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Headword: Δημοσθένης
Adler number: delta,456
Translated headword: Demosthenes
Vetting Status: high
A knife-maker, of the [sc. Athenian] deme Paeania; Demosthenes the rhetor was his son.[1] When he was orphaned he had 3 guardians, Aphobus, Demophon and Therippides; they neglected him and his property, so he put himself into the hands of Isaeus as his teacher. He was so dedicated to work that they say he shut himself in house and shaved part of his head, to stop himself going out or receiving visitors. When he had finished his education, he brought a successful guardianship action against his guardians. He wanted to be a sophist, but gave this up because he was slandered in connection with Moschus, a young man of good family. He began to act as a speech-writer, but was again slandered as having disclosed the opposing speeches to Apollodorus and Phormio. So he gave this up as well, and entered politics. He had a speech impediment, and moved his shoulder in an undignified way; his hearing was weak, and his breath inadequate. He corrected all these faults by practice. Because he was not good at delivery he was coached in this as well by Andronicus. He served as khoregos and trierarch, ransomed prisoners and helped people provide for their daughters' marriage. When he was serving as khoregos he was struck by Meidias, but (they say) took a 3000 drachma bribe to drop the case. He brought a case for wounding against his cousin Demaenetus, and (they say) agreed to a reconciliation. He proposed to the wife of the general Chabrias after Chabrias' death, and married the daughter of Ctesippus. In politics he opposed Philip. When Philip attacked Thebes, he successfully argued for an alliance; they were defeated at Chaeronea, losing 1000 dead and 2000 captured. He had a much-loved daughter, and was grieved by her death; but when the sorrow was a week old, news came that Philip had been killed by Pausanias, and he changed his clothes and sacrificed to the gods. He was also opposed politically to Alexander, Philip's son. When Harpalus stole a large sum of money from Alexander and took refuge in Athens, Demosthenes was thought to have received a share; he went into exile in Troezen. After Alexander's death in Babylon, Demosthenes was recalled and returned home. Antipater, as ruler of Greece, sent to demand the surrender of the ten orators;[2] the Athenians agreed to their surrender, and Demosthenes went into exile in Sicily. The actor Archias, sent against him by Antipater, dragged him from the temple of Poseidon, which was an asylum; but he had poison under the seal on his ring, and died with a groan.[3]
Greek Original:
