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Headword: Ἰουλιανός
Adler number: iota,437
Translated headword: Ioulianos, Iulianus, Julian
Vetting Status: high
[Julian,] the transgressor and the apostate, emperor of [the] Romans, cousin of the emperor Constantine the Great, born of his brother Dalmatus and a mother named Galla.[1] He wrote the so-called Caesars, which dealt with the emperors of the Romans starting with Augustus, and another book On the Three Figures [2] and the so-called Kronia and the Beard-hater or Antiochic, Whence the Evils, To the Uneducated, To Heraclitus the Cynic, How to be a Cynic, various letters, and other things.
Concerning Empedotimos, the transgressor says the following in the work entitled Kronia: "But we [speak] trusting in Empedotimus and Pythagoras on whom Heraclides the Pontian relied when he spoke," and a little before [he said],[3] "and the famous one and hierophant Iamblichus showed us."[4]
Many cases went before Julian, since men eagerly made use of his justice when he sat in judgment. And there were no delays to the advantage of the wrongdoers and those who had preconceived plans in those cases which involved an injustice considered normal according to customary laws. But they must either immediately prove what was just according to nature, or their delay and deferral for a time was suspect. And so he was grievous and troublesome [to them], and for these reasons the crowd of wrongdoers and evil men were stirred up: for it was not possible to do wrong nor could wrongdoers hide. Even his accessibility showed him more grievous to the villainous-—for, inasmuch as he often went out because of holy months and sacrifices and was mild by nature with respect to every encounter, those who wanted to speak with him were not prevented. And so he perceived and thought very little of this slander and anger of the wicked.[5]
Concerning the end of Julian the transgressor, the godless:[6] "but, when you conquer the Persian blood for your kingdom as far as Seleucia, clashing with your swords, then the fiery chariot will take you to Olympus mixed up in whirlwinds and whirlpools, after you have cast aside the many troubled pain of mortal peoples. And you will come to the ancestral court of the heavenly light, from which you wandered when you entered mortal form." And there is also the oracle that was given to him when he was spending time at Ctesiphon: "once, wise-counselor Zeus destroyed the race of the earth-born who were hateful to the blessed ones who have Olympian homes. God-like Julian, emperor of the Romans, fought and laid waste with powerful fire and iron the cities and long walls of the Persians who fight hand to hand, and he unceasingly conquered many other races--the very one who [7] who also seized the Alamannic soil of the Western Men in frequent battles and ravaged their fields."[8]
Greek Original:
Ἰουλιανός, ὁ παραβάτης καὶ ἀποστάτης, Ῥωμαίων βασιλεύς, Κωνσταντίνου βασιλέως τοῦ μεγάλου ἀνεψιός, ἀπὸ Δαλμάτου ἀδελφοῦ αὐτοῦ καὶ μητρὸς Γάλλας τοὔνομα. ἔγραψε τοὺς καλουμένους Καίσαρας: περιέχει δὲ τοὺς ἀπὸ Αὐγούστου Ῥωμαίων βασιλεῖς: ἑτέραν βίβλον περὶ τῶν τριῶν σχημάτων: καὶ τὰ καλούμενα Κρόνια: καὶ τὸν Μισοπώγωνα ἢ Ἀντιοχικόν: Περὶ τοῦ πόθεν τὰ κακά, καὶ Πρὸς τοὺς ἀπαιδεύτους: Πρὸς τὸν κύνα Ἡράκλειτον πῶς κυνιστέον: ἐπιστολὰς παντοδαπάς, καὶ ἄλλα. ὅτι περὶ τοῦ Ἐμπεδοτίμου λέγει ὁ παραβάτης οὕτως ἐν τοῖς ἐπιγραφομένοις Κρονίοις: ἡμεῖς δὲ Ἐμπεδοτίμῳ καὶ Πυθαγόρᾳ πιστεύοντες, οἷς τε ἐκεῖθεν λαβὼν Ἡρακλείδης ὁ Ποντικὸς ἔφη, καὶ μικρῷ πρότερον καὶ ὁ κλεινὸς ἡμῖν ἔδειξε καὶ ἱεροφάντωρ Ἰάμβλιχος. ὅτι ἐπὶ τὸν Ἰουλιανὸν πολλαὶ δίκαι ἐχώρουν, χανδὸν ἐμφορουμένων τῶν ἀνθρώπων τῆς δικαιοσύνης τοῦ κρίνοντος: ἀναβολαί τε οὐκ ἦσαν ἐπ' αὐταῖς, ὅσαι νόμιμον ἐκ τῶν συνήθων γραμμάτων τὸ ἄδικον ἴσχουσιν εἰς βοήθειαν τῶν ἀδικούντων καὶ προειληφότων: ἀλλ' ἢ παραχρῆμα ἔδει τὸ ἶσον ἐλέγχεσθαι κατὰ φύσιν, ἢ τὸ μέλλον καὶ διωθούμενον εἰς τὸν χρόνον ὕποπτον ἦν. βαρὺς μὲν οὖν καὶ λυπηρὸς ἐτύγχανε, καὶ ἐπὶ τοῖσδε καὶ τὸ τῶν πονηρῶν ἔθνος καὶ ἀδικούντων διηγείρετο. οὐ γὰρ ἀδικεῖν ἐξῆν οὐδὲ λανθάνειν ἀδικοῦσι. βαρύτερον δὲ αὐτὸν ἀπεδείκνυε τοῖς μοχθηροῖς καὶ τὸ εὐπρόσοδον. οἷα γὰρ προϊόντος μὲν