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Headword: Aarôn
Adler number: alpha,6
Translated headword: Aaron
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
Proper name.
Greek Original:
Aarôn: onoma kurion.
Notes:
Same entry, according to Adler, in the Ambrosian Lexicon.
Hebrew אהרון, brother of Moses (mu 1348); Aaron is also mentioned in nu 1, omicron 68.
See web address 1 below for the entry in the Catholic Encyclopedia on Aaron.
Associated internet address:
Web address 1
Keywords: biography; definition; religion
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 21 August 1998@16:48:52.
Vetted by:
Samuel Huskey (added link to Catholic Encyclopedia entry "Aaron") on 15 July 2000@14:22:28.
David Whitehead (added keywords) on 27 February 2003@07:07:28.
David Whitehead (added a note) on 13 April 2004@09:17:08.
William Hutton (augmented note, set status) on 20 August 2007@04:30:20.
William Hutton (typo) on 20 August 2007@09:00:32.
Jennifer Benedict (added note (citation of link)) on 25 March 2008@00:12:22.
David Whitehead (another note) on 18 December 2011@10:16:36.

Headword: Aasamên
Adler number: alpha,7
Translated headword: I was addled
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
[Meaning] I did wrong, I slipped up;[1] I was damaged,[2] in the sense of "I was overcome by folly."
Greek Original:
Aasamên: hêmarton, esphalên: eblabên, hoion atêi periepeson.
Notes:
The headword is the first person singular, aorist indicative middle/passive, of a)a/w (LSJ entry at web address 1). It is found frequently in epic poetry, e.g. Homer Iliad 9.116 (web address 2).
[1] Up to this point the entry = Synagoge (Codex B) alpha3 (Lexica Segueriana 3.8 Bachmann).
[2] From here on the entry is very similar to Apollonius Sophistes, Homeric Lexicon 1.19, and Hesychius alpha25.
Associated internet addresses:
Web address 1,
Web address 2
Keywords: definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; epic; ethics; poetry; religion
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 21 August 1998@16:50:10.
Vetted by:
William Hutton (Raised status, minor alterations to translation) on 17 October 2000@17:21:27.
William Hutton on 17 October 2000@17:22:15.
David Whitehead (modified headword and translation; cosmetics) on 9 February 2001@04:43:19.
William Hutton (modified translation, augmented notes, added links and keywords, set status) on 20 August 2007@04:52:46.
William Hutton (updated footnote) on 8 November 2007@06:02:11.
Jennifer Benedict (betacode typo) on 22 March 2008@17:15:55.
Jennifer Benedict (cosmetics) on 25 March 2008@00:13:03.
William Hutton on 22 July 2009@15:25:18.
Catharine Roth (upgraded link) on 17 December 2011@00:09:02.
David Whitehead on 16 August 2013@06:06:47.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 3 September 2014@10:30:04.

