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Headword: *xrh/
Adler number: chi,471
Translated headword: it is necessary
Vetting Status: high
[When] oxytone [it means the same as] dei=, but "it may be necessary" [xrh=|], the subjunctive, is perispomenon;[1] it means [the same as] de/h|. Eupolis in Goats [writes]: "I will pay the wage, whatever it should have to be."[2] But xrh=n with the nu is past and perispomenon, [meaning] it was necessary.[3] They sometimes say xrh/stai as well, meaning it is necessary. Pherecrates in Humbugs [writes]: "he said my name, why is it necessary that you call."[4] Aristophanes in Lemnian Woman [writes]: "do you indeed have heartburn? So how is it necessary to act?"[5] But xrh=|s [means] you may need, and [sc. so does] de/h|.[6] Cratinus in Laws [writes]: "for now indeed the laws of our men are at your service to do what ever is necessary."[7] And xrei/h ("it might be necessary") [means the same as] de/oi.[8] Plato in Euthyphro [writes]: "[he sent a man] to find out from the religious advisor what it might be necessary to do."[9]
Greek Original:
*xrh/: o)cuto/nws dei=: xrh=| de\ perispwme/nws, to\ u(potaktiko/n, shmai/nei to\ de/h|. *eu)/polis *ai)ci/n: e)gw\ telw= to\n misqo/n, o(/n tin' a)\n xrh=|. xrh=n de\ su\n tw=| n kai\ perispwme/nws to\ parelhluqo/s, to\ e)/dei. le/gousi de/ pote kai\ xrh/stai, a)nti\ tou= dei=. *ferekra/ths *lh/rois: to\ d' o)/noma/ moi ka/teipe, ti/ se xrh=stai kalei=n. *)aristofa/nhs *lhmni/ais: h( kardi/w te ti/s; a)lla\ pw=s xrh=stai poiei=n; xrh=|s de\ to\ xrh/|zeis, kai\ de/h|. *krati=nos *no/mois: nu=n ga\r dh/ soi pa/ra me\n qesmoi\ tw=n h(mete/rwn, pa/ra d' a)/ll' o(/ ti xrh=stai. xrei/h de\ to\ de/oi. *pla/twn *eu)qu/froni: peuso/menoi tou= e)chghtou= ti/ xrei/h poiei=n.
[1] See the A scholia to Homer, Iliad 1.216 (web address 1), where the form xrh/ appears; see also Etymologicum Magnum 814.50.
[2] Eupolis fr. 4 Kock, now 11 K.-A.
[3] See chi 493 and chi 494.
[4] Pherecrates fr. 103 Kock, now 108 K.-A.
[5] Aristophanes fr. 362 Kock (now 377 K.-A.); Dobree reads h)\ kardiw/tteis for the nonsensical h( kardi/w te ti/s.
[6] xrh=|s is the second person singular, present active subjunctive, of xra/w; de/h| here is the second person singular, present middle subjunctive, of de/w ("I lack; I need").
[7] Cratinus fr. 127 Kock, now 134 K.-A.
[8] The third person singular, present optative active. See chi 467.
[9] Plato, Euthyphro 4C, where peuso/menon becomes the Suda's peuso/menoi: see web address 2 below.
Associated internet addresses:
Web address 1,
Web address 2
Keywords: comedy; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; epic; law; medicine; philosophy; religion
Translated by: Jennifer Benedict on 4 April 2008@04:36:22.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (tweaks and cosmetics) on 4 April 2008@05:03:42.
David Whitehead on 13 November 2013@04:59:03.
David Whitehead on 22 December 2014@07:58:49.
David Whitehead on 23 December 2014@04:19:08.
David Whitehead on 23 December 2014@08:16:23.
David Whitehead on 24 December 2014@11:08:35.


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