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Headword: *daui/d
Adler number: delta,95
Translated headword: David
Vetting Status: high
King of Israel. When Saul was pursuing him, and after Saul had fallen into David's hands, not once but twice, and yet suffered no harm,[1] the very gentle David said to the very misanthropic Saul, "Why are you tracking me down, O king, in order to take my life? May the Lord judge between you and me and he will deliver me out of your hand. But I will not lay a hand on you,[2] just as it is said in the ancient parable, 'An offense will come forth from the lawless.'"[3] And the house of David grew stronger, but the house of Saul became weaker. Then after the foreigners were encamped against Saul, and after he had gone out to the ventriloquist and had received her oracle,[4] he eagerly[5] went to war battle and was struck in the abdomen[6] and died.[7]
This man[8] was outstanding in wars and was a careful observer of the laws and subdued all his enemies, and because of a few false steps he was distressed in life and disciplined with divine strokes. For in the sight of his own children he was all but driven from his kingdom and was made an object of laughter for his enemies. And he attended to these matters with repentance and with tears.[9]
But David was valiant and courageous like no one else. In his struggles for his subjects he was the first one to rush headlong into dangerous situations, in this way commanding his soldiers to labor and fight at their tasks, and not by giving orders as a despot would. He was competent both to consider and decide about arrangement of things about to take place and things already set in place. He was temperate, sensible, kind towards those who were in difficult circumstances, and without sin, except in the case of the wife of Uriah. And he left wealth such as no other king did, neither among the Hebrews nor among other nations.[10]
David was anointed for kingship three times.[11]
Greek Original:
*daui/d, basileu\s *)israh/l. diw/kontos au)to\n tou= *saou/l, e)mpeso/ntos de\ tou= *saou\l ei)s xei=ras tou= *dabi\d kai\ a(/pac kai\ di/s, kai\ mhde\n a)dikhqe/ntos, e)/fh *dabi\d o( prao/tatos pro\s *saou\l to\n a)panqrwpo/taton: i(/na ti/ katadiw/keis, w)= basileu=, tou= labei=n th\n yuxh/n mou; dika/sai ku/rios a)name/son e)mou= kai\ sou= kai\ e)kdikh/sei me e)k xeiro/s sou. h( de\ xei/r mou ou)k e)/stai e)pi\ se/, kaqw\s le/getai th=| a)rxai/a| parabolh=|, o(/ti e)c a)no/mwn e)celeu/setai plhmme/leia. kai\ o( me\n oi)=kos *dabi\d e)poreu/eto kai\ e)krataiou=to, o( de\ oi)=kos *saou\l e)poreu/eto kai\ h)sqe/nei. ei)=ta tw=n a)llofu/lwn kata\ *saou\l e)stratopedeuko/twn, tou= de\ pro\s th\n e)ggastri/muqon a)pelqo/ntos kai\ th\n a)po/fasin decame/nou, proqu/mws ei)sh=lqen ei)s to\n po/lemon kai\ toceuqei\s ta\ u(poxo/ndria e)teleu/thsen. ou(=tos e)n pole/mois a)/ristos h)=n kai\ tw=n no/mwn a)kribh\s fu/lac kai\ pa/ntas polemi/ous e)xeirw/sato o)li/gois te/ tisi ptai/smasi to\ sw=ma piesqei\s qei/ais e)paideu/eto ma/stici. pro\s ga\r tw=n e(autou= pai/dwn mikrou= dei=n th=s basilei/as e)ce/pese ge/lws te toi=s polemi/ois a)pedei/xqh. kai\ tau=ta metanoi/ais kai\ da/krusin e)qera/peusen. h)=n de\ o( *dabi\d e)na/retos kai\ a)ndrei=os w(s ou)k a)/llos tis, e)n de\ toi=s u(pe\r tw=n u(phko/wn a)gw=si prw=tos e)pi\ tou\s kindu/nous w(/rma, tw=| ponei=n kai\ ma/xesqai parakeleuo/menos tou\s stratiw/tas e)pi\ ta\s pra/ceis, a)ll' ou)xi\ tw=| prosta/ttein w(s despo/ths, noh=sai/ te kai\ sunidei=n peri\ ta\s tw=n mello/ntwn kai\ tw=n e)nesthko/twn oi)konomi/as i(kanw/tatos, sw/frwn, e)pieikh/s, xrhsto\s pro\s tou\s e)n sumforai=s u(pa/rxontas, mh\ e)camartw/n, ei) mh\ peri\ th\n tou= *ou)ri/ou gunai=ka. kate/lipe de\ plou=ton, o(/son ou)k a)/llos basileu\s ou)/te *(ebrai/wn ou)/te a)/llwn e)qnw=n. o(/ti o( *dabi\d ei)s basile/a tri/ton e)xri/sqh.
See also delta 94, delta 96.
[1] For the first occasion in the cave in the wilderness of Engedi, see 1 Samuel 23.29-24.22; for the second occasion in the wilderness of Ziph, see 1 Sam. 26.1-25.
[2] Lit., "my hand will not be against you."
[3] See 1 Sam. 24.12-14 (LXX 1 Kingdoms 24.12-14); many of the phrases are direct quotations.
[4] The foreigners were the Philistines. For the story of the witch of Endor, see 1 Sam. 28.3-25.
[5] cf. Josephus Antiquities of the Jews 6.344-345, 347, and note 8 below.
[6] cf. 1 Kingdoms 31.3.
[7] Up to this point the entry is taken from George the Monk, Chronicon 167.24-168.13. There are two biblical accounts of Saul's death. First, in 1 Sam. 31.1-13 (cf. 1 Chronicles 10.1-14) says that Saul was in battle but that he asked his armor-bearer to kill him so that the Philistines would not be able to abuse him. When the armor-bearer refused, Saul took his own life by falling on his own sword and the armor-bearer, after making sure that Saul was dead, did the same. When the Philistines finally found them, they stripped Saul's body and shamefully mistreated his body. Second, in 2 Sam. 1.1-16, a young Amalekite tells David that he put Saul to death at Saul's request and brought to David the royal bracelet and crown. Josephus, Antiquities of the Jews 6.370-372, combines the two accounts. The second account is repeated in Josephus, Antiquities of the Jews 7.1-6.
[8] i.e. David.
[9] John of Antioch fr. 18 FHG (4.549), now 33 Roberto. Perhaps the repentance and tears are a reference to Saul's reaction at his encounters with David after David had spared him twice; cf. 1 Sam. 24.16-19 and 26.21-25.
[10] Josephus, Antiquities of the Jews 7.390-391.
[11] For the three occasions see 1 Sam. 16.13; 2 Sam. 2.4; 5.3. This sentence is a marginal addition in some manuscripts of the Suda.
Keywords: biography; children; Christianity; economics; ethics; gender and sexuality; geography; historiography; history; law; military affairs; proverbs; religion; women
Translated by: Lee Fields on 17 May 2001@15:21:57.
Vetted by:
Catharine Roth (modified translation and notes; added keywords) on 14 October 2002@20:23:15.
David Whitehead (added note; cosmetics) on 17 October 2002@04:14:13.
David Whitehead (added x-ref) on 27 May 2003@10:11:15.
David Whitehead (another keyword) on 6 October 2005@09:05:36.
David Whitehead (another keyword) on 4 December 2005@08:52:55.
David Whitehead (more keywords; cosmetics) on 15 June 2012@12:24:23.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 7 November 2014@02:01:36.
David Whitehead (updated a ref) on 29 January 2015@07:50:42.
David Whitehead (coding) on 7 October 2015@03:28:57.


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