Headword: Abba
Adler number: alpha,10
Translated headword: Abba, Father
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
The ancients called God "Father" from a feeling of relationship. Moses said, "You have forsaken God who begot you."[1] And Malachi: "One God begot us and is our father."[2] They were in a state of grace, moved by the force of the Spirit. Just as there is the Spirit of wisdom by which fools have become wise (for this is clear from the teachings), and the Spirit of power by which they raised both the weak and the dead, and the Spirit of prophecy, and the Spirit of tongues, so also there is the Spirit of adoption.[3] And just as we know the Spirit of prophecy, through which one who has it is moved by grace to tell the future, so also the Spirit of adoption, through which one moved by the Spirit calls God "Father." One who wishes to show that this is most legitimate even used a Hebrew word. For he did not say "Father" but "Abba the Father." This is the word used especially by legitimate children for their father.[4]
Greek Original:
Abba: ho patêr. hoi men palaioi ekaloun patera ton theon ex oikeias dianoias, hôs Môüsês: theon ton gennêsanta se enkatelipes: kai Malachias: ho theos heis egennêsen hêmas kai patêr: hoi de en chariti, apo pneumatikês energeias kinoumenoi. hôsper pneuma sophias einai, kath' ho sophoi hoi asophoi egenonto [kai dêloutai touto apo tês didaskalias] kai pneuma dunameôs einai, kath' ho kai astheneis kai nekrous êgeiron, kai pneuma prophêteias, kai pneuma glôssôn, houtô kai pneuma huiothesias. kai hôsper ismen to pneuma tês prophêteias, aph' hôn ho echôn auto legei ta mellonta hupo tês charitos kinoumenos, houtô dê kai pneuma huiothesias, aph' hou ho labôn patera kalei ton theon, hupo pneumatos kinoumenos. ho dê boulomenos deixai gnêsiôtaton on kai têi tôn Hebraiôn echrêsato glôttêi. ou gar eipen ho patêr, all' abba ho patêr: hoper tôn paidôn malista esti tôn gnêsiôn pros patera rhêma.
Notes:
A paraphrase of St. John Chrysostom, Homily on the Epistle to the Romans PG 60.527.
(Entry placed after alpha 16, Adler reports, in mss GTMB.)
[1] Deuteronomy 32:18 LXX (web address 1).
[2] Malachi 2:10 LXX (web address 2).
[3] cf. Ep.Romans 8:15 (web address 3).
[4] On "Abba," see also alpha 12.
Associated internet addresses:
Web address 1,
Web address 2,
Web address 3
Keywords: children; Christianity; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; medicine; religion
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 21 August 1998@16:57:30.
Vetted by:
Samuel Huskey (added links to Bible, changed "sonship" to "filiation") on 15 July 2000@15:01:55.
Catharine Roth (Altered wording.) on 29 July 2000@23:15:23.
David Whitehead (added keyword; cosmetics) on 11 July 2003@08:51:36.
David Whitehead (another keyword) on 6 October 2005@08:51:18.
William Hutton (tweaked translation, augmented notes, fixed broken links, added keywords, set status) on 20 August 2007@10:15:40.
Catharine Roth (upgraded links) on 5 August 2013@01:15:24.
David Whitehead (another note; cosmetics) on 28 March 2014@06:14:49.
Catharine Roth (tweaked translation, added cross-reference) on 28 March 2014@12:15:01.
David Whitehead (coding) on 15 August 2015@07:24:11.

Headword: Abbakoum
Adler number: alpha,12
Translated headword: Habakkuk, Avvakoum
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
[A name meaning] father of awakening. For the [word] abba means father,[1] and koum means awakening.[2] So also in the Holy Gospel: "Talitha, koum," that is, "young girl, get up."[3] From which [it is] clear that Abbakoum must be written with double b.[4]
Greek Original:
Abbakoum: patêr egerseôs. to men gar abba sêmainei patêr, to de koum egersis: hôs kai para tôi theiôi euangeliôi: talêtha, koum, êgoun hê pais egeirou. hothen dêlon, hoti dia tôn duo bb grapteon to Abbakoum.
Notes:
An etymology for the name of the prophet Habakkuk (in the Septuagint, Ambakoum or Avvakoum), based on two Aramaic words found in the New Testament. The Suda is drawing from older onomastica; the same etymology is found in the Origenistic lexicon (see bibliography).
[1] See already alpha 10. The Hebrew/Aramaic אבּא abba means father.
[2] The Hebrew/Aramaic קום kūm means arise; it can also be used to mean awake.
[3] Mark 5:41 (web address 1); not in the other Gospels, but several times in patristic literature.
[4] The Suda is correct. The doubling of the בּ is indicated by its dot (dagesh); unlike Greek, Hebrew and Aramaic do not replicate doubled letters.
Reference:
Paul de Lagarde, Onomastica Sacra, p. 200, line 14-15
Associated internet address:
Web address 1
Keywords: children; Christianity; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; gender and sexuality; imagery; religion; women
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 21 August 1998@16:59:43.
Vetted by:
Catharine Roth (Altered wording.) on 29 July 2000@23:23:46.
Catharine Roth (Augmented note with information supplied by Lee Fields.) on 1 May 2001@19:02:40.
David Whitehead (added x-ref; cosmetics) on 22 July 2003@10:07:42.
Raphael Finkel (Added notes 2, 4, Hebrew.) on 12 August 2004@14:47:21.
Catharine Roth (added a keyword) on 8 October 2005@00:31:59.
William Hutton (cosmetics, added keywords and link, set status) on 21 August 2007@09:59:47.
Jennifer Benedict (cosmetics) on 24 March 2008@23:27:14.
Catharine Roth (upgraded link) on 17 December 2011@00:23:06.
David Whitehead (another keyword; typo and other cosmetics) on 18 December 2011@10:27:45.
Catharine Roth (typo) on 18 December 2011@10:53:04.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 5 August 2013@01:12:51.
Raphael Finkel (Converted Romanization of Hebrew to ISO 259.) on 7 August 2014@13:38:11.
David Whitehead (expanded a note; cosmetics) on 2 April 2015@08:48:00.
David Whitehead (coding) on 15 August 2015@06:56:57.

