, alteration; 5, generation; 6, corruption.
To be moved is also to change from place to place. The things that move in a circle [are] incorruptible.
[We can speak] of motion in another way. Motion: it is not possible, he says, for a lump to be moved in accordance with nature downwards, nor for fire to be displaced upwards; for these things do not have the principle of such a motion in themselves; rather, [they are] set in motion by another thing from without.[1] For each of the elements is present in its own wholeness: for the totalities wish to be present or to be moved in a circle, because the circular motion is also a certain rest. And by nature the lump which is moved [is] immovable by its own wholeness; and this [is also the case with] fire, because of its own sphere. But when in the domain of what is contrary to nature a lump or water or this air is produced, it is driven on toward the wholeness of each thing itself, by seeking to recover its appropriate rest. For when they are displaced by the action of some external force from that which is in accordance with nature, they are moved on the course toward what is contrary to nature. They are moved in [their] course, since they are in an alien place and are deprived of their peculiar wholeness contrary to nature. So the motion that is directed toward the natural place is not in accordance with nature, for, if it were, the totalities would also set in motion these motions. Consequently, such movements of the parts are so not in accordance with nature but the distances traveled are directed toward what is in accordance with nature. However, the expression "in accordance with nature" can be understood in another way: just as restoration to health, too, is said to be in accordance with nature, so falling sick [is said to be] contrary to nature, since the former leads toward what is in accordance with nature and the latter [leads toward] what is contrary to nature. For the primary mover, if it is a body, is moved as well. For not only does the stick move the door but the hand [moves] the stick, not itself remaining unmovable but being moved.[2] But if the primary mover is incorporeal, there is no necessity that it is moved when moving something else,[3] since every divine mover is unmovable as well, in having a standing substance and power and activity. [To put it] another way: no mover amongst the objects of desire is [itself] moved; for instance, beauty is not moved, despite frequently setting in motion the lover;[4] nor is the image, despite moving the one who is looking at it; etc. Plato, when calling the soul 'self-moved',[5] is not speaking of motion in accordance with place. The soul often changes from what [is in] potentiality to what [is in] activity, since it changes from not knowing this to knowing [it].[6] But if it changes, it is moved too. Such a motion and change [is] a certain generation -- but not simply a generation of substance. Motion differs from activity. For motion is an incomplete activity, but activity is incessant;[7] that is why the divine things are also activities without potentiality. But it is a matter for investigation, whether the motions in the mover and in the moved are two or a single one, and of which there would be motion, either of the mover or of the moved. And they maintain that [the motion is] of the moved: for he is the one advancing from the incomplete to the complete, not the mover, just as it happens in the case of the pupil and the teacher;[8] for the motion in both of them [is] one, begun by the teacher but completing in the pupil. Consequently the soul, too, is moved; for it changes from the incomplete to the complete and it does not have an incessant activity, and it is not without potentiality either. [To put it] another way: in those things [in which there is] the prior and the posterior, [there is] time too; and in the things [in which there is] time, [there is] motion too; for these also change over; hence in those things [in which there is] motion, [there is] time too. In the soul there is the prior and the posterior; thus motion [too]. In the soul [there is] the prior and the posterior; at any rate they proceed from premise to conclusions, and [the soul] does not know everything at the same time, but one thing before another. Nor does it undertake at the same time everything that it knows, but the one first and the other afterwards, and in general proceeds from virtue to vice, and from ignorance to knowledge. So Plato did well when he assigned self-motion to it [sc. the soul].[9] And Aristotle, having called the soul unmovable, did not say that this motion is not attached to the soul but that for us there are no physical and acknowledged motions attached to it. For it neither grows nor diminishes, and it changes neither in accordance with quality nor in accordance with quantity; instead, in accordance with some other intelligible and, especially, living motions. The soul is moved in accordance with alteration, in that it changes from a disposition into a state, [for instance] from ignorance into knowledge. Aristotle declared that [the soul] is not moved, since he was focusing on the bodily motions. For if the soul were moved not incidentally, there would be a place for it too; for all motions [are] in a place, [so] obviously the bodily [ones are too]; for everything in a place is a body.
Of the things subject to motion, some have their motion in accordance with substance, others [are subject to motion] incidentally.
Of the things [that are subject to motion] incidentally: some are moved by virtue of having a motion of their own, such as a sailor; for he is incidentally moved on the ship which is being moved, and he also is able to move himself; others are incidentally moved by virtue of being unmovable by themselves, such as the rowers.