Δημοσθένης, μαχαιροποιός, Παιανιεύς, οὗ Δημοσθένης ὁ ῥήτωρ, ὃς ὀρφανὸς καταλειφθεὶς ἐπιτρόπους ἔσχε γ#, Ἄφοβον, Δημοφῶντα, Θηριππίδην. ὧν ἀμελούντων αὐτοῦ καὶ τῆς οὐσίας, αὐτὸς αὑτὸν ἐνεχείρισε διδασκάλῳ Ἰσαίῳ. φιλόπονος δὲ οὕτως ἦν, ὥστε φασὶν ἑαυτὸν οἴκοι καθείρξαντα ἑαυτοῦ ξυρῆσαι τῆς κεφαλῆς μέρος, ἵνα μήτε προί̈οι μήτε δέχοιτό τινα. παιδευθεὶς δὲ εἷλε τῆς ἐπιτροπῆς τοὺς ἐπιτρόπους. σοφιστεύειν βουληθεὶς ἀπέστη διαβληθεὶς ἐπὶ Μόσχῳ μειρακίῳ τῶν εὐγενῶν. λογογραφεῖν δὲ ἀρξάμενος διεβλήθη πάλιν, ὡς ἐναντίους λόγους ἐκδοὺς Ἀπολλοδώρῳ καὶ Φορμίωνι. καὶ τούτου οὖν ἀποστὰς ἤρξατο πολιτεύεσθαι. τραυλὸς δὲ ὢν καὶ τὸν ὦμον ἀπρεπῶς ἐκίνει, καὶ τὴν ἀκοὴν ἀσθενὴς καὶ τὸ πνεῦμα οὐ διαρκής: ἅπερ ἀσκήσει διωρθώσατο. τήν τε ὑπόκρισιν οὐκ ὢν ἄκρος ὑπ' Ἀνδρονίκῳ καὶ ταύτην ἐξήσκησεν. ἐχορήγησε δὲ καὶ ἐτριηράρχησε καὶ αἰχμαλώτους ἐλύσατο καὶ θυγατέρας συνεξέδωκεν. ὅτε δὲ ἐχορήγει, τυπτηθεὶς ὑπὸ Μειδίου τρισχιλίαις, ὥς φασιν, ἐπείσθη. καὶ Δημαίνετον ἀνεψιὸν γραψάμενος τραύματος, ὥς φασιν, διελύσατο. αἰτησάμενος δὲ Χαβρίου τοῦ στρατηγοῦ γυναῖκα, Χαβρίου τελευτήσαντος, Κτησίππου θυγατέρα ἔγημεν. ἐπολιτεύσατο δὲ κατὰ Φίλιππον: οὗ Θηβαίοις ἐπιόντος, πείθει συμ- μαχῆσαι: καὶ κατὰ Χαιρώνειαν ἡττῶνται, χιλίων ἀποθανόντων καὶ δισχιλίων αἰχμαλώτων. ἀγαπητὴν δὲ σχὼν θυγατέρα τελευτήσασαν ἐπένθει, καὶ ἑβδομαίου τοῦ πάθους ὄντος, ἀγγελθέντος ἀνῃρῆσθαι Φίλιππον ὑπὸ Παυσανίου, μετημφιάσατο καὶ τοῖς θεοῖς ἔθυσεν. ἐπολιτεύσατο δὲ καὶ κατὰ Ἀλεξάνδρου τοῦ Φιλίππου. οὗ Ἅρπαλος πολλὰ νοσφισάμενος χρήματα ὡς Ἀθηναίους κατέφυγεν: ὧν καὶ Δημοσθένης εἰληφέναι μέρος ἔδοξε. καὶ ἔφυγεν εἰς Τροιζῆνα. Ἀλεξάνδρου δὲ ἐν Βαβυλῶνι τελευτήσαντος, ὁ Δημοσθένης κατῆλθε κληθείς. Ἀντίπατρος δὲ ἄρξας τῶν Ἑλλήνων, πέμψας ἐξαιτεῖ τοὺς δέκα ῥήτορας. ἐκδόντων Ἀθηναίων, ὁ Δημοσθένης εἰς Σικελίαν ἔφυγεν. Ἀρχίας δὲ ὁ ὑποκριτὴς ἀποσταλεὶς ἐπ' αὐτὸν ὑπ' Ἀντιπάτρου βίᾳ ἀποσπᾷ ἀπὸ τοῦ ἱεροῦ Ποσειδῶνος, ὃ ἦν ἄσυλον. ὁ δὲ ὑπὸ τῇ σφραγῖδι φάρμακον ἔχων, μυζήσας ἀπέθανεν.
[1] [delta 454 + delta 455] Demosthenes. Everything after this introductory sentence is in fact concerned with the son.
[2] cf. alpha 2704.
[3] cf. mu 1382.
Keywords: biography; children; economics; ethics; gender and sexuality; geography; history; law; medicine; military affairs; politics; religion; rhetoric; trade and manufacture; women
Translated by: Malcolm Heath on 28 June 2000@13:57:10.
Vetted by:
Malcolm Heath on 28 June 2000@13:59:46.
David Whitehead (augmented notes; added keywords; cosmetics) on 26 March 2001@03:55:02.
David Whitehead (cosmetics) on 9 February 2003@10:09:51.
David Whitehead (more keywords) on 9 October 2005@06:39:37.
David Whitehead (more keywords; cosmetics) on 26 June 2012@08:22:23.


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