πολλάκις διὰ τὰς ἱερομηνίας καὶ θυσίας, ἡμέρου δὲ φύσει πρὸς πᾶσαν ἔντευξιν τυγχάνοντος, ἀκώλυτον τοὺς δεομένους λόγου τυχεῖν. ὁ μὲν οὖν ἐλάχιστον τῆς ὑπὸ τῶν πονηρῶν ταύτης βλασφημίας τε καὶ ὀργῆς ᾐσθάνετο καὶ ἐφρόντιζε. περὶ τῆς τελευτῆς Ἰουλιανοῦ τοῦ παραβάτου, τοῦ ἀθέου: ἀλλ' ὁπόταν σκήπτροισι τεοῖς Περσήϊον αἷμα ἄχρι Σελευκείης κλονέων ξιφέεσσι δαμάσσῃς, δὴ τότε σε πρὸς Ὄλυμπον ἄγει πυριλαμπὲς ὄχημα, ἀμφὶ θυελλίῃσι κυκώμενον ἐν στροφάλιγξι, ῥίψαντα βροτέων ἐθέων πολύτλητον ἀνίην. ἥξεις δ' αἰθερίου φάεος πατρώϊον αὐλήν, ἔνθεν ἀποπλαγχθεὶς μεροπήϊον ἐς δέμας ἦλθες. ἔστι δὲ καὶ ὁ χρησμὸς ὁ δοθεὶς αὐτῷ, ὅτε περὶ Κτησιφῶντα διῆγεν. γηγενέων ποτὲ φῦλον ἐνήρατο μητιέτα Ζεύς, ἔχθιστον μακάρεσσιν Ὀλύμπια δώματ' ἔχουσι. Ῥωμαίων βασιλεὺς Ἰουλιανὸς θεοειδὴς μαρνάμενος Περσῶν πόλιας καὶ τείχεα μακρὰ ἀγχεμάχων διέπερσε πυρὶ κρατερῷ τε σιδήρῳ, νωλεμέως δὲ δάμασσε καὶ ἔθνεα πολλὰ καὶ ἄλλα, ὅρρα καὶ Ἑσπερίων ἀνδρῶν Ἀλαμανικὸν οὖδας ὑσμίναις πυκιναῖσιν ἑλὼν ἀλάπαξεν ἀρούρας.
Flavius Claudius Iulianus, Roman emperor 361-363. See generally Rowland Smith in OCD(4) s.v. Julian.
[1] Actually Julian was the younger son of Julius Constantius who was the half-brother of Constantine the Great (kappa 2284). See the DIR entry by Walter E. Roberts and Michael DiMaio, Jr., on Julian (web address 1) and that on the siblings of Constantine by Michael DiMaio, Jr., (web address 2). Apparently Julian’s father’s first wife was named Galla, but a second wife, Basilina, was his mother. Furthermore, the Suda’s 'Dalmatus' probably arises from confusion of Julius Constantius with his brother Flavius Dalmatius.
[2] That is περὶ τῶν τριῶν σχημάτων , an obscure work.
[3] “καὶ μικρῷ πρότερον ” may be part of the quotation as translated in epsilon 1007, but Wright (see note 4) seems to think it should be understood as an intrusion of the entry’s author: "and a little earlier [Julian said]".
[4] The Suda has already quoted this passage under Empedotimus (epsilon 1007). Compare W.C. Wright’s translation and commentary of this fragment, pp. 296-7 in The Works of the Emperor Julian, vol. III, 1923.
[5] This paragraph = Blockley, Eunapius fr.25.[1].
[6] The following quotation is the first of two composed in dactylic hexameter in the manner of the oracle; the second is explicitly marked as an oracular pronouncement.
[7] The “ὅρρα ” of V is changed to “ὅς ῥα ” in the Anthologia Palatina (14.148). Perhaps amidst all the Homeric vocabulary here “ὄφρα ” should be read. This would mean changing "and he" to "until he", which would further emphasize the importance of the Alemannic victory.
[8] The passage from ἔστι δὲ καὶ ὁ χρησμὸς to ἀλάπαξεν ἀρούρας is Blockley, Eunapius fr. 27.[7].
Blockley, R.C. The Fragmentary Classicising Historians of the Later Roman Empire: Eunapius, Olympiodorus, Priscus and Malchus. Vol. II. Liverpool: Francis Cairns, 1983.
Associated internet addresses:
Web address 1,
Web address 2
Keywords: biography; chronology; epic; ethics; historiography; history; law; military affairs; meter and music; philosophy; poetry; religion; women
Translated by: Abram Ring on 24 August 2004@15:56:58.
Vetted by:
Catharine Roth (minor cosmetics) on 24 August 2004@21:20:48.
David Whitehead (modified headword; added introductory note and small additions to other notes; more keywords; cosmetics) on 25 August 2004@03:23:35.
Catharine Roth (betacode cosmeticule, keyword) on 3 April 2008@11:00:23.
David Whitehead (more keywords; cosmetics; raised status) on 13 January 2013@06:19:09.
David Whitehead on 4 August 2014@03:45:54.
Aaron Baker (Edited translation; edited Blockley translation citation.) on 14 September 2014@19:00:54.
Aaron Baker (Added bracket to Blockley citation (bracket used by Blockley to indicate possibly by Eunapius).) on 28 September 2014@18:01:41.
Aaron Baker (Revised translation of final oracle and gave corresponding Blockley fragment.) on 28 September 2014@22:00:59.
Catharine Roth (expanded note, coding) on 28 November 2014@22:21:58.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 21 February 2015@23:43:59.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 25 January 2019@02:01:12.


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