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Headword: Aaptos
Adler number: alpha,5
Translated headword: irresistable, invulnerable
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
[Meaning someone/something] unharmed.
Herodianus[1] says about a)/aptos that it comes from i)a/ptw ['I harm'], and after adding alpha-privative and dropping the 'i' [it becomes] a)/aptos, "whom no one can harm." Or perhaps the 'a' is not to be taken as negative but as intensifying, so it would be "one who has great power to harm." Thus the first has a passive sense, the second an active. With the negative prefix it also means "one who is untouched."[2]
Greek Original:
Aaptos: ablabês. Hêrôdianos phêsi peri tou aaptos, hoti gignetai apo tou iaptô to blaptô, kai meta tou sterêtikou a kai kat' elleipsin tou i aaptos, hon oudeis dunatai blapsai. ê ouchi kata sterêsin eklêpteon to a, alla kat' epitasin, hin' êi ho megala dunamenos blaptein. hôste to men prôton dêloi pathos, to de deuteron energeian. legetai de kai aaptos kata sterêsin ho apsaustos.
Notes:
This form of the headword, the nominative singular masculine/feminine, is unattested outside lexicography; however, plural forms occur frequently in hexameter poetry, in the formula xei=res a)/aptoi or xei=ras a)a/ptous (usually interpreted as 'irresistable hands'); e.g. Homer, Iliad 8.450 (web address 1).
[1] The etymological comments that follow occur only in mss G (= Parisinus 2623) and T (= Vaticanus 881); cf. Herodianus 3.2.30.
[2] This etymology, alpha-privative + a(/ptomai ('touch'), is the one most commonly accepted nowadays. See LSJ s.v. (web address 2) and Schwyzer, DGE. Yet there is reason for doubt, and the correct Homeric form (attested already by Aristophanes of Byzantium) may actually be a)ept-. See Chantraine s.v. a)/aptos.
Associated internet addresses:
Web address 1,
Web address 2
Keywords: definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; epic; poetry
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 21 August 1998@16:48:12.
Vetted by:
William Hutton (Raised status; cosmetics) on 16 October 2000@15:10:37.
David Whitehead (added keyword; cosmetics) on 23 April 2002@07:40:44.
David Whitehead (betacoding and other cosmetics) on 9 November 2005@09:16:30.
William Hutton (Augmented notes, cosmetics, added keywords and links, set status) on 19 August 2007@18:31:56.
William Hutton (typo) on 20 August 2007@04:20:04.
William Hutton (augmented notes, tweaked headwords) on 20 August 2007@08:59:16.
Jennifer Benedict (cosmetics, consistency) on 25 March 2008@00:11:12.
Catharine Roth (cosmetics) on 16 December 2011@23:59:48.
David Whitehead (cosmetics) on 18 December 2011@10:14:21.
David Whitehead (cosmetics; note typo) on 2 April 2015@08:36:40.

Headword: Aarôn
Adler number: alpha,6
Translated headword: Aaron
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
Proper name.
Greek Original:
Aarôn: onoma kurion.
Notes:
Same entry, according to Adler, in the Ambrosian Lexicon.
Hebrew אהרון, brother of Moses (mu 1348); Aaron is also mentioned in nu 1, omicron 68.
See web address 1 below for the entry in the Catholic Encyclopedia on Aaron.
Associated internet address:
Web address 1
Keywords: biography; definition; religion
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 21 August 1998@16:48:52.
Vetted by:
Samuel Huskey (added link to Catholic Encyclopedia entry "Aaron") on 15 July 2000@14:22:28.
David Whitehead (added keywords) on 27 February 2003@07:07:28.
David Whitehead (added a note) on 13 April 2004@09:17:08.
William Hutton (augmented note, set status) on 20 August 2007@04:30:20.
William Hutton (typo) on 20 August 2007@09:00:32.
Jennifer Benedict (added note (citation of link)) on 25 March 2008@00:12:22.
David Whitehead (another note) on 18 December 2011@10:16:36.

Headword: Aasamên
Adler number: alpha,7
Translated headword: I was addled
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
[Meaning] I did wrong, I slipped up;[1] I was damaged,[2] in the sense of "I was overcome by folly."
Greek Original:
Aasamên: hêmarton, esphalên: eblabên, hoion atêi periepeson.
Notes:
The headword is the first person singular, aorist indicative middle/passive, of a)a/w (LSJ entry at web address 1). It is found frequently in epic poetry, e.g. Homer Iliad 9.116 (web address 2).
[1] Up to this point the entry = Synagoge (Codex B) alpha3 (Lexica Segueriana 3.8 Bachmann).
[2] From here on the entry is very similar to Apollonius Sophistes, Homeric Lexicon 1.19, and Hesychius alpha25.
Associated internet addresses:
Web address 1,
Web address 2
Keywords: definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; epic; ethics; poetry; religion
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 21 August 1998@16:50:10.
Vetted by:
William Hutton (Raised status, minor alterations to translation) on 17 October 2000@17:21:27.
William Hutton on 17 October 2000@17:22:15.
David Whitehead (modified headword and translation; cosmetics) on 9 February 2001@04:43:19.
William Hutton (modified translation, augmented notes, added links and keywords, set status) on 20 August 2007@04:52:46.
William Hutton (updated footnote) on 8 November 2007@06:02:11.
Jennifer Benedict (betacode typo) on 22 March 2008@17:15:55.
Jennifer Benedict (cosmetics) on 25 March 2008@00:13:03.
William Hutton on 22 July 2009@15:25:18.
Catharine Roth (upgraded link) on 17 December 2011@00:09:02.
David Whitehead on 16 August 2013@06:06:47.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 3 September 2014@10:30:04.

