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Headword: Abelteros
Adler number: alpha,32
Translated headword: thoughtless
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
[Meaning] mindless, stupid. For the intelligent man [is] be/lteros ["thoughtful, superior"].[1]
"No, by Zeus, not the greedy and thoughtless fellow, but the mindless and conceitedly slow-witted."[2] Menander in Perinthia [writes]: "any servant who takes an idle and easy master and deceives him does not know what a great accomplishment it is to make a greater fool of one who is already thoughtless".[3] They also call a)belthri/a ["thoughtlessness"] an a)belth/rion ["thoughtless thing"]. Anaxandrides in Helen[4] [writes]: "[A:] an anchor, a little boat, - call it what vessel you want. [B:] O Heracles of the sacred precinct of thoughtlessness. [A:] But one could not estimate its size."
Also [sc. attested is] a)belthri/a, [meaning] stupidity.
Or mindlessness.
Menander [writes]: "their mind drove them to such thoughtlessness that they prayed for victory over each other rather than over the enemy."[5]
Greek Original:
Abelteros: anoêtos, asunetos. belteros gar ho phronimos. ou ma Di' ouch ho pleonektês kai agnômôn, all' ho anoêtos kai euêthês meta chaunotêtos. Menandros Perinthiai: hostis paralabôn despotên apragmona kai kouphon exapatai therapôn, ouk oid' ho ti houtos megaleion esti diapepragmenos, epabelterôsas ton pote abelteron. legousi de kai abeltêrion tên abeltêrian. Alexandridês Helenêi: ankura, lembos, skeuos ho ti boulei lege. ô Hêrakleis abeltêriou temenikou. all' oud' an eipein to megethos dunaito tis. kai Abeltêria, hê aphrosunê. ê anoêsia. Menandros: eis touto de abeltêrias êlasen autois ho nous, hôste thateron meros tên kata thaterou mallon ê tên kata tôn polemiôn euchesthai nikên.
Notes:
On this headword, a comic formation literally meaning non-superior, see generally LSJ s.v. (web address 1 below); and cf. alpha 31, alpha 33.
[1] These glosses are paralleled in a variety of other lexica (and in the scholia to Aristophanes, Clouds 1201 and Ecclesiazusae 768).
[2] Quotation (an illustration of the first of the glossing words, not the headword) unidentifiable; also in Photius and Aelius Dionysius.
[3] Menander fr. 393 Kock.
[4] Anaxandrides [see generally alpha 1982] fr. 12 Kock (and K.-A.). But note that Adler prints the manuscript reading "Alexandrides", on the strength of the (apparent) mention of such a playwright in alpha 3824. On the emendation to Anaxandrides, see Toup vol. 1 p. 9; Adler attributes the emendation to 'Iunius' (probably Adriaan de Jonghe, 1511-1575, author of a Greek/Latin Lexicon).
[5] Not M. the comic poet, quoted above, but the C6 CE historian Menander Protector [mu 591]: his fr. 28 Blockley.
Reference:
Toup, Jonathan, and Richard Porson. Emendationes in Suidam Et Hesychium, Et Alios Lexicographos Graecos. Oxford 1790
Associated internet address:
Web address 1
Keywords: comedy; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; ethics; historiography; history; military affairs; religion
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 25 August 1998@19:02:21.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (augmented notes; added keywords; cosmetics) on 9 February 2001@05:52:19.
Jennifer Benedict (betacoding) on 23 March 2008@13:05:56.
David Whitehead (modified headword; augmented notes and keywords; tweaks and cosmetics) on 24 March 2008@04:34:27.
Jennifer Benedict (added link) on 25 March 2008@11:17:06.
Catharine Roth (fixed note number, augmented note, added bibliography, tweaked link) on 15 May 2008@15:34:15.
David Whitehead (typo) on 16 May 2008@07:55:44.
Catharine Roth (augmented note) on 20 May 2008@11:50:13.
David Whitehead (tweaks) on 16 December 2011@05:38:00.
David Whitehead (updated a reference; cosmetics) on 3 January 2012@04:21:06.
David Whitehead (updated a ref) on 22 December 2014@04:27:32.
David Whitehead (tweaks and cosmetics) on 2 April 2015@09:15:50.

Headword: Abesalôm
Adler number: alpha,35
Translated headword: Abesalom, Absalom
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
Proper name.[1]
[The man] who rose up against his own father David and was destroyed by him in the war.[2]
Greek Original:
Abesalôm: onoma kurion. hos tou idiou patros Dabid katexanestê kai anêirethê hup' autou en tôi polemôi.
Notes:
[1] So too, according to Adler, in the Ambrosian Lexicon.
[2] See generally 2 Samuel 15-18 LXX.
Keywords: biography; children; definition; ethics; history; military affairs; religion
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 26 August 1998@18:50:03.
Vetted by:
Catharine Roth (Added keywords.) on 30 July 2000@22:45:00.
David Whitehead (added keywords; cosmetics) on 9 June 2003@07:27:13.
David Whitehead on 1 August 2011@07:34:26.
David Whitehead (augmented notes; another keyword) on 19 December 2011@06:57:32.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 7 August 2013@23:28:44.
David Whitehead (coding) on 15 August 2015@07:26:43.

Headword: Abias
Adler number: alpha,42
Translated headword: Abijah, Abias
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
Son of Rehoboam the son of Solomon. He fought against Jeroboam, Solomon's slave, and in one day killed 1500 powerful men.
Greek Original:
Abias: huios Rhoboam, tou huiou Solomôntos, hos epolemêsen Hieroboam tôi doulôi Solomôntos kai en miai hêmerai aneilen andras dunatous #22aph#.
Notes:
2 Chronicles 13; cf. 1 Kings 1-8.
See also alpha 39, *)abia/, a different transliteration of the name, but clearly the same figure.
Keywords: biography; definition; military affairs; religion
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 26 August 1998@18:56:51.
Vetted by:
William Hutton (Added headword, set status) on 28 January 2001@20:41:59.
David Whitehead (augmented keywords) on 27 February 2003@08:35:59.
Jennifer Benedict (expanded note and added x-ref) on 23 March 2008@14:18:15.
Catharine Roth (tweaked betacode) on 24 March 2008@00:11:04.
David Whitehead on 19 December 2011@07:07:21.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 7 August 2013@23:39:02.