Of the things subject to being moved by themselves, that is to say in accordance with substance: some have a motion joined essentially and, because of this, able to complete the substance, such as the heavenly bodies; others do not have a motion joined essentially or able to complete the substance, but they take part in the motion when the mover is present in them, such as the lump and the other separated parts of the elements.
Greek Original:
*ki/nhsis: o(/ti th=s kata\ to/pon kinh/sews e)n me\n a)nqrw/pois o( nou=s ai)/tios: au)to\s ga\r kinei= to\ zw=|on: e)n de\ a)lo/gois h( ai)/sqhsis. e(/teron de/ e)sti para\ tau=ta to\ kata\ to/pon kinhtiko/n: to\ ga\r o)rektiko\n th=s kata\ to/pon kinh/sews ai)/tion. tou=to de\ dia/foro/n e)sti: kai\ ga\r e)n tai=s logikai=s duna/mesi/n e)stin h( o)/recis, kai\ e)n toi=s a)lo/gois. h( ki/nhsis h( kata\ to/pon h( kat' a)lloi/wsin h( kat' au)/chsin h( kata\ fqi/sin h( ki/nhsis a#: au)/chsis b#: mei/wsis g#: fora/ d#: a)lloi/wsis e#: ge/nesis #2#: fqora/ o(/ti kinei=sqai/ e)sti kai\ to\ metaba/llein to/pon e)k to/pou. o(/ti ta\ ku/klw| kinou/mena a)/fqarta. a)/llws peri\ kinh/sews: *ki/nhsis: ou)k e)/sti, fhsi/, th=| bw/lw| to\ kinei=sqai kata\ fu/sin e)pi\ ta\ ka/tw, ou)de\ tw=| puri\ to\ fe/resqai pro\s ta\ a)/nw: ou)de\ ga\r th\n a)rxh\n th=s toiau/ths kinh/sews e)n e(autoi=s e)/xousin: a)ll' e)/cwqen u(p' a)/llou kinou/mena. e(/kaston ga\r tw=n stoixei/wn e)n th=| o(lo/thti th=| e(autou= e(/sthken: ai( ga\r o(lo/thtes e(sta/nai bou/lontai h)\ ku/klw| kinei=sqai, dio/ti kai\ h( ku/klw| ki/nhsis sta/sis ti/s e)sti. kai\ kata\ fu/sin me\n h( bw=los kinoume/nh th=| oi)kei/a| o(lo/thti a)ki/nhtos: kai\ to/de to\ pu=r th=| oi)kei/a| sfai/ra|. e)peida\n de\ e)n tw=| para\ fu/sin h( bw=los h)\ to\ u(/dwr h)\ o(/de o( a)h\r ge/nhtai, pro\s th\n e(ka/stou o(lo/thta au)tou= e)pei/getai, th\n prosh/kousan sta/sin a)polabei=n zhtou=n: u(po\ ga/r tinos e)/cwqen bi/as e)ksta/nta tou= kata\ fu/sin, kinei=tai th\n e)pi\ to\ para\ fu/sin o(do/n. e)n o(dw=| de\ kinei=tai, a(/te e)n a)llotri/w| u(pa/rxonta to/pw| kai\ th=s i)di/as o(lo/thtos para\ fu/sin e)sterhme/na: ou)kou=n ou) fu/sei h( e)pi\ to\n kata\ fu/sin to/pon ki/nhsis: e)kinou=nto ga\r a)\n tau/tas ta\s kinh/seis kai\ ai( o(lo/thtes. ou(/tws me\n ou)=n ai( toiau=tai tw=n merw=n kinh/seis ou) kata\ fu/sin, a)ll' o(doi\ e)pi\ to\ kata\ fu/sin. du/natai de\ a)/llws kata\ fu/sin le/gesqai: w(/sper lego/menon kai\ th\n u(gi/ansin kata\ fu/sin, para\ fu/sin de\ th\n oi(=on no/sansin, o(/ti h( me\n e)pi\ to\ kata\ fu/sin a)/gei, h( de\ e)pi\ to\ para\ fu/sin. to\ ga\r prw/tws kinou=n, ei) me\n sw=ma ei)/h, kai\ au)to\ kinei=tai. kinei= ga\r kai\ h( bakthri/a th\n qu/ran kai\ th\n bakthri/an h( xei/r, ou)d' au)th\ me/nousa a)ki/nhtos, a)lla\ kinoume/nh. a)\n de\ to\ prw/tws kinou=n a)sw/maton h)=|, ou)demi/a a)na/gkh kai\ au)to\ kinei=sqai e)n tw=| e(/teron kinei=n, e)pei\ kai\ to\ qei=on kinou=n to\ pa=n a)ki/nhto/n e)stin, e(stw=san