Headword: Aasai
Adler number: alpha,8
Translated headword: to harm, to infatuate
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
has four meanings: to satisfy,[1] to go to sleep,[2] to harm, to cause pain.
Greek Original:
Aasai tessara sêmainei: koresai, kathupnôsai, blapsai, lupêsai.
Notes:
The headword is aorist active infinitive, glossed with four others. The entry = Photius, Lexicon alpha9 Theodoridis, and similar material can be found in Synagoge (Codex B) alpha4 (Lexica Segueriana 3.5-7). Compare also Etymologicum Gudianum 1.8. This particular form is unattested outside lexicography, though it appears as an entry in Apollonius Sophistes, Homeric Lexicon 2.5, and is presumably related to such Homeric forms as we find at alpha 7.
[1] This meaning is unattested for the verb a)a/w (LSJ entry at web address 1).
[2] In that one loses consciousness and control in sleep, as in Homer Odyssey 10.68 (web address 2).
Associated internet addresses:
Web address 1,
Web address 2
Keywords: definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; epic; poetry
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 21 August 1998@16:55:13.
Vetted by:
William Hutton (Translated headword, changed status) on 17 October 2000@17:24:27.
David Whitehead (augmented note; cosmetics) on 2 August 2004@09:47:05.
William Hutton (Augmented notes, added links and keywords, set status) on 20 August 2007@05:15:27.
William Hutton (typo) on 20 August 2007@09:12:24.
William Hutton on 8 November 2007@06:10:34.
Jennifer Benedict (cosmetics) on 25 March 2008@00:13:46.
Catharine Roth (upgraded link) on 17 December 2011@00:11:54.
David Whitehead on 16 August 2013@06:08:03.

Headword: Abakêsan
Adler number: alpha,11
Translated headword: they kept quiet
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
[Meaning] they were unaware, they did not understand.
Greek Original:
Abakêsan: êgnoêsan, êsunetêsan.
Note:
The headword is the third person plural, aorist indicative active, of a)bake/w. This form is found only in Homer, Odyssey 4.249 (web address 1), and the many lexicographical notices generated by it. Of those the most similar to this entry are Photius, Lexicon alpha22 Theodoridis, and Etymologicum Magnum 2.30-31. Compare also Apollonius Sophistes, Homeric Lexicon 2.16; Hesychius alpha54. The glosses offered here and elsewhere probably represent semantic extrapolation from the Homeric context: When Odysseus comes in disguise to Troy, Helen knows who he is but the rest of the people in Troy a)ba/khsan. The translation of the headword, on the other hand, reflects the verb's probable etymological connection with the verb ba/zw 'speak', and the adjective a)bakh/s ('speechless', 'tranquil'). Cf. Chantraine s.v. a)bakh/s, a connection that is sometimes mentioned as a possibility in the ancient scholarship.
Associated internet address:
Web address 1
Keywords: definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; epic; poetry
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 21 August 1998@16:58:43.
Vetted by:
Catharine Roth (Altered wording, added note and link.) on 29 July 2000@23:31:10.
David Whitehead (expanded note; cosmetics) on 22 July 2003@10:04:22.
Catharine Roth (modified link, added betacode, raised status) on 26 November 2006@23:52:21.
William Hutton (modified headword, augmented note) on 21 August 2007@09:45:37.
Jennifer Benedict (cosmeticule) on 24 March 2008@23:27:53.
Catharine Roth (upgraded link) on 17 December 2011@00:20:49.
David Whitehead on 16 August 2013@06:10:41.

Headword: Abaton
Adler number: alpha,23
Translated headword: inaccessible
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
[Meaning something] sacred, unapproachable, desolate;[1] also an 'inaccessible' road, [meaning] impassable.
Greek Original:
Abaton: hieron, aprositon, erêmon: kai hodos abatos, hê aporeutos.
Notes:
The headword is the neuter singular form of this adjective, which, as a substantive, can be used for the adyton of a temple or shrine.
[1] Up to this point the entry = Synagoge alpha5, and Photius, Lexicon alpha31 Theodoridis; cf. Hesychius alpha91 (where Latte confidently asserts that the headword is quoted from Euripides, Bacchae 10).
Keywords: architecture; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; geography; religion; tragedy
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 23 August 1998@16:21:29.
Vetted by:
William Hutton (Modified headword and translation, set keywords and status) on 20 January 2001@11:38:48.
David Whitehead (modified translation; added a keyword; typo and other cosmetics) on 13 April 2004@09:31:34.
Catharine Roth (augmented note, added keyword, raised status) on 3 October 2007@19:18:41.
Catharine Roth (deleted keyword) on 3 October 2007@19