Headword: Abimelech
Adler number: alpha,45
Translated headword: Abimelech
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
Proper name.[1]
The son of Gideon.[2] He smote his brothers, seventy sons of Gideon's wives,[3] upon a single stone, and none of them was left except Jotham the youngest son,[4] who ran away. As Abimelech was passing through with his people, Jotham went up to the top of the mountain and, raising his voice, told the following parable. "Listen to me, men of Shechem, and God will listen to you. The trees set out[5] to anoint a king over themselves. And they said to the olive, 'Rule over us.' And the olive said to them, 'Should I give up my rich oil, by which -- through me -- God[6] and men receive honor,[7] and go rule over trees?' Then the trees said to the fig, 'Come, rule over us.' And the fig said to them, 'Should I give up my sweetness, my excellent product, and go to rule over the trees?' And the trees said to the vine, 'Come, rule over us.' And the vine said to them, 'Should I give up my wine, merriment for men, and go to rule over the trees?' And all the trees said to the thornbush, 'Come, you rule over us.' And the thornbush said to the trees, 'If you are truly anointing me to rule over you, come stand under[8] my shade. But if not, may fire come from me and consume the cedars of Lebanon.' Now, if you have dealt with my father and his family truthfully and in an upright way, and have made his concubine's son Abimelech king over the men of Shechem, then may you rejoice in him and may he indeed rejoice in you. But if not, may fire issue from Abimelech and consume your leaders and their families. And may fire issue from the men of Shechem and consume Abimelech." And Jotham ran from the presence of Abimelech his brother. But Abimelech ruled over Israel for three years. Then God sent an evil spirit between[9] Abimelech and the men of Shechem. And the men of Shechem dealt treacherously[10] with the house of Abimelech so to lay at Abimelech's feet[11] the blood of Gideon's seventy sons. And so Abimilech set out to beseige the tower.[12] As he approached the tower gate to burn it, a woman threw a piece of a millstone onto his head and crushed his skull. He at once called out to his armor bearer[13], saying, "Draw your sword and kill me, so they can never say I was killed by a woman." So the young man took up his sword and ran him through. And God recompensed the wickedness Abimelech had done to his father in killing his seventy brothers. God also recompensed[14] all the wickedness of the men of Shechem, in accord with the message and parable of Jotham.
Greek Original:
Abimelech: onoma kurion. huios Gedeôn. houtos epataxe tous adelphous autou ek tôn eleutherôn andras ebdomêkonta epi lithon hena, ex hôn ouk apeleiphthê plên Iôatham tou neôterou diadrantos. hos kai paraporeuomenou tou Abimelech meta tou laou anêlthen epi tên koruphên tou orous, kai eparas tên phônên autou ephê pros autous parabolên toiautên. akousate mou, andres Sikimôn, kai akousei humôn ho theos. poreuomena eporeuthêsan ta xula tou chrisai basilea eph' heautôn. kai eipan têi elaiai: basileuson eph' hêmôn. kai eipen autois hê elaia: apheisa tên piotêta mou, hên edoxasen en emoi ho theos kai hoi anthrôpoi, poreuthô archein tôn xulôn; kai eipon ta xula têi sukêi: deuro, basileuson eph' hêmas. kai eipen autois hê sukê: apheisa tên glukutêta mou kai to gennêma mou to agathon poreuthô archein tôn xulôn; kai eipon ta xula pros tên ampelon: deuro, basileuson eph' hêmôn. kai eipen autois hê ampelos: apheisa ton oinon mou kai tên euphrosunên tôn anthrôpôn poreuthô archein tôn xulôn; kai eipon panta ta xula têi rhamnôi: deuro, su basileuson eph' hêmas. kai eipen hê rhamnos pros ta xula: ei en alêtheiai chriete me humeis tou basileuein eph' humas, deute, hupostête en têi skiai mou, kai ei mê, exelthoi pur ap' emou kai kataphagêi tas kedrous tou Libanou. kai nun ei en alêtheiai kai hosiotêti epoiêsate meta tou patros mou kai meta tou oikou autou kai ebasileusate ton Abimelech huion tês paidiskês autou epi tous andras Sikimôn, euphrantheiête en autôi, kai euphrantheiê kai ge autos en humin: ei de mê, exelthoi pur ex Abimelech kai kataphagoi tous archontas humôn kai tous oikous autôn: kai exelthoi pur ek tôn andrôn Sikimôn kai kataphagoi ton Abimelech. kai apedra Iôatham apo prosôpou Abimelech adelphou autou. ho de Abimelech êrxen epi ton Israêl etê tria. kai exapesteilen ho theos pneuma ponêron ana meson Abimelech kai ana meson andrôn Sikimôn. kai êthetêsan hoi andres Sikimôn en tôi oikôi Abimelech tou epagagein adikian kai to haima tôn o# huiôn Gedeôn epi tên kephalên Abimelech. kai gar apelthôn polemêsai purgon kai prosengisas têi thurai tou purgou emprêsai autên, erripse gunê klasma mulou epi tên kephalên autou kai sunetripse to kranion autou. kai epiboêsas tachu eipe pros ton aironta autou ta skeuê: spason tên rhomphaian sou kai thanatôson me, mê pote eipôsin: gunê auton apekteine. kai kentêsan auton to paidarion aneile. kai epestrepsen ho theos tên ponêrian Abimelech, hên epoiêse tôi patri autou apokteinas tous o# adelphous autou. kai pasan tên ponêrian andrôn Sikimôn epestrepsen ho theos eis tên kephalên autôn kata ton logon kai tên paroimian Iôatham.
Notes:
Source for the main paragraph (after the initial gloss): George the Monk, Chronicon 148.2-149.20.
[1] Hebrew: אבימלך "my father is king." Used derogatorily and incessantly (31 times) throughout the Abimelech episode in Judges 9 (Boling, NSRV at Judges 9:1).
[2] Literally, "by his wives." The use of e)leuqe/rwn here indicates "married women/wives" (see L-S-J). The Massoretic Text (MT) (Judges 8:30; Kohlenberger, Vol. 2, 101) shows נשים našīm, which here means "wives" (Brown, Driver, Briggs {BDB}, 61). The term is to be distinguished from that for Abimelech's mother — פלגש pilegeš "concubine" in the sense of a legitimate wife of secondary rank (Kohlenberger for the suffixed MT form; Boling, NRSV at Judges 8:31).
[3] Literally, "upon a single stone." MT: על אבן אחת ʿal ʾeḇen ʾeḥat (Judges 9:5). See Boling, Judges (Anchor), 171.5. A direct transference from the Hebrew to the LXX.
[4] (Cf. iota 478.) The Greek new/terou, comparative understood for the superlative (Smyth, 1082.a) from Hebrew הקטן haqqaton, the "young(est) one" (Judges 9:5).
[5] The Suda's poreu/omena e)poreu/qhsan parallels the MT at Judges 9:5 (but not the LXX, which singularizes the finite verb) in its fuller anthropomorphism via the plural finite verb. The participle plus finite verb mimics, but does not parallel, MT usage, which gives infinitive absolute plus finite verb (הלוך הלכו haloḵ halēḵū) (Kautzsch, 342 {113o(1)}; Boling, Judges (Anchor), 173.8). For this genre of fable, see also 2 Kings 14:9-10 and its shadow at 2 Chronicles 25:18-19. the motif bears only general resemblance to Aesop's frog fable. For related motifs, see the source summary in Brown (The New Jerome), 140; Boling, Judges (Anchor), 173.
[6] The Suda singularizes (o( qeo/s), whereas the MT contains אלהים elohīm to be interpreted as "gods" — not "God." That the translation warrants a plural is supported by the antiquity of the original motif (Boling, Judges (Anchor), 173-74.15; 175.20). The plural is the norm in modern Bible translation.
[7] The standard translation of the MT אשר-בי יכבדו אלהים ואנשים ʾašer-bī yeḵaḇdū ʾelohīm waʾanašīm (Judges 9:9) and the Suda's h(\n...a)/nqrwpoi is "by which/whereby gods and men are honored." The Hebrew syntax merits reevaluation. The Jotham parable is a poetic fable cast in prose (Boling, Judges (Anchor) 166, 172-73.8-15, 173.15; for an uncritical opposing view, see Brown (The New Jerome), 140). However, Boling (173.9) and others read the Pi'el active yeḵaḇdū ("ykbdw" in Boling) as a Niph'al passive (are honored). Boling also cites the "kbd" root as Niph'al reflexive in Exodus 14:4, perhaps intending an alternative (but unlikely) reading for Judges 9:9 as "gods and men honor themselves." This approach overlooks the fable's poetic form — a medium that allows the Pi'el to operate intransitively (Kautzsch, 142 {52k}). Relatedly, Kautzsch (Gesenius, in accord with T.K Cheyne) assigns Niph'al senses to Pi'el forms in the poetry of Isaiah 48:8 and 60:11, which just as easily may be read intransitively as "your ear has not opened (responded) [to new things]" and "your gates shall always stand open." In Judges 9:9, the intransitive result is "(by) which, through me, gods and men receive honor." The preposition "bi" (Greek: e)n e)moi\), which in Boling's syntax is left "unexplained", provides an instrumental dative (BDB, 89, III.2): "through me." Boling asserts "bi" to be "a third-person suffix" without further discussion; BDB (citing George F. Moore) suggests the third-person "bo" (by/through it) for the "bi" form. Boling does cite the LXX Vaticanus reading "by it"; however, Vaticanus works a simplified solution: e)n h(=i doca/sousi to\n qeo\n a)/ndres, "by which men shall honor God" (Brenton, 329). In a near parallel to the MT, the Suda records e)do/casen for a Hebraicized-intransitive e)do/casan (yeḵaḇdū): literally, "regarding which (oil), through my agency, God and men receive honor."
[8] The verb u(po/sthte also carries the meaning "submit"; the Hebrew at Judges 9:15 (imperative hasū) carries only the sense "take refuge" (BDB, 340).
[9] The duplicated a)na\ me/son is a Hebraism paralleling Judges 9:22 (בין אבימלך ובין בעלי שכם bēn ʾAḇimeleḵ uḇēn baʿalē šeḵem). See also the MT and LXX at Genesis 1:4. For model Greek syntax, see LXX Genesis 32:16 (Brenton, 43)— with the MT (Genesis 32:17) showing the duplicate pattern (Kohlenberger, Vol 1, 88).
[10] For a)qete/w (deal treacherously), see Lust, Pt. I, 9.
[11] Literally, "to lay upon Abimelech's head his injustice and the blood of Gideon's seventy sons."
[12] For Abimelech's ill-fated siege of the Thebez tower, see Judges 9:50-57.
[13] The term paida/rion reprises the MT נערו naʿarō (his servant or retainer) at Judges 9:54. Translations render the word as "armor bearer." Boling in his Judges (146.10; 182.54) prefers "squire."
[14] Literally, "turned about onto their head."
References:
Boling, R.G. Judges (The Anchor Bible). New York: Doubleday, 1975.
Boling, R.G. Judges in the Harper Collins Study Bible (NRSV). New York: Harper Collins, 1993.
Brenton, C.L.B. The Septuagint with Apocrypha. Peabody: Hendrickson, 1991 (reprint of 1851 ed.).
Brown, F. Driver, S.R., Briggs, C.A. A Hebrew and English Lexicon of the Old Testament. Oxford: Clarendon, 1951.
Brown, R.E. The New Jerome Biblical Commentary. New Jersey: Prentice Hall, 1990.
Kautzsch, E. Gesenius' Hebrew Grammar. Oxford: Clarendon, 1910.
Kohlenberger, J.R. The Interlinear NIV Hebrew-English Old Testament. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1987.
Lust, J. A Greek-English Lexicon of the Septuagint, Part I. Stuttgart: Deutsche Bibelgesellschaft, 1992.
Smyth, H.W. Greek Grammar. Cambridge: Harvard University, 1984.
Keywords: biography; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; gender and sexuality; history; military affairs; poetry; religion; women
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 22 August 1998@13:01:24.
Vetted by:
William Hutton (Cosmetics, added keywords, set status) on 27 January 2001@12:09:36.
Craig Miller (Modified translation, notes and bibliography to follow.) on 5 March 2002@09:51:09.
Craig Miller on 5 March 2002@12:40:52.
Craig Miller (Modified and expanded notes, expanded keywords. Bibliography pending.) on 5 March 2002@15:02:20.
Catharine Roth (corrected typos) on 5 March 2002@16:49:22.
Craig Miller on 5 March 2002@23:39:58.
Craig Miller (Bibliography added, cosmetics.) on 6 March 2002@07:38:16.
Craig Miller on 6 March 2002@12:49:31.
Craig Miller on 6 March 2002@14:59:18.
Craig Miller on 1 April 2002@19:33:02.
Raphael Finkel (Added Hebrew texts.) on 31 October 2002@10:19:01.
David Whitehead (added initial note; added x-ref; cosmetics) on 9 June 2003@07:55:20.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 7 August 2013@23:53:33.
Catharine Roth (cosmetics) on 8 August 2013@16:40:29.
Raphael Finkel (Converted Romanization of Hebrew to ISO 259.) on 7 August 2014@14:15:44.
David Whitehead (coding) on 15 August 2015@07:31:59.