e)/xon kai\ ou)si/an kai\ du/namin kai\ e)ne/rgeian. a)/llws te de\ ou)de\n tw=n o)rektw=n kinou=n kinei=tai: w(/sper ou)de\ to\ ka/llos, polla/kis to\n e)rasth\n kinou=n, ou) kinei=tai: ou)de\ h( ei)kw\n kinou=sa to\n ei)s au)th\n a)forw=nta: kai\ e(/tera toiau=ta. o(/ti *pla/twn au)toki/nhton le/gwn th\n yuxh\n ou) th\n kata\ to/pon ki/nhsin le/gei. o(/ti h( yuxh\ metaba/llei polla/kis e)k tou= duna/mei ei)s to\ e)nergei/a|, w(s e)k tou= mh\ ei)de/nai to/de ei)s to\ ei)de/nai. ei) de\ metaba/llei, kai\ kinei=tai. e)/sti de\ h( toiau/th ki/nhsis kai\ metabolh\ ge/nesi/s tis: a)ll' ou)x a(plw=s ou)si/as ge/nesis. diafe/rei de\ ki/nhsis e)nergei/as. h( me\n ga\r ki/nhsis a)telh/s e)stin e)ne/rgeia, h( de\ e)ne/rgeia a)qro/a e)sti/: dio\ kai\ ta\ qei=a a)/neu duna/mews e)ne/rgeiai/ ei)si. zhtei=tai de/, po/teron du/o ei)si\n ai( kinh/seis e)n tw=| kinou=nti kai\ kinoume/nw| h)\ mi/a, kai\ ti/nos a)\n ei)/h h( ki/nhsis, tou= kinou=ntos h)\ tou= kinoume/nou. kai/ fasin, o(/ti tou= kinoume/nou: e)kei=nos ga/r e)stin o( e)k tou= a)telou=s ei)s to\ te/leion probai/nwn, ou)x o( kinw=n, w(s e)pi\ tou= maqhtou= e)/xei kai\ didaska/lou: mi/a ga\r h( ki/nhsis e)p' a)mfoi=n, a)rxome/nh me\n a)po\ tou= didaska/lou, teleutw=sa de\ ei)s to\n maqhth/n. w(/ste kai\ h( yuxh\ kinei=tai: metaba/llei ga\r a)po\ tou= a)telou=s e)pi\ to\ te/leion kai\ ou)k e)/xei th\n e)ne/rgeian a)qro/an, ou)de/ e)stin a)/neu duna/mews. a)/llws te e)n oi(=s to\ pro/teron kai\ u(/steron, e)n tou/tois kai\ xro/nos: e)n oi(=s de\ xro/nos, e)n tou/tois kai\ ki/nhsis: kai\ ga\r e)palla/ttousi tau=ta: dio\ kai\ e)n oi(=s ki/nhsis, e)n tou/tois kai\ xro/nos. e)/sti de\ e)n yuxh=| to\ pro/teron kai\ u(/steron: ki/nhsis a)/ra. o(/ti de\ e)n th=| yuxh=| to\ pro/teron kai\ u(/steron: me/teisi gou=n a)po\ prota/sews e)pi\ sumpera/smata, kai\ ou) pa/nta a(/ma ginw/skei, a)ll' a)/llo pro\ a)/llou, ou)de\ pa/ntwn a(/ma w(=n oi)=de th\n proxei/rhsin poiei=tai, a)lla\ tou= me\n pro/teron tou= de\ u(/steron, kai\ kaqo/lou me/teisin a)po\ a)reth=s ei)s kaki/an kai\ a)po\ a)gnwsi/as ei)s gnw=sin. kalw=s ou)=n o( *pla/twn a)pe/neimen au)th=| to\ au)toki/nhton. kai\ *)aristote/lhs de\ a)ki/nhton tau/thn ei)pw/n, ou) tau/thn ei)=pe th\n ki/nhsin mh\ prosei=nai au)th=|, a)lla\ mhdemi/an tw=n fusikw=n kai\ sunegnwsme/nwn h(mi=n kinh/sewn. kai\ ga\r ou)/te au)/cetai ou)/te meiou=tai ou)/te kata\ poio/thta h)\ poso/thta metaba/llei, a)lla\ kat' a)/llas tina\s kinh/seis ta\s nohtika\s kai\ ma/lista zwtika/s. kinei=tai de\ h( yuxh\ kata\ a)lloi/wsin, w(s a)po\ th=s diaqe/sews ei)s e(/cin metaba/llousa, e)c a)nepisthmosu/nhs ei)s e)pisth/mhn. o( de\ *)aristote/lhs mh\ kinei=sqai tau/thn e)/fhsen, w(s pro\s ta\s swmatika\s kinh/seis a)poble/pwn. ei) ga\r kinei=tai h( yuxh\ mh\ kata\ sumbebhko/s, u(pa/rxoi a)\n kai\ to/pos au)th=|: pa=sai ga\r ai( kinh/seis e)n to/pw|, dhlono/ti ai( swmatikai/: pa=n ga\r to\ e)n to/pw| sw=ma/ e)sti. tw=n kinoume/nwn ta\ me\n kat' ou)si/an e)/xei