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Headword: Ἀθηναίας
Adler number: alpha,729
Translated headword: Athenaiai, Athenaeae, Athenian women
Vetting Status: high
Metakleides in his books about Homer said the women were not called [Athenaiai] but Attikai, and he also gives the reason: "for the men alone there," he says, "they call Athenaioi, but women Attikai, so that the married women might not bring shame upon the unmarried one by this name."[1] But notice that Pherekrates in Old Women says: "to the Athenaiai themselves and to their allies".[2] And Kantharos in Tereus [writes]: "an Athenaia woman, both beautiful and good".[3] And Philemon in Wing [writes]: "I say these Hipponikas and Lysistratas and Nausinikas are the Athenaiai".[4] But others, maintaining it is necessary not to say Athenaiai but Attikai, say it is because of the homonymity which they adduce with respect to the goddess; for the goddess is also called Athenaia; but instead of 'Athenas',[5] they say that [the women] are called Attikai. However, there was much use of the phrase when referring to the women among the ancients, as the aforementioned poets bear witness and also Diphilos in Amastris.[6] For he says that even the daughter of Themistocles was a "foreign Athenaia";[7] and [likewise?] Pindar in (?)scholia.[8] However, Phrynichus maintains that this word is un-Attic and wonders how Pherekrates, being so very Attic, uses this expression.[9]
Greek Original:
Ἀθηναίας: ὁ Μετακλείδης οὔ φησι καλεῖσθαι τὰς γυναῖκας ἀλλ' Ἀττικὰς ἐν τοῖς περὶ Ὁμήρου, ἅμα καὶ τὴν αἰτίαν ἀποδιδούς: μόνους γάρ, φησι, τοὺς ἐκεῖθεν ἄνδρας μὲν Ἀθηναίους ὀνομάζουσι, γυναῖκας δὲ Ἀττικάς, ἵνα μὴ τὴν ἄγαμον αἱ γαμούμεναι τῇ προσηγορίᾳ καταισχύνωσιν. ἀλλὰ ἰδοὺ Φερεκράτης ἐν Γραυσί φησιν: Ἀθη- ναίαις αὐταῖς τε καὶ ταῖς συμμάχοις. καὶ Κάνθαρος Τηρεῖ: γυναῖκα Ἀθηναίαν καλήν τε καὶ ἀγαθήν. καὶ Φιλήμων Πτέρυγι: τὰς Ἱππονίκας τάσδε καὶ Λυσιστράτας καὶ Ναυσινίκας τὰς Ἀθηναίας λέγω. οἱ δὲ μὴ δεῖν φάσκοντες Ἀθηναίας λέγεσθαι τὰς Ἀττικὰς καὶ τὴν ὁμωνυμίαν αἰτιῶνται, ἣν ἐπιδέχονται πρὸς τὴν θεόν: Ἀθηναία γὰρ καὶ ἡ θεὸς καλεῖται: ἀλλ' ἀντὶ τοῦ Ἀθηναίας αὐτάς φασι λέγεσθαι καὶ Ἀττικάς. πλὴν πολλή γε ἡ χρῆσις τῆς φωνῆς ἐπὶ τῶν γυναικῶν παρὰ τοῖς ἀρχαίοις, ὡς οἵ τε προειρημένοι ποιηταὶ μαρτυροῦσι καὶ Δίφιλος ἐν Ἀμάστριδι. καὶ γὰρ καὶ τὴν Θεμιστοκλέους θυγατέρα Ἀθηναίαν ξένην φησίν: καὶ Πίνδαρος ἐν σχολίοις. ὁ μέντοι Φρύνιχος ἀνάττικόν φησιν εἶναι τὴν φωνὴν [καὶ] θαυμάζει, πῶς ὁ Φερεκράτης ἀττικώτατος ὢν χρῆται τῇ λέξει.
Same entry in Photius. The headword is accusative plural, implicitly or explicitly part of the material which immediately follows it. For the topic see already, in brief, alpha 728.
[1] Metakleides [cross-referenced at mu 696; elsewhere, though, the name is sometimes Megakleides] FHG 4.443.
[2] Pherekrates fr. 34 Kock, now 39 K.-A.
[3] Cantharus fr. 5 Kock (and K.-A).
[4] Philemon fr. 66 Kock, now 69 K.-A.
[5] That is, if the women of Athens were called Ἀθηναῖαι , their name would be the same as the plural of the name of the goddess, Ἀθηναῖα .
[6] Diphilus fr. 10 Kock (and K.-A.).
[7] Here Photius' entry is carelessly abbreviated. Read: 'and Ion says that...': FGrH 392 F11. (For Themistocles see generally theta 124, theta 125, theta 126. He had several daughters; the one in question here is perhaps Italia.)
[8] Adler accepts this word, σχολίοις , from Photius, but Theodoridis in his Photius edition obelizes it. Perhaps, rather, skolia (drinking songs).
[9] Phrynichus, Praeparatio sophistica fr. 8.
Keywords: biography; comedy; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; ethics; gender and sexuality; historiography; poetry; religion; women
Translated by: Jennifer Benedict on 5 November 2000@21:03:11.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (modified translation and keywords; cosmetics) on 6 November 2000@03:43:34.
William Hutton (Modified translation, added note and keywords) on 2 February 2001@23:37:25.
David Whitehead (x-ref; restorative cosmetics) on 8 December 2003@05:02:04.
David Whitehead (augmented notes and keywords; tweaks and cosmetics) on 19 January 2012@10:23:07.
David Whitehead (tweaked notes) on 28 March 2014@10:29:49.
David Whitehead on 23 December 2014@03:29:21.
David Whitehead on 23 December 2014@07:15:01.
David Whitehead on 24 December 2014@10:37:08.
David Whitehead on 1 January 2015@07:46:26.
Catharine Roth (cosmetics) on 22 January 2015@23:03:10.


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