Headword: Ablêta
Adler number: alpha,57
Translated headword: unshot, unthrown
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
[Referring to] projectiles, ones that have not been dispatched with a view to wounding.[1]
Also [sc. attested is the phrase] 'unshot arrow': the one badly shot or the one not yet shot. Declines a)blh\s, [genitive] a)blh=tos.[2]
Greek Original:
Ablêta: belê, ta mê pemphthenta eis trôsin. kai ablêta oïston, ton kakoblêton ê ton mêpô beblêmenon. klinetai de ablês, ablêtos.
Notes:
[1] Here the headword adjective is glossed as if it were a neuter plural, but see next note.
[2] cf. the scholia to Homer, Iliad 4.117-118, where this accusative singular phrase occurs, albeit with other words intervening (web address 1 below).
Associated internet address:
Web address 1
Keywords: definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; epic; medicine; military affairs
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 26 August 1998@19:08:39.
Vetted by:
William Hutton (Added headword, modified translation, keyword, raised status) on 30 January 2001@08:35:45.
David Whitehead (added note and keywords; cosmetics) on 23 April 2002@09:07:46.
Jennifer Benedict (betacoding, added link) on 24 March 2008@17:14:36.
David Whitehead (augmented and modified notes; cosmetics) on 25 March 2008@05:00:13.
David Whitehead (tweaks) on 19 December 2011@08:10:13.
David Whitehead (another keyword; tweaks) on 2 April 2015@10:27:20.
Catharine Roth (cosmeticule) on 26 May 2019@00:45:21.