th\n ki/nhsin. ta\ de\ kata\ sumbebhko/s. tw=n de\ kata\ sumbebhko/s ta\ me\n kinei=tai w(s e)/xonta i)di/an ki/nhsin, w(/sper o( plwth/r: kinei=tai ga\r kata\ sumbebhko\s e)n th=| nhi\+ kinoume/nh|, duna/menos kai\ au)to\s kinei=sqai. ta\ de\ w(s kaq' au(ta\ a)ki/nhta o)/nta kinei=tai kata\ sumbebhko/s, w(s oi( e)re/tai. tw=n kaq' au(ta\ kinoume/nwn, toute/sti kat' ou)si/an ta\ me\n sunousiwme/nhn e)/xei th\n ki/nhsin kai\ dia\ tou=to sumplhrwtikh\n th=s ou)si/as w(s ta\ ou)rani/a. ta\ de\ ou)k e)/xei sunousiwme/nhn th\n ki/nhsin ou)de\ sumplhrwtikh\n th=s ou)si/as: mete/xei de\ th=s kinh/sews, o(/tan parh=| to\ kinou=n, w(s h( bw=los kai\ ta)/lla tw=n stoixei/wn a)pospasqe/nta mori/a.
Largely from material in John Philoponus, On Aristotle's De anima (65.34-66.28, 71.9-10, 93.31-2, 94.1-95.35, 97.5-18, 98.10-14 & 19-20, 229.36-230.3, 272.17-18).
In Adler the two sentences (below) beginning 'Motion ...', after the introductory paragraph, are in fact set out graphically, the second additionally supplied with numeration. More of this occurs in the three closing sections of the entry.
[1] See Aristotle, Physics 252a17-19; 254b20-28, and especially 254b33-255a11. For what is moved by nature and, in general, for what is by nature in Aristotle see Physics 192b8-23.
[2] Aristotle, Physics 256a4-21. In this passage (which explains these Suda lines) Aristotle accounts for how "the being moved by another factor" can take place; and the point is that, if the first mover (the hand that moves the stick, that moves the door)is moved, it must be moved by itself. In other words, it is a mover that is moved.
[3] This is a reference to Aristotle's Prime Mover: that is a mover that is not moved when it moves (see Physics 8.5-10 and Metaphysics 12.6-10).
[4] This makes reference to Aristotle's version of his Prime Mover as "what is an object of love" or "what moves as what is loved" (Metaphysics 1072b3).
[5] Plato, Phaedrus 245A-B, cf. Laws 896E.
[6] Aristotle, De anima 412a9-27, 417b9-16.
[7] Aristotle, Metaphysics 1048a31-b35.
[8] Aristotle, Physics 255a33-b12, Metaphysics 1017a35-b8.
[9] See note 5 above and Aristotle, De anima 404a21, 406a1-2.
Keywords: definition; ethics; medicine; philosophy; religion; science and technology
Translated by: Marcelo Boeri on 21 February 2000@01:59:21.
Vetted by:
Marcelo Boeri (Modified translation; added nine notes.) on 2 July 2003@16:40:59.
David Whitehead (added initial note and augmented one other; cosmetics in translation and notes) on 3 July 2003@06:12:03.
David Whitehead (another keyword) on 2 January 2006@11:30:17.
Catharine Roth (tweaks) on 8 May 2008@15:11:57.
David Whitehead (tweaks and cosmetics in tr; more keywords; raised status) on 4 September 2008@06:42:39.
David Whitehead (another note; tweaking) on 25 February 2013@07:08:32.
David Whitehead on 25 February 2013@07:13:13.
David Whitehead (my typo) on 1 May 2016@08:00:07.


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