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Headword: Ἀγαθόν
Adler number: alpha,119
Translated headword: good
Vetting Status: high
The word has multiple meanings. Predicated of the good are the 10 genera, that is to say the 10 categories.[1] To produce, since some goods are understood as productive. For what is productive of the good is said to be good, such as what is productive of health, or pleasure and, in general, what is beneficial. Certainly, the good in food, insofar as it is productive of a good, is a good. And the productive is in the category of quality; indeed quality sometimes exists in the soul, for when we predicate of the soul the good and say that it is good, we are signifing that the soul has a certain quality. For instance, that it is temperate, brave, just. And the qualifications are the presence of quality. So also in the case of a human being. For when we predicate of man the good, we are signifying the fact that he has a certain quality; for example, that he is temperate, brave, just, prudent. Sometimes the good signifies "when"; for that which happens at the appropriate time is said to be good. And the good also signifies quantity, for that which is moderate, neither exceeding nor falling short, will be a quantity, insofar as it is said to be something of such a magnitude. And qua substance, what [is] the good? [Something] like a god, intellect. And the good also is said to be something relative, for "that which is in measure" is good in this way. And there is good in "being affected", such as receiving a medical treatment or being taught; and there is also some good in the domain of the "where", such as "to be in Greece", "to be in wholesame regions", "to be in calm or in peace". And there would be also a good in "being in a certain position"; for instance, when it is useful for someone to be seated, he sits, and when it is useful for someone to be lying down, he lies down: for the person who has a fever, for the sake of argument.
Greek Original:
Ἀγαθόν: ὁμώνυμός ἐστι φωνή. κατηγορεῖται δὲ τὰ ι# γένη τοῦ ἀγαθοῦ, τουτέστιν αἱ ι# κατηγορίαι. καὶ τὸ μὲν ποιεῖν, ἐπεί ἐστί τινα ἀγαθὰ ὡς ποιητικά, λέγεται γὰρ τὸ ἀγαθοῦ ποιητικὸν ἀγαθόν, οἷον τὸ ὑγιείας ποιητικὸν ἢ ἡδονῆς καὶ ὅλως ὠφέλιμον, τὸ γὰρ ἐν τῷ ἐδέσματι ἀγαθὸν ὡς ποιητικὸν ἀγαθοῦ ἀγαθόν: τὸ δὲ ποιητικὸν ὑπὸ τὴν τοῦ ποιοῦ κατηγορίαν. ποτὲ δὲ τὸ ποιὸν ἐπὶ ψυχῆς: ὅταν γὰρ κατηγορήσωμεν τὸ ἀγαθὸν ψυχῆς λέγοντες αὐτὴν ἀγαθὴν, τὸ ποιὰν αὐτὴν εἶναι σημαίνομεν, οἷον σώφρονα ἢ ἀνδρείαν ἢ δικαίαν: ποιότητος δὲ παρουσία τὰ ποιά. ὁμοίως καὶ ἀνθρώπου: ὅταν γὰρ τὸ ἀγαθὸν κατηγορήσωμεν, τὸ ποιὸν αὐτὸν εἶναι σημαίνομεν: οἷον σώφρονα, ἀνδρεῖον, δίκαιον, φρόνιμον. ἐνίοτε δὲ τὸ ἀγαθὸν τὸ ποτὲ σημαίνει: τὸ γὰρ ἐν τῷ προσήκοντι καιρῷ γενόμενον ἀγαθὸν λέγεται. σημαίνει δὲ ἀγαθὸν καὶ τὸ ποσόν: τὸ γὰρ μέτριον καὶ μὴ ὑπερβάλλον μήτε ἐνδέον εἴη ἂν ποσὸν, καθόσον τοσοῦτόν τι λέγεται. καὶ ὡς οὐσία τὶ ἀγαθόν: ὡς θεὸς, νοῦς. λέγεται δὲ καὶ ὡς πρός τι: τὸ γὰρ σύμμετρον οὕτως ἀγαθόν. καὶ ἐν τῷ πάσχειν, ὡς τὸ θεραπεύεσθαι καὶ διδάσκεσθαι. ἔστι τι τοῦ ἀγαθοῦ καὶ ἐν τῷ ποῦ, οἷον τὸ ἐν Ἑλλάδι εἶναι, τὸ ἐν ὑγιεινοῖς χωρίοις εἶναι, τὸ ἐν ἡσυχίαν ἔχουσιν ἢ εἰρήνην. εἴη δ' ἂν καὶ ἐν τῷ κεῖσθαι, ὅταν ᾧ μὲν λυσιτελὲς τὸ καθέζεσθαι, καθέζηται, ᾧ δὲ τὸ ἀνακεῖσθαι, ἀνάκειται: τῷ πυρέττοντι φέρε εἰπεῖν.
See already alpha 118, also a neuter singular.
After the two short opening sentences, the entry draws on Alexander of Aphrodisias, Commentary on Aristotle's Topics 105.25-106.14 Wallies (on Topica 107a3ff).
[1] See Aristotle, Categories 1b25-2a10.
Keywords: definition; ethics; medicine; philosophy
Translated by: Marcelo Boeri on 24 May 2000@16:46:08.
Vetted by:
William Hutton (Modified translation, added keyword, set status) on 8 June 2001@11:39:09.
Catharine Roth (cosmetics, reference) on 25 April 2002@13:43:53.
David Whitehead (added note; cosmetics) on 16 January 2003@05:54:20.
David Whitehead (another keyword) on 12 October 2005@08:00:58.
David Whitehead (tweaks) on 22 December 2011@06:49:37.
David Whitehead on 22 December 2011@06:50:01.


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