Headword: Abreas
Adler number: alpha,74
Translated headword: Abreas
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
Proper name.
Greek Original:
Abreas: onoma kurion.
Note:
That of a "double-pay" soldier in Arrian, Anabasis 6.9-10.
Keywords: biography; definition; economics; historiography; history; military affairs
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 26 August 1998@19:29:50.
Vetted by:
William Hutton (Added headword, cosmetics, set status) on 31 January 2001@13:02:23.
David Whitehead (added note and keywords) on 24 April 2002@03:26:41.
David Whitehead on 1 August 2011@07:43:43.
David Whitehead on 19 December 2011@09:27:40.

Headword: Abriorêx
Adler number: alpha,80
Translated headword: Abriorex, Abriorix
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
Proper name.
Greek Original:
Abriorêx: onoma kurion.
Note:
Attested only here and, according to Adler, in the Ambrosian Lexicon in this form ending eta-xi; nevertheless this is surely Abriorix (a.k.a. Ambiorix), leader of the Gallic Eburones against Julius Caesar in 54-53 BCE.
Keywords: biography; definition; geography; historiography; history; military affairs
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 26 August 1998@19:34:00.
Vetted by:
William Hutton (Added headword, set keyword and status) on 31 January 2001@13:24:23.
David Whitehead (modified headword; added keyword) on 1 February 2001@03:55:16.
David Whitehead (note) on 19 July 2011@09:00:27.
David Whitehead (expanded note) on 19 December 2011@09:57:15.
David Whitehead (augmented note and keywords) on 2 April 2015@11:00:30.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 7 May 2015@00:19:45.

Headword: Abrogastês
Adler number: alpha,81
Translated headword: Abrogastes, Arbogast
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
A Frank, who was fierce as flame from[1] strength of body and ruggedness of spirit; by happenstance second in rank to Baudo.[2] He was especially solid and complete in regard to self-control and made war on money, giving no quarter--for[3] he was no different from the common soldiers in terms of wealth at least. For this reason he seemed useful to the emperor Theodosius,[4] since he added to the manly and just manner of Valentinian[5] his own gravity, as a just and unswerving standard for the palace, not to do harm or wrong in any matters of the court.
Greek Original:
Abrogastês: Phrangos, hos kata alkên sômatos kai thumou trachutêta phlogoeidês ên, deuteragônistês tunchanôn Baudônos. allôs te ên kai pros sôphrosunên pepêgôs te kai diêrthrômenos kai pros chrêmata polemon polemôn aspondon. diephere goun tôn eutelôn stratiôtôn hoson ge eis plouton ouden. kai dia touto edokei tôi basilei Theodosiôi chrêsimos, hos ge pros ton Oualentinianou tropon arrenôpon onta kai dikaion, kai to par' heautou baros epetithei, kathaper orthon kai astrabê ton kanona tois basileiois, pros to mêden tôn peri tên aulên parablaptesthai ê hamartanesthai.
Notes:
This entry -- which has been tentatively identified as a fragment (no.53 FHG; Blockley, Eunapius fr. 58.[1]) of the sophist and historian Eunapius of Sardis -- concerns the Frankish general Flavius Arbogastes (died 394). (The present headword 'Abrogastes' is a rare variant of, or error for, the name.)
[1] Causal kata/ (LSJ s.v. IV).
[2] His predecessor (and, allegedly, father) Flavius Bauto.
[3] "Part proof" gou=n (Denniston, p. 451).
[4] theta 144.
[5] omicron 762.
References:
Banchich, T.M. "Eunapius, Eustathius, and the Suda." AJP 109 (1988) 223-225
Blockley, R.C. The Fragmentary Classicising Historians of the Later Roman Empire: Eunapius, Olympiodorus, Priscus and Malchus. Vol. II. Liverpool: Francis Cairns, 1983.
Denniston, J.D. The Greek Particles. Second Edition. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1954.
Keywords: biography; economics; ethics; geography; historiography; history; medicine; military affairs
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 26 August 1998@19:34:42.
Vetted by:
William Hutton (Added headword, modified translation, added keywords, set status) on 31 January 2001@16:29:34.
David Whitehead (added note and keyword; cosmetics) on 1 February 2001@04:13:55.
David Whitehead (another keyword) on 28 November 2005@08:20:03.
David Whitehead (tweaks to tr; augmented notes and keywords) on 20 December 2011@03:53:50.
Aaron Baker (Modified translation; added grammatical notes; added Blockly cite; added bibliography.) on 3 June 2015@22:23:43.
Aaron Baker (Added period after "Bauto.") on 3 June 2015@22:25:43.
Catharine Roth (coded Greek) on 3 June 2015@23:24:46.
Catharine Roth (added bibliography) on 27 January 2016@22:44:10.

Headword: Habrodiaitêi
Adler number: alpha,82
Translated headword: with luxurious living
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
[Meaning] with a soft and dainty life.[1] Also [sc. attested is the related adjective] habrodiaitos: a softy, a soft-liver.[2]
"The lifestyle of the Romans [is] not inclined toward soft-living, especially since they are warlike and hard working."[3]
It also means someone living in affluence.
Also [sc. attested is] a(bro/thti ["in luxury"]: [meaning] in softness, in daintiness.[4]
Greek Original:
Habrodiaitêi: trupherai zôêi kai hapalêi. kai Habrodiaitos: truphêtês, trupherobios. tois de Rhômaiois ouk es to habrodiaiton ho bios: allôs de hôs philopolemoi te eisi kai phereponoi. sêmainei de kai ton plousiôs zônta. kai Habrotêti: trupherotêti, hapalotêti.
Notes:
[1] The primary headword -- a single word in the Greek (but described in LSJ s.v. as 'a faulty compound') -- and its glossing phrase are transmitted in the dative case here, but at Photius, Lexicon alpha52 Theodoridis, the editor prints them as nominatives.
[2] Same or similar material in other lexica.
[3] Menander Protector fr. 15.1 Blockley.
[4] Same material in other lexica; references at Photius alpha58 Theodoridis.
Keywords: daily life; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; economics; ethics; historiography; military affairs
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 26 August 1998@19:35:47.
Vetted by:
William Hutton (Altered translation, set keywords and status) on 31 January 2001@23:01:03.
David Whitehead (modified note; cosmetics) on 1 February 2001@04:17:21.
David Whitehead (supplemented translation; augmented notes and keywords; tweaks and cosmetics) on 20 December 2011@04:06:41.
David Whitehead on 20 December 2011@04:07:24.
David Whitehead (updated a reference) on 3 January 2012@04:22:20.
David Whitehead (tweaked notes) on 16 August 2013@07:16:19.

