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Headword: Ἀθηναίας
Adler number: alpha,729
Translated headword: Athenaiai, Athenaeae, Athenian women
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
Metakleides in his books about Homer said the women were not called [Athenaiai] but Attikai, and he also gives the reason: "for the men alone there," he says, "they call Athenaioi, but women Attikai, so that the married women might not bring shame upon the unmarried one by this name."[1] But notice that Pherekrates in Old Women says: "to the Athenaiai themselves and to their allies".[2] And Kantharos in Tereus [writes]: "an Athenaia woman, both beautiful and good".[3] And Philemon in Wing [writes]: "I say these Hipponikas and Lysistratas and Nausinikas are the Athenaiai".[4] But others, maintaining it is necessary not to say Athenaiai but Attikai, say it is because of the homonymity which they adduce with respect to the goddess; for the goddess is also called Athenaia; but instead of 'Athenas',[5] they say that [the women] are called Attikai. However, there was much use of the phrase when referring to the women among the ancients, as the aforementioned poets bear witness and also Diphilos in Amastris.[6] For he says that even the daughter of Themistocles was a "foreign Athenaia";[7] and [likewise?] Pindar in (?)scholia.[8] However, Phrynichus maintains that this word is un-Attic and wonders how Pherekrates, being so very Attic, uses this expression.[9]
Greek Original:
Ἀθηναίας: ὁ Μετακλείδης οὔ φησι καλεῖσθαι τὰς γυναῖκας ἀλλ' Ἀττικὰς ἐν τοῖς περὶ Ὁμήρου, ἅμα καὶ τὴν αἰτίαν ἀποδιδούς: μόνους γάρ, φησι, τοὺς ἐκεῖθεν ἄνδρας μὲν Ἀθηναίους ὀνομάζουσι, γυναῖκας δὲ Ἀττικάς, ἵνα μὴ τὴν ἄγαμον αἱ γαμούμεναι τῇ προσηγορίᾳ καταισχύνωσιν. ἀλλὰ ἰδοὺ Φερεκράτης ἐν Γραυσί φησιν: Ἀθη- ναίαις αὐταῖς τε καὶ ταῖς συμμάχοις. καὶ Κάνθαρος Τηρεῖ: γυναῖκα Ἀθηναίαν καλήν τε καὶ ἀγαθήν. καὶ Φιλήμων Πτέρυγι: τὰς Ἱππονίκας τάσδε καὶ Λυσιστράτας καὶ Ναυσινίκας τὰς Ἀθηναίας λέγω. οἱ δὲ μὴ δεῖν φάσκοντες Ἀθηναίας λέγεσθαι τὰς Ἀττικὰς καὶ τὴν ὁμωνυμίαν αἰτιῶνται, ἣν ἐπιδέχονται πρὸς τὴν θεόν: Ἀθηναία γὰρ καὶ ἡ θεὸς καλεῖται: ἀλλ' ἀντὶ τοῦ Ἀθηναίας αὐτάς φασι λέγεσθαι καὶ Ἀττικάς. πλὴν πολλή γε ἡ χρῆσις τῆς φωνῆς ἐπὶ τῶν γυναικῶν παρὰ τοῖς ἀρχαίοις, ὡς οἵ τε προειρημένοι ποιηταὶ μαρτυροῦσι καὶ Δίφιλος ἐν Ἀμάστριδι. καὶ γὰρ καὶ τὴν Θεμιστοκλέους θυγατέρα Ἀθηναίαν ξένην φησίν: καὶ Πίνδαρος ἐν σχολίοις. ὁ μέντοι Φρύνιχος ἀνάττικόν φησιν εἶναι τὴν φωνὴν [καὶ] θαυμάζει, πῶς ὁ Φερεκράτης ἀττικώτατος ὢν χρῆται τῇ λέξει.
Notes:
Same entry in Photius. The headword is accusative plural, implicitly or explicitly part of the material which immediately follows it. For the topic see already, in brief, alpha 728.
[1] Metakleides [cross-referenced at mu 696; elsewhere, though, the name is sometimes Megakleides] FHG 4.443.
[2] Pherekrates fr. 34 Kock, now 39 K.-A.
[3] Cantharus fr. 5 Kock (and K.-A).
[4] Philemon fr. 66 Kock, now 69 K.-A.
[5] That is, if the women of Athens were called Ἀθηναῖαι , their name would be the same as the plural of the name of the goddess, Ἀθηναῖα .
[6] Diphilus fr. 10 Kock (and K.-A.).
[7] Here Photius' entry is carelessly abbreviated. Read: 'and Ion says that...': FGrH 392 F11. (For Themistocles see generally theta 124, theta 125, theta 126. He had several daughters; the one in question here is perhaps Italia.)
[8] Adler accepts this word, σχολίοις , from Photius, but Theodoridis in his Photius edition obelizes it. Perhaps, rather, skolia (drinking songs).
[9] Phrynichus, Praeparatio sophistica fr. 8.
Keywords: biography; comedy; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; ethics; gender and sexuality; historiography; poetry; religion; women
Translated by: Jennifer Benedict on 5 November 2000@21:03:11.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (modified translation and keywords; cosmetics) on 6 November 2000@03:43:34.
William Hutton (Modified translation, added note and keywords) on 2 February 2001@23:37:25.
David Whitehead (x-ref; restorative cosmetics) on 8 December 2003@05:02:04.
David Whitehead (augmented notes and keywords; tweaks and cosmetics) on 19 January 2012@10:23:07.
David Whitehead (tweaked notes) on 28 March 2014@10:29:49.
David Whitehead on 23 December 2014@03:29:21.
David Whitehead on 23 December 2014@07:15:01.
David Whitehead on 24 December 2014@10:37:08.
David Whitehead on 1 January 2015@07:46:26.
Catharine Roth (cosmetics) on 22 January 2015@23:03:10.

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