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Headword: *dhmosqe/nhs
Adler number: delta,456
Translated headword: Demosthenes
Vetting Status: high
A knife-maker, of the [sc. Athenian] deme Paeania; Demosthenes the rhetor was his son.[1] When he was orphaned he had 3 guardians, Aphobus, Demophon and Therippides; they neglected him and his property, so he put himself into the hands of Isaeus as his teacher. He was so dedicated to work that they say he shut himself in house and shaved part of his head, to stop himself going out or receiving visitors. When he had finished his education, he brought a successful guardianship action against his guardians. He wanted to be a sophist, but gave this up because he was slandered in connection with Moschus, a young man of good family. He began to act as a speech-writer, but was again slandered as having disclosed the opposing speeches to Apollodorus and Phormio. So he gave this up as well, and entered politics. He had a speech impediment, and moved his shoulder in an undignified way; his hearing was weak, and his breath inadequate. He corrected all these faults by practice. Because he was not good at delivery he was coached in this as well by Andronicus. He served as khoregos and trierarch, ransomed prisoners and helped people provide for their daughters' marriage. When he was serving as khoregos he was struck by Meidias, but (they say) took a 3000 drachma bribe to drop the case. He brought a case for wounding against his cousin Demaenetus, and (they say) agreed to a reconciliation. He proposed to the wife of the general Chabrias after Chabrias' death, and married the daughter of Ctesippus. In politics he opposed Philip. When Philip attacked Thebes, he successfully argued for an alliance; they were defeated at Chaeronea, losing 1000 dead and 2000 captured. He had a much-loved daughter, and was grieved by her death; but when the sorrow was a week old, news came that Philip had been killed by Pausanias, and he changed his clothes and sacrificed to the gods. He was also opposed politically to Alexander, Philip's son. When Harpalus stole a large sum of money from Alexander and took refuge in Athens, Demosthenes was thought to have received a share; he went into exile in Troezen. After Alexander's death in Babylon, Demosthenes was recalled and returned home. Antipater, as ruler of Greece, sent to demand the surrender of the ten orators;[2] the Athenians agreed to their surrender, and Demosthenes went into exile in Sicily. The actor Archias, sent against him by Antipater, dragged him from the temple of Poseidon, which was an asylum; but he had poison under the seal on his ring, and he sucked on it and died.[3]
Greek Original:
*dhmosqe/nhs, maxairopoio/s, *paianieu/s, ou(= *dhmosqe/nhs o( r(h/twr, o(\s o)rfano\s kataleifqei\s e)pitro/pous e)/sxe g#, *)/afobon, *dhmofw=nta, *qhrippi/dhn. w(=n a)melou/ntwn au)tou= kai\ th=s ou)si/as, au)to\s au(to\n e)nexei/rise didaska/lw| *)isai/w|. filo/ponos de\ ou(/tws h)=n, w(/ste fasi\n e(auto\n oi)/koi kaqei/rcanta e(autou= curh=sai th=s kefalh=s me/ros, i(/na mh/te proi/+oi mh/te de/xoito/ tina. paideuqei\s de\ ei(=le th=s e)pitroph=s tou\s e)pitro/pous. sofisteu/ein boulhqei\s a)pe/sth diablhqei\s e)pi\ *mo/sxw| meiraki/w| tw=n eu)genw=n. logografei=n de\ a)rca/menos dieblh/qh pa/lin, w(s e)nanti/ous lo/gous e)kdou\s *)apollodw/rw| kai\ *formi/wni. kai\ tou/tou ou)=n a)posta\s h)/rcato politeu/esqai. traulo\s de\ w)\n kai\ to\n w)=mon a)prepw=s e)ki/nei, kai\ th\n a)koh\n a)sqenh\s kai\ to\ pneu=ma ou) diarkh/s: a(/per a)skh/sei diwrqw/sato. th/n te u(po/krisin ou)k w)\n a)/kros u(p' *)androni/kw| kai\ tau/thn e)ch/skhsen. e)xorh/ghse de\ kai\ e)trihra/rxhse kai\ ai)xmalw/tous e)lu/sato kai\ qugate/ras sunece/dwken. o(/te de\ e)xorh/gei, tupthqei\s u(po\ *meidi/ou trisxili/ais, w(/s fasin, e)pei/sqh. kai\ *dhmai/neton a)neyio\n graya/menos trau/matos, w(/s fasin, dielu/sato. ai)thsa/menos de\ *xabri/ou tou= strathgou= gunai=ka, *xabri/ou teleuth/santos, *kthsi/ppou qugate/ra e)/ghmen. e)politeu/sato de\ kata\ *fi/lippon: ou(= *qhbai/ois e)pio/ntos, pei/qei sum- maxh=sai: kai\ kata\ *xairw/neian h(ttw=ntai, xili/wn a)poqano/ntwn kai\ disxili/wn ai)xmalw/twn. a)gaphth\n de\ sxw\n qugate/ra teleuth/sasan e)pe/nqei, kai\ e(bdomai/ou tou= pa/qous o)/ntos, a)ggelqe/ntos a)nh|rh=sqai *fi/lippon u(po\ *pausani/ou, methmfia/sato kai\ toi=s qeoi=s e)/qusen. e)politeu/sato de\ kai\ kata\ *)aleca/ndrou tou= *fili/ppou. ou(= *(/arpalos polla\ nosfisa/menos xrh/mata w(s *)aqhnai/ous kate/fugen: w(=n kai\ *dhmosqe/nhs ei)lhfe/nai me/ros e)/doce. kai\ e)/fugen ei)s *troizh=na. *)aleca/ndrou de\ e)n *babulw=ni teleuth/santos, o( *dhmosqe/nhs kath=lqe klhqei/s. *)anti/patros de\ a)/rcas tw=n *(ellh/nwn, pe/myas e)caitei= tou\s de/ka r(h/toras. e)kdo/ntwn *)aqhnai/wn, o( *dhmosqe/nhs ei)s *sikeli/an e)/fugen. *)arxi/as de\ o( u(pokrith\s a)postalei\s e)p' au)to\n u(p' *)antipa/trou bi/a| a)pospa=| a)po\ tou= i(erou= *poseidw=nos, o(\ h)=n a)/sulon. o( de\ u(po\ th=| sfragi=di fa/rmakon e)/xwn, muzh/sas a)pe/qanen.
[1] [delta 454 + delta 455] Demosthenes. Everything after this introductory sentence is in fact concerned with the son.
[2] cf. alpha 2704.
[3] cf. mu 1382.
Keywords: biography; children; economics; ethics; gender and sexuality; geography; history; law; medicine; military affairs; politics; religion; rhetoric; trade and manufacture; women
Translated by: Malcolm Heath on 28 June 2000@13:57:10.
Vetted by:
Malcolm Heath on 28 June 2000@13:59:46.
David Whitehead (augmented notes; added keywords; cosmetics) on 26 March 2001@03:55:02.
David Whitehead (cosmetics) on 9 February 2003@10:09:51.
David Whitehead (more keywords) on 9 October 2005@06:39:37.
David Whitehead (more keywords; cosmetics) on 26 June 2012@08:22:23.
Catharine Roth (tweaked translation) on 27 September 2020@02:00:30.


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