Headword: Habrokomas
Adler number: alpha,83
Translated headword: Abrokomas, Habrokomas, Abrocomas
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
This man was satrap[1] under Artaxerxes, king of the Persians.[2]
Greek Original:
Habrokomas: houtos satrapês ên Artaxerxou tou Persôn basileôs.
Notes:
From Harpokration (and Photius) s.v. The name has a smooth breathing (Abrokomas) there, as in Xenophon before them (below); in the Suda it is rough (Habrokomas).
[1] Provincial governor; see sigma 153 (and generally OCD(4) p.1321).
[2] There were several Persian kings of this name (see generally OCD(4) p.175), but probably Artaxerxes II (405/4-359/8) is meant; he had a general called Abrokomas, mentioned by Xenophon in the Anabasis.
Keywords: biography; chronology; dialects, grammar, and etymology; geography; historiography; history; military affairs; politics
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 26 August 1998@19:36:18.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (added headword, notes, keyword; cosmetics) on 29 September 2000@05:33:34.
William Hutton (Cosmetics) on 1 February 2001@00:51:03.
David Whitehead (augmented notes and keywords) on 19 July 2011@09:44:36.
Catharine Roth (cosmeticule) on 21 December 2011@01:44:30.
David Whitehead (updated 2 refs) on 29 July 2014@12:13:20.
David Whitehead (more keywords) on 2 April 2015@11:02:29.

Headword: Abusson
Adler number: alpha,104
Translated headword: abyss
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
[Meaning] that which not even a deep [buqo/s] can contain; but Ionians pronounce buqo/s as busso/s.[1]
From which also bussodomeu/ein ["to build in the deep"] appears to be said,[2] from the verb du/nw ["I sink"] [meaning] I enter upon secretly, with a change [of initial consonant] [giving] bu/w, bu/sw, be/busmai, be/busai, [and the nouns] buso/s and a)bu/ssos [meaning] where no-one enters because of its depth.[3]
Aristophanes in Frogs [writes]: "for immediately you will come to a huge lake, an absolute abyss."[4] And he also uses the word in the neuter: "they shall not make peace while the measureless [a)/busson] silver is with the goddess on the Acropolis." For 1,000 talents were stored on the Acropolis.[5]
"Abyss" is what the Holy Scripture calls the watery substance. So since the land is surrounded on all sides by waters [and] by great and small seas, David naturally called this [i.e., abyss] the earth's surrounding garment.[6] Also, "abyss calls to abyss", the same prophet says,[7] meaning figuratively military divisions and the excessive size of the multitude.[8]
"I was under water as [if] in a kind of abyss."[9]
So an abyss [is] a great amount of water.
Greek Original:
Abusson: hên oude buthos chôrêsai dunatai: Iônes de ton buthon busson phasin. hothen dokei legesthai kai bussodomeuein, para to dunô, to hupeiserchomai, kata tropên buô, busô, bebusmai, bebusai, busos kai abussos, hou oudeis eiserchetai dia to bathos. Aristophanês Batrachois: euthus gar epi limnên megalên hêxeis panu abusson. kai oudeterôs phêsin ho autos: heôs an êi to argurion to abusson para têi theôi, ouk eirêneusousin. en gar têi akropolei chilia talanta apekeito. Abusson kalei tên hugran ousian hê theia graphê. epei oun hê gê pantachothen hudasi periechetai megalois kai mikrois pelagesin, eikotôs peribolaion autês eirêken ho Dabid. kai, abussos abusson epikaleitai, ho autos prophêtês phêsin: ta stratiôtika legôn tagmata kai tên tou plêthous huperbolên tropikôs. hôs en abussôi tini hupobruchios egenomên. Abussos oun hudatôn plêthos polu.
Notes:
See also alpha 105.
[1] This comment on Ionian pronunciation comes from the scholiast on Aristophanes, Frogs 138, quoted later in the entry.
[2] In Homer, Odyssey, where bussodomeu/w occurs most frequently, it has the sense "brood over."
[3] cf. Etymologicum Magnum 4.44. These are principal parts of the verb bu/w, which means "to stuff," followed by buso/s, which does not exist according to LSJ. Probably this is a mistake for busso/s, "depth of the sea" (cf. beta 598, busso/n). The Suda generally has little concern for the distinction between single and double consonants. The author thus seems to propose a very dubious etymology: that a)-bussos literally means "unstuffable" -- i.e., unable to be entered. [Ms M (= Marcianus 448) omits this sentence.]
[4] Aristophanes, Frogs 137-8 (web address 1).
[5] "Silver" [a)rgu/rion] is a neuter noun in Greek, while lake [li/mnh] in the previous sentence is feminine; the point is that the same form a)/busson is used with both. The sentence quoted here is actually part of a scholion to Aristophanes, Lysistrata 173 (web address 2); Aristophanes uses the phrase to\ a)rgu/rion to\ a)/busson in that line itself.
[6] Psalm 103:6 LXX. See again under pi 1083.
[7] Psalm 41:8 LXX.
[8] Referring to the continuation of Psalm 41:8 LXX, "all thy waves and thy billows are gone over me" (KJV).
[9] From Theodoret's commentary (PG 80.1173) on Psalm 41:8 LXX.
Associated internet addresses:
Web address 1,
Web address 2
Keywords: Christianity; comedy; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; economics; epic; geography; history; imagery; military affairs; proverbs; religion
Translated by: Elizabeth Vandiver on 21 November 1998@17:02:02.
Vetted by:
William Hutton (Cosmetics, augmented note, added keywords, set status) on 5 February 2001@11:48:31.
David Whitehead (added note; cosmetics) on 9 February 2001@08:11:37.
David Whitehead (added x-ref; cosmetics) on 4 July 2003@08:14:49.
Elizabeth Vandiver (Added links; cosmetics) on 14 December 2003@15:22:17.
David Whitehead (modified translation and notes 6-9) on 28 April 2004@11:16:41.
Jennifer Benedict (betacoding) on 26 March 2008@00:15:00.
Catharine Roth (cosmetics) on 19 April 2011@18:23:25.
David Whitehead (more keywords) on 25 April 2011@04:11:52.
Catharine Roth (tweaked translation and note, after consulting with the translator) on 26 April 2011@17:14:37.
David Whitehead (augmented notes and keywords; tweaks and cosmetics) on 22 December 2011@03:45:27.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 21 November 2014@10:58:29.
David Whitehead (cosmetics) on 21 November 2014@11:44:30.
David Whitehead (coding) on 15 August 2015@07:36:21.

Headword: Abussos
Adler number: alpha,105
Translated headword: abyss, pit
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
There was a shrine of Persephone, which guarded much gold from all ages[1] [and] kept it inviolate.[2] In this [shrine] there was a certain pit of gold, not visible to the general public [and] hidden[3] under ground.
Greek Original:
Abussos: hieron ên tês Persephonês polun chruson ek pantos tou chronou pephulagmenon athikton echon. en hôi chrusos tis abussos, aoratos tois pollois kata gês kekrummenos.
Notes:
For this headword see already alpha 104.
The pi 3232 entry on Pyrrhus (the C4/3 BCE king of Epirus: see generally OCD(4) p.1245) comprises a lengthy anecdotal extract on him from the Roman Antiquities of Dionysius of Halicarnassus (20.8-9); the present entry paraphrases part of it (20.9.2). The date is 276-275, when Pyrrhus was campaigning for a second time in southern Italy and Sicily.
[1] Literally, "of all time".
[2] Or "untouched".
[3] Or simply "situated" (pi 3232).
Keywords: architecture; biography; economics; geography; historiography; history; military affairs; religion
Translated by: Elizabeth Vandiver on 1 October 1999@23:13:45.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (augmented notes; cosmetics) on 9 February 2001@08:44:13.
David Whitehead (augmented keywords; cosmetics) on 19 December 2003@08:01:03.
David Whitehead (another x-ref; more keywords) on 22 December 2011@03:48:15.
David Whitehead (updated a ref) on 29 July 2014@12:17:45.
William Hutton (tweaked translation on the basis of a suggestion of Brady Kiesling.) on 27 December 2016@10:22:00.

