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Headword: *dialektikh/
Adler number: delta,627
Translated headword: dialectic
Vetting Status: high
[Meaning] the demonstrative [art].[1]
"[He] having grasped little of dialectic."[2]
Dialectic is knowledge of true things and of false things and of things which are neither [true nor false]. It is about signifiers and things signified.[3] Or in this way: a syllogistic method through opinions concerning all that is put forward. It is called dialectic from conversing [dialegesthai]; and conversing [consists] in both asking questions and answering.[4]
Dialektos: look under 'language' [glotta];[5] and look under 'exercise [gymnasia].[6] Dialectic differs from rhetoric. Look also under 'discursive reasonings' [diexodikous].[7]
A Dialogue is an argument composed out of questioning and answering about some one thing discussed by the philosophers, or some one thing discussed by the politicians, about appropriate sketching [of] characters from adopted perspectives, and about a style of speaking. Dialectic is a skill of words, through which we refute and construct arguments by questioning and answering those conversing. There are two characters of Platonic argument, the ones below:[8]
One that guides and one that enquires. The one that guides divides into theoretical and practical. The theoretical [kind divides] into the natural world and the logical. The practical [kind divides] into the ethical and the political. And there are 2 characters of arguments the enquiring [kind]: training and competitive. And of the competitive: demonstrative and refutative. Some divide them otherwise: into dramatic, narrative, mixed. But these people divide more like a tragedian than a philosopher. An argument that is not a dialogue is called an argument narrated in the first person.[9]
Greek Original:
*dialektikh/: h( a)podeiktikh/. o)li/ga dialektikh=s a(ya/menos. *dialektikh/ e)stin e)pisth/mh a)lhqw=n kai\ yeudw=n kai\ ou)dete/rwn. tugxa/nei d' au)th\ e)pi\ shmai/nonta kai\ shmaino/mena. h)\ ou(/tws, me/qodos di' e)ndo/cwn peri\ panto\s tou= prokeime/nou sullogistikh/. kalei=tai de\ dialektikh\ a)po\ tou= diale/gesqai: to\ de\ diale/gesqai e)n e)rwth/sei te kai\ a)pokri/sei. *dia/lektos: zh/tei e)n tw=| glw=tta: kai\ zh/tei e)n tw=| gumnasi/a. o(/ti diafe/rei h( dialektikh\ th=s r(htorikh=s. kai\ zh/tei e)n tw=| diecodikou/s. o(/ti *dia/logos lo/gos e)c e)rwth/sews kai\ a)pokri/sews sugkei/menos, peri/ tinos tw=n filosofoume/nwn kai\ politikw=n meta\ th=s prepou/shs h)qopoii/+as tw=n paralambanome/nwn prosw/pwn kai\ th=s kata\ th\n le/cin kataskeuh=s. dialektikh\ de/ e)sti te/xnh lo/gwn, di' h(=s a)naskeua/zome/n ti h)\ kataskeua/zomen e)c e)rwth/sews kai\ a)pokri/sews tw=n prosdialegome/nwn. tou= dh\ lo/gou tou= *pla/twnos du/o ei)si\ xarakth=res, oi( a)nwta/tw. o( u(fhghtiko\s kai\ o( zhthtiko/s. diairei=tai de\ o( u(fhghtiko\s ei)s qewrhmatiko\n kai\ praktiko/n. kai\ o( qewrhmatiko\s de\ o( de\ praktiko\s ei)s to\ fusiko\n kai\ logiko/n. ei)s to\ h)qiko\n kai\ politiko/n. o(/ti kai\ tou= zhthtikou= b# ei)si\ xarakth=res. gumnastiko\s kai\ a)gwnistiko/s. kai\ tou= a)gwnistikou= e)ndeiktiko\s kai\ a)natreptiko/s. oi( de\ a)/llws diairou=sin: ei)s dramatiko\n dihghmatiko\n mikto/n. a)ll' ou(=toi tragikw=s ma=llon h)\ filoso/fws diairou=sin. o( de\ mh\ w)\n dia/logos au)todih/ghtos le/getai lo/gos.
[1] Likewise in ps.-Zonaras (who omits the ensuing quotation -- see next note -- and proceeds without a break to the Suda's third paragraph).
[2] Damascius, Life of Isidore fr. 356 Zintzen (223 Asmus); cf. alpha 278, epsilon 1929.
[3] cf. Diogenes Laertius 7.42-43. This definition of dialectic (in its shorter version “the knowledge of what is true and false”: Cicero, Academica 2.91) is frequently ascribed to the Stoic Posidonius (Diogenes Laertius 7.62). The distinction between “signifiers” (or "utterances"; see Diogenes Laertius 7.43) and “things signified” (or "sayables"; lekta) belongs to Chrysippus (Diogenes Laertius 7.62). On this issue see Long 1978: especially 103-105; and for the Stoic notion of lekton, Frede 1994.
[4] Alexander of Aphrodiasias, Commentaries on Aristotle's Topica 3.5-9.
[5] gamma 302.
[6] gamma 479.
[7] delta 930.
[8] Here Adler prints, from the mss, a diagrammatic scheme of what follows (as far as 'mixed').
[9] Diogenes Laertius 3.48-50.
Frede, M., “The Stoic Notion of a lekton”, in S. Everson (ed.) Language. Companions to Ancient Thought 3, Cambridge 1994, pp. 109-128
Long, A.A. “Dialectic and the Stoic Sage”, in J. Rist (ed.), The Stoics, Berkeley-Los Angeles-London 1978, 101-124 (reprinted in A.A. Long, Stoic Studies, Cambridge 1996, pp. 85-106
Keywords: biography; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; ethics; philosophy; politics; rhetoric
Translated by: Rachel Price on 2 May 2002@05:55:27.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (modified translation; added notes and keywords; cosmetics) on 2 May 2002@08:26:16.
Marcelo Boeri (Modified translation; expanded note; added bibliography.) on 20 August 2002@11:43:16.
David Whitehead (another keyword; cosmetics) on 20 November 2005@09:28:10.
Catharine Roth (adjusted note numbers) on 24 December 2005@18:22:48.
David Whitehead (another note and keyword; tweaks and cosmetics throughout) on 29 June 2012@05:55:30.
David Whitehead (another note; coding and other cosmetics) on 24 October 2015@08:31:18.
Catharine Roth (cosmetics) on 22 July 2016@20:24:53.


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