Headword: Abaxi
Adler number: alpha,16
Translated headword: planks, abacuses
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
What we call a)ba/kia.[1] The Lawmaker [says] in the Martyrdom of Saint Thecla: "Tryphaina was overcome by suffering, and was seen lying like the dead on the slabs."[2] So he says.
Greek Original:
Abaxi: tois par' hêmin legomenois abakiois. ho Logothetês en tôi tês hagias Theklês marturiôi: Truphaina de pathei lêphtheisa nekrois homoia pros tois abaxin hôrato keimenê. houtô phêsin.
Notes:
This entry occurs after alpha 17 in ms A (= Parisinus 2625), after alpha 9 in ms S (= Vaticanus 1296) and in the margin of ms D (Bodleianus Auct. V 52).
[1] The given form is a dative plural of a)/bac, ("abacus"), and the lexicographer explains it by reference to the diminutive a)ba/kion. The primary sense is a table topped by a slab, or the slab itself; a "calculator" is a secondary meaning.
[2] Symeon Metaphrastes (also known as the Logothete ('Lawmaker')) Patrologia Graeca 115.837c. On Thecla, cf. tau 1108.
Keywords: biography; Christianity; dialects, grammar, and etymology; gender and sexuality; history; mathematics; religion; science and technology; women
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 22 August 1998@12:53:59.
Vetted by:
William Hutton (Modified translation and notes, added keywords, raised status) on 18 January 2001@09:46:37.
Catharine Roth (modified translation, augmented note) on 7 November 2002@15:06:33.
Catharine Roth (cosmetics) on 7 November 2002@15:08:44.
David Whitehead (another keyword) on 9 November 2005@09:20:27.
Catharine Roth (added keyword) on 6 September 2006@23:44:05.
William Hutton (modified headword and translation, augmented notes, set status) on 24 August 2007@09:36:45.
William Hutton on 24 August 2007@09:42:51.
Jennifer Benedict (tweaks) on 24 March 2008@23:50:31.
David Whitehead (cosmetics) on 18 December 2011@10:35:22.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 7 February 2015@23:44:46.

Headword: Abaris
Adler number: alpha,18
Translated headword: Abaris, Avars
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
Scythian, son of Seuthes. He wrote the so-called Scythinian Oracles[1] and Marriage of the river Hebros and Purifications and a Theogony in prose and Arrival of Apollo among the Hyperboreans in meter. He came from Scythia to Greece.
The legendary arrow belongs to him, the one he flew on from Greece to Hyperborean Scythia. It was given to him by Apollo.[2]
Gregory the Theologian mentioned this man in his Epitaphios for Basil the Great.[3]
They say[4] that once, when there was a plague throughout the entire inhabited world, Apollo told the Greeks and barbarians who had come to consult his oracle that the Athenian people should make prayers on behalf of all of them. So, many peoples sent ambassadors to them, and Abaris, they say, came as ambassador of the Hyperboreans in the third Olympiad.[5]
[Note] that the Bulgarians thoroughly destroyed the Avars[6] by force.
[Note] that these Avars drove out the Sabinorians, when they themselves had been expelled by peoples living near the shore of the Ocean, who left their own land when a mist formed in the flood of the Ocean and a crowd of griffins appeared; the story was that they would not stop until they had devoured the race of men. So the people driven away by these monsters invaded their neighbors. As the invaders were stronger, the others submitted and left, just as the Saragurians, when they were driven out, went to the Akatziri Huns.[7]
The declension is Abaris, Abaridos [genitive singular], Abaridas [accusative plural], and with apocope Abaris [nominative plural].
See about these things under 'Bulgarians'.[8]
Greek Original:
Abaris: Skuthês, Seuthou huios. sunegrapsato de chrêsmous tous kaloumenous Skuthinous kai Gamon Hebrou tou potamou kai Katharmous kai Theogonian katalogadên kai Apollônos aphixin eis Huperboreous emmetrôs. hêke de ek Skuthôn eis Hellada. toutou ho muthologoumenos oïstos, tou petomenou apo tês Hellados mechri tôn Huperboreôn Skuthôn: edothê de autôi para tou Apollônos. toutou kai Grêgorios ho Theologos en tôi eis ton megan Basileion Epitaphiôi mnêmên pepoiêtai. phasi de hoti loimou kata pasan tên oikoumenên gegonotos aneilen ho Apollôn manteuomenois Hellêsi kai barbarois ton Athênaiôn dêmon huper pantôn euchas poiêsasthai. presbeuomenôn de pollôn ethnôn pros autous, kai Abarin ex Huperboreôn presbeutên aphikesthai legousi kata tên g# Olumpiada. hoti tous Abaris hoi Boulgaroi kata kratos ardên êphanisan. hoti hoi Abaris houtoi exêlasan Sabinôras, metanastai genomenoi hupo ethnôn oikountôn men tên parôkeanitin aktên, tên de chôran apolipontôn dia to ex anachuseôs tou Ôkeanou homichlôdes ginomenon, kai grupôn de plêthos anaphanen: hoper ên logos mê proteron pausasthai prin ê boran poiêsai to tôn anthrôpôn genos. dio dê hupo tônde elaunomenoi tôn deinôn tois plêsiochôrois eneballon: kai tôn epiontôn dunatôterôn ontôn hoi tên ephodon huphistamenoi metanistanto, hôsper kai hoi Saragouroi elathentes pros tois Akatirois Ounnois egenonto. klinetai de Abaris, Abaridos, tous Abaridas, kai kata apokopên Abaris. zêtei peri tôn autôn en tôi Boulgaroi.
Notes:
See generally A.H. Griffiths in OCD(4) p.1: "legendary devotee of Apollo from the far north, a shamanistic missionary and saviour-figure like Aristeas [alpha 3900]". Adler credits this part of the entry to the Epitome Onomatologi Hesychii Milesii.
[1] Or in one manuscript, 'Skythian'.
[2] Perhaps from a scholion on the passage about to be cited (so Adler). Cf. Herodotos 4.36.1 (web address 1).
[3] Gregory of Nazianzus PG 36.524b.
[4] This material is from Harpokration s.v. *)/abaris
[5] 768-765 BCE. Harpokration (see preceding note) cites Hippostratos (FGrH 568 F4) to this effect, but adds that there were later alternatives: the twenty-first Olympiad (696-693) or "the time of Croesus, king of Lydia" (so Pindar, fr.270 Snell-Maehler), i.e. c.560-546.
[6] The word used for the Avars here, *)aba/ris, is a homograph for the name of the Hyperborean wise man Abaris, so this separate section on the Avars is included in this entry. There is no indication that the lexicographer sees any connection between the two topics.
[7] Priscus fr.30 FHG (4.104), still 30 Bornmann. The final part reappears at alpha 820 and sigma 111.
[8] beta 423.
References:
RE Abaris (1) I.16-17
Macartney, C.A. "On the Greek Sources for the History of the Turks in the Sixth Century." BSOAS 11 (1944): 266-275
Associated internet address:
Web address 1
Keywords: biography; Christianity; dialects, grammar, and etymology; geography; historiography; history; mythology; philosophy; poetry; religion; rhetoric
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 21 August 1998@17:03:41.
Vetted by:
William Hutton (Modified translation and notes, added keywords, set status.) on 19 January 2001@14:57:43.
David Whitehead (augmented notes and bibliography; cosmetics) on 9 February 2001@05:20:43.
David Whitehead (added note) on 14 February 2001@06:09:48.
Mihai Olteanu (The only thracian item concerning Abaris is his father's name. Everything else pledes for his sythian ('hyperborean') origin. This is why I suppose we deal here with a copist mistake, and I propose the emendation: ́Αβαρις: Σκύθης, *Σκύθου υἱός (for Σκύθης as mythological character, see for example Herodotos 4,10).) on 22 January 2002@21:55:20.
David Whitehead (augmented notes and keywords; cosmetics) on 23 January 2002@03:11:25.
David Whitehead (augmented n.6 and added a keyword) on 5 October 2004@03:21:13.
William Hutton (augmented notes, added link and keywords, set status) on 24 August 2007@11:05:00.
Jennifer Benedict (cosmeticule) on 25 March 2008@00:16:43.
David Whitehead (another note; cosmetics) on 28 March 2014@06:23:27.
David Whitehead (updated a ref) on 29 July 2014@12:06:21.
David Whitehead (updated a ref) on 31 January 2015@09:22:24.

Headword: Abarnis
Adler number: alpha,19

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