Headword: Agathoergoi
Adler number: alpha,115
Translated headword: agathoergoi, benefactors
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
Men selected according to valor.
From the Ephors.[1]
Greek Original:
Agathoergoi: hairetoi kat' andragathian. ek tôn Ephorôn.
Notes:
This is the name for a select group of Spartan elders. According to Herodotus (1.67.5: web address 1) five were selected each year from the eldest members of the cavalry, not from the ephors.
[1] Adler called these final three words locus dubius, and capitalized, as here, the word Ephors. For a speculative argument that this phrase should actually read "from the [sc. writings] of Ephoros", see D. Whitehead, 'Ephorus(?) on the Spartan constitution', Classical Quarterly n.s. 55 (2005) 299-301. [The suggestion has been taken up in Brill's New Jacoby s.v. Ephorus, by Victor Parker. However, the evidential basis for it is illusory, according to I.C. Cunningham, CQ n.s. 61 (2011) 312-314.]
Associated internet address:
Web address 1
Keywords: definition; ethics; geography; historiography; history; law; military affairs
Translated by: William Hutton on 31 March 2001@23:24:43.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (augmented note; added keyword) on 2 April 2001@03:36:30.
David Whitehead (augmented note and keywords) on 17 June 2005@09:32:07.
David Whitehead (expanded note) on 25 May 2011@06:46:44.
Catharine Roth (cosmetics) on 25 May 2011@11:04:04.
David Whitehead (expanded note; more keywords; cosmetics) on 22 December 2011@06:04:44.

Headword: Agathos
Adler number: alpha,121
Translated headword: good
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
[Meaning one who is] prudent. But the prudent man and the good man are not equivalents. For the 'good' man [has] something extra. For the prudent man [is] good, [as is] the brave man and others. Those who have some knowledge are also called good.[1]
"...the Daoi [were also called] good spearmen, and good too at hand-to-hand fighting."[2]
Greek Original:
Agathos: ho phronimos. ouk episês de ho phronimos kai ho agathos. epipleon gar ho agathos. agathos gar ho sôphrôn, ho andreios kai hoi loipoi. agathoi legontai kai hoi epistêmones. tous de Daous agathous men akontistas, agathous de kai en chersi poiêsasthai machên.
Notes:
[1] This material (from an unidentifiable source) is found only in the parallel entry in ps.-Zonaras. From the second sentence onwards it seems to be disputing the initial, simple equivalence.
[2] Quotation unidentifiable, but for the Daoi, a Danubian people, see Strabo 7.3.12 (web address 1); Steph.Byz, s.v. Dakia; OCD(4) p.409 s.v. Dacia, and Herodotus 1.125.4 (web address 2).
Associated internet addresses:
Web address 1,
Web address 2
Keywords: definition; ethics; geography; historiography; military affairs
Translated by: William Hutton on 31 March 2001@23:55:10.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (added note and keyword; cosmetics) on 25 April 2002@03:29:15.
Marcelo Boeri (Added reference.) on 10 July 2002@15:56:58.
Marcelo Boeri (Cosmetics) on 10 July 2002@16:26:19.
David Whitehead (another keyword) on 12 October 2005@08:01:34.
Jennifer Benedict (added links) on 26 March 2008@00:42:46.
David Whitehead (augmented notes; another keyword; tweaks) on 22 December 2011@07:07:38.
David Whitehead (updated a ref) on 29 July 2014@12:25:12.
David Whitehead (tweaking) on 4 April 2015@10:25:28.
Catharine Roth (tweaked links) on 2 January 2017@01:58:18.

Headword: Agapêton
Adler number: alpha,154
Translated headword: beloved, scarce
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
[Meaning] that which is loved or unique.[1]
Also [sc. attested is the related adverb] a)gaphtw/s ["scarcely"]. "So great was the foolishness among their leaders that they scarcely saw whether they would not be fighting with all who were taking part in the campaign."[2]
Greek Original:
Agapêton: to êgapêmenon ê to monogenes. kai houtô de ara polu to anoêton en tois hêgemosin autôn ên, hôste agapêtôs eidon, ei mê meta pantôn agôniountai tôn sunaramenôn tês stratias.
Notes:
[1] Neuter singular of this adjective. (For the plural see alpha 153.) Same or similar material in other lexica (references at Photius alpha121 Theodoridos), and in the scholia to Homer, Iliad 6.401. The term is applied e.g. to an only child, who is especially loved on that account: see LSJ s.v. at web address 1.
[2] Quotation unidentifiable. (It illustrates sense 2 in LSJ s.v.; sense 1 is 'gladly, contentedly.')
Associated internet address:
Web address 1
Keywords: children; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; epic; ethics; historiography; history; military affairs
Translated by: William Hutton on 2 April 2000@22:10:59.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (modified translation; added notes and keywords) on 11 February 2001@09:17:24.
Jennifer Benedict (added link) on 26 March 2008@01:18:42.
David Whitehead (modified headword and tr; augmented notes and keywords) on 27 March 2008@08:25:42.
David Whitehead (expanded n.1; more keywords; tweaks) on 23 December 2011@06:35:04.
David Whitehead on 16 August 2013@08:21:09.
David Whitehead (tweaking) on 4 April 2015@11:50:24.
Catharine Roth (upgraded link) on 4 April 2015@23:32:47.

Headword: Agapêtos
Adler number: alpha,156
Translated headword: Agapetos, Agapetus
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
Bishop of Synada.[1] Eusebius [the spiritual son] of Pamphilus[2] gives him great praise and mentions his amazing miracles: his shifting of boundaries and rivers and raisings of the dead. He also relates that when he was a soldier Maximinus[3] wanted to kill him for being a Christian, since he had learned that many were extremely impressed by the things he had accomplished.
Greek Original:
Agapêtos: episkopos Sunadôn, hon en epainôi pollôi tithetai Eusebios ho Pamphilou kai thaumatôn autou exaisiôn mnêmên poieitai, horôn metastaseis kai potamôn kai nekrôn egerseis. kai hoti stratiôtên onta êboulêthê Maximinos hôs Christianon apokteinai, dia to punthanesthai pollous ta pros autou teloumena huperagamenous.
Notes:
Philostorgius II.8a (pp. 19-20 Bidez-Winkelmann).
[1] In Phrygia. ('Synada' again under sigma 1427, but more usually spelled Synnada.) Barrington Atlas map 62 grid E4; present-day Suhut.
[2] Eusebius of Caesarea: epsilon 3737.
[3] Maximinus Daia, emperor 305-313 (mu 172).
Keywords: biography; Christianity; ethics; geography; military affairs; religion
Translated by: William Hutton on 2 April 2000@22:31:44.
Vetted by:
Catharine Roth (added note) on 27 February 2002@23:57:08.
David Whitehead (added note; cosmetics) on 28 February 2002@03:17:44.
Catharine Roth (added note) on 28 February 2002@10:44:08.
Catharine Roth (augmented notes) on 28 February 2002@11:52:36.
Catharine Roth (augmented reference in note 4) on 28 November 2004@23:35:35.
David Whitehead (more keywords) on 3 October 2005@07:10:06.
David Whitehead (tweaked and expanded notes; more keywords) on 23 December 2011@06:49:29.

Headword: Angaroi
Adler number: alpha,165
Translated headword: messengers
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
[Meaning] those who carry letters in relays.[1] They are also [called] 'couriers' [a)sta/ndai].[2] The words [are] Persian. Aeschylus in Agamemnon [writes]: "beacon sent beacon hither with relaying fire."[3] The word is also used for conveyors of freight and more generally of inanimate objects and slaves. Also [sc. attested is] the [verb] a)ggaroforei=n in reference to carrying burdens. And [the verb] a)ggareu/esqai means what we now speak of as being impressed to carry burdens and labor of that sort. Menander offers this example in the Sikyonios: "someone arriving by sea puts in? He is labelled an enemy. And if he has anything nice it's pressed into service [a)ggareu/etai]."[4]
Greek Original:
Angaroi: hoi ek diadochês grammatophoroi. hoi de autoi kai astandai. ta de onomata Persika. Aischulos Agamemnoni: phruktos de phrukton deuro ap' angarou puros epempe. tithetai to onoma kai epi tôn phortêgôn kai holôs tôn anaisthêtôn kai andrapodôdôn. kai to Angarophorein epi tou phortia pherein. kai Angareuesthai kalousin hôsper hêmeis nun to eis phortêgian kai toiautên tina hupêresian agesthai. Menandros kai touto en tôi Sikuôniôi paristêsin: ho pleôn katêchthê; krineth' houtos polemios. ean echêi ti malakon, angareuetai.
Notes:
Same entry in Photius, similar ones elsewhere.
LSJ entry at web address 1. See also alpha 162, alpha 163, alpha 164.
[1] cf. Herodotus 3.126 (web address 2) and esp. 8.98 (web address 3).
[2] cf. alpha 4420. The word appears also at Athenaeus, Deipnosophists 3.122A (3.94 Kaibel); Eustathius Commentaries on Homer's Odyssey vol. 2 p. 189.6; Hesychius alpha7814; Plutarch, Alexander 18 (bis); De Alex. fort. virt. 326E; 340C.
[3] Aeschylus, Agamemnon 282f. (web address 4), where the mss have a)gge/lou, an obvious gloss.
[4] Menander, Sikyonios fr.4 Sandbach [= fr 440 Kock].
Associated internet addresses:
Web address 1,
Web address 2,
Web address 3,
Web address 4
Keywords: comedy; daily life; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; historiography; history; military affairs; science and technology; tragedy; zoology
Translated by: Gregory Hays on 23 June 1999@13:13:42.
Vetted by:
William Hutton (Cosmetics, modified translation, added cross-references, keywords, links, set status) on 5 July 2001@12:26:03.
William Hutton (Fixed faulty linksz) on 5 July 2001@12:31:12.
Catharine Roth (added keyword and link; cosmetic) on 5 July 2001@13:14:47.
Anne Mahoney (make the Greek beta-code) on 6 July 2001@11:37:41.
David Whitehead (added keywords; cosmetics) on 25 April 2002@09:14:56.
Jennifer Benedict (betacoding, reordered links, cosmetics) on 26 March 2008@01:38:57.
David Whitehead (cosmetics) on 27 March 2008@08:32:31.
David Whitehead (augmented notes; tweaks and cosmetics) on 23 December 2011@08:14:35.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 12 August 2013@22:38:38.
Catharine Roth (typo) on 12 August 2013@23:22:50.
David Whitehead (tweaked a ref) on 14 January 2015@03:18:54.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 5 April 2015@23:40:43.

Headword: Agasthô tini
Adler number: alpha,168
Translated headword: I was amazed at someone, I was impressed by someone
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
Meaning I would wonder at someone. Xenophon [writes]: "whenever I was impressed by any of the soldiers."[1]
Greek Original:
Agasthô tini: anti tou thaumasô tina. Xenophôn: hotan tini agasthô tôn stratiôtôn.
Notes:
Same entry in other lexica; references at Photius alpha125 Theodoridis. The headword, extracted from the quotation given, is aorist subjunctive (first person singular) of a)/gamai.
cf. generally alpha 138, alpha 141, alpha 166, alpha 167.
[1] Xenophon, Cyropedia 2.4.9 (web address 1).
Associated internet address:
Web address 1
Keywords: definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; historiography; military affairs
Translated by: Gregory Hays on 4 June 1999@14:13:58.
Vetted by:
William Hutton (Altered headword and translation for consistency with other entries, set status to low) on 31 October 2001@09:57:04.
David Whitehead (added keywords; cosmetics) on 3 February 2003@07:43:44.
Jennifer Benedict (cosmeticule) on 26 March 2008@01:44:34.
David Whitehead (augmented notes; tweaks) on 23 December 2011@08:36:44.
David Whitehead (expanded primary note) on 18 August 2013@05:50:47.
Catharine Roth (tweaked link) on 5 April 2015@21:46:04.

Headword: Agelarchês
Adler number: alpha,183
Translated headword: herd-leader
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
The leader of the herd of oxen.
Greek Original:
Agelarchês: ho tês agelês tôn boôn archôn.
Notes:
Same entry, according to Adler, in the Ambrosian Lexicon.
LSJ s.v. (web address 1) shows both this literal meaning and the extended one of any kind of leader.
Associated internet address:
Web address 1
Keywords: definition; imagery; military affairs; zoology
Translated by: Gregory Hays on 23 June 1999@13:19:29.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (modified headword and translation; added note) on 11 February 2001@09:50:50.
Catharine Roth (augmented note, raised status) on 15 October 2007@01:23:17.
David Whitehead (tweaked note; more keywords) on 15 October 2007@03:11:25.
Jennifer Benedict (added link) on 26 March 2008@02:02:18.
David Whitehead (tweaks) on 29 December 2011@06:36:16.
Catharine Roth (cosmeticule) on 29 December 2011@11:39:20.
Catharine Roth (upgraded link, coding) on 5 April 2015@23:22:25.

Headword: Agesta
Adler number: alpha,203
Translated headword: agesta
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
[sc. An egesta is] a military device erected from stones and logs and earth. But some call such a device agesta.[1] See also under egesta.
Greek Original:
Agesta: polemikon mêchanêma ek lithôn kai xulôn kai chou egeiromenon. hoi de agesta phasi to toiouton mêchanêma. kai zêtei en tôi egesta.
Notes:
Copied from epsilon 52, egesta, q.v. for further detail (from Procopius). See also alpha 840, akessa.
[1] According to E.A. Sophocles' lexicon (s.v.), agesta comes from Latin aggestum or aggestus; cf. alpha 840.
Keywords: definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; historiography; military affairs; science and technology
Translated by: William Hutton on 18 October 2000@16:00:45.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (added note and keyword; cosmetics) on 25 April 2002@10:34:23.
Catharine Roth (modified notes) on 5 June 2002@20:57:20.
Catharine Roth (added cross-reference) on 5 June 2002@20:58:56.
David Whitehead (rearranged notes; tweaks) on 30 December 2011@07:28:29.

Headword: Agein kai pherein
Adler number: alpha,209
Translated headword: to plunder and to pillage
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
Marauding and despoiling. But a)gein [can mean], without distinction, both to carry away things, even from dead bodies, and to gather [them].[1]
"When [Baian] crossed to the land opposite the stream, immediately he set fire to the villages of the Slavs and laid waste to their fields. He plundered and pillaged everything, and at that point none of the barbarians there dared to come to blows with him; instead they took refuge in the most overgrown and sheltered parts of the woods".[2]
Greek Original:
Agein kai pherein: to lêisteuein kai harpazein. agein de kai apagein chrêmata kai epi apsuchôn kai komizein adiaphorôs. ho de epei eperaiôthê es to kat' antikru tou rheithrou, parachrêma tas te kômas enepimpra tôn Sklabênôn kai esineto tous agrous, êge te kai epheren hapanta, oudenos pô tôn ekeise barbarôn tharrêsantos hoi eis cheiras elthein, eis ta lasia kai katêrephê tês hulês katapepheugotôn.
Notes:
[1] Same or similar material in other lexica; references at Photius alpha139 Theodoridis. For the idiom, see also alpha 293 and epsilon 427.
[2] Part of Menander Protector fr. 21 Blockley. For the Slavs (Sklavenoi) see generally sigma 634.
Keywords: agriculture; biography; definition; geography; historiography; history; military affairs
Translated by: William Hutton on 22 October 2000@13:28:47.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (added note; cosmetics) on 23 October 2000@06:18:52.
David Whitehead (added x-ref and keyword) on 5 December 2003@10:27:09.
David Whitehead (another keyword) on 7 October 2005@06:01:12.
David Whitehead (tweaked tr; augmented and updated notes; more keywords) on 3 January 2012@04:35:39.
David Whitehead on 18 August 2013@06:46:28.
Catharine Roth (cross-references) on 17 December 2016@01:01:54.

Headword: Agêma
Adler number: alpha,219
Translated headword: division, guard, force, troop
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
[Meaning] the king's advancing force of elephants and horses and infantry. But some [sc. say that this term means] the best part of the Macedonian battle array;[1] strong in weaponry and in the conditioning of their bodies.[2]
Greek Original:
Agêma: to proïon tou basileôs tagma elephantôn kai hippôn kai pezôn. hoi de to ariston tês Makedonikês suntaxeôs: krataion hoplisei kai sômatôn euexiai.
Notes:
See also alpha 220.
[1] Same or similar material in other lexica; references at Photius alpha165 Theodoridis.
[2] This last clause (not in the other lexica) is perhaps a quotation; if so, it is unidentifiable.
Keywords: definition; history; medicine; military affairs; zoology
Translated by: William Hutton on 22 October 2000@23:07:28.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (added notes; cosmetics) on 26 April 2002@05:51:00.
David Whitehead (augmented notes; cosmetics) on 3 January 2012@09:14:08.
David Whitehead on 18 August 2013@07:11:41.
David Whitehead (another keyword) on 9 April 2015@03:11:13.

Headword: Agêma
Adler number: alpha,220
Translated headword: guard
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
The entire detachment is found abundantly in Arrian.[1]
Greek Original:
Agêma: to holôs tagma heurêtai kata polu para Arrianôi.
Notes:
See also alpha 219.
[1] e.g. Arrian, Anabasis 1.1.11.
Reference:
A.B. Bosworth, Conquest and Empire: the reign of Alexander the Great (Cambridge 1988) index s.v. "agema (royal guard)".
Keywords: definition; historiography; military affairs
Translated by: William Hutton on 22 October 2000@23:11:01.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (added note and bibliography; cosmetics) on 23 October 2000@07:26:02.
David Whitehead (added note) on 26 April 2002@05:48:33.
David Whitehead (cosmetics) on 3 January 2012@09:01:20.

Headword: Agênoriê
Adler number: alpha,221
Translated headword: arrogance, pride
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
[Meaning] stubbornness.
Greek Original:
Agênoriê: hê authadeia.
Notes:
Same glossing in Apollonius' Homeric Lexicon (7.20).
As LSJ s.v. indicates (web address 1), the headword noun (ending -rie in epic/Ionic dialect, -ria in others) has overtones which depend on context. What may be sometimes (or to some) manly courage easily spills over into damaging pride and arrogance. See e.g. Homer Iliad 22.457 ("cease from the baneful valour that possessed him"); 9.700 ("haughty is he even of himself, and now hast thou yet far more set him amid haughtinesses"); 12.46 ("though his valour is his bane").
See also alpha 223.
Associated internet address:
Web address 1
Keywords: definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; epic; ethics; military affairs
Translated by: Nathan Greenberg ✝ on 19 November 1998@08:48:17.
Vetted by:
Samuel Huskey on 25 June 2000@10:12:48.
Samuel Huskey on 25 June 2000@10:19:23.
David Whitehead (modified headword, translation, notes; augmented keywords; restorative cosmetics) on 26 April 2002@06:08:22.
David Whitehead (added note) on 26 April 2002@06:09:39.
Catharine Roth (upgraded link) on 18 August 2013@02:04:22.
David Whitehead (expanded note) on 18 August 2013@07:15:02.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 29 March 2015@22:50:45.
David Whitehead (another keyword) on 9 April 2015@03:12:15.

Headword: Agênorion
Adler number: alpha,222
Translated headword: Agenorion, Agenor-shrine
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
Name of a place.
Greek Original:
Agênorion: onoma topou.
Notes:
In Arrian, Anabasis 2.24.2: during Alexander the Great's siege of Tyre (332 BCE) the defenders attempt to rally at the Agenorion.
For Agenor cf. alpha 223. But NB Bosworth ad loc.: 'This supposed Shrine of Agenor is nowhere else attested, and it may be interpretatio Graeca, giving an established and familiar Greek name for an important Semitic sanctuary. Curt. iv.4.19 mentions Agenor as the founder of Tyre, and he had been solidly associated with Tyre in Greek mythology, figuring as the father of Europa, Cadmus, Cilix, and Phoenix [Author, Myth]'.
Reference:
A.B. Bosworth, A Historical Commentary on Arrian's History of Alexander, i (Oxford 1980)
Keywords: definition; geography; historiography; history; military affairs; mythology; religion
Translated by: Nathan Greenberg ✝ on 19 November 1998@08:57:52.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (added note and keyword; cosmetics) on 11 February 2001@11:48:31.
David Whitehead (modified/augmented my erroneous note; augmented keywords; cosmetics) on 14 April 2004@06:00:43.
David Whitehead on 1 August 2011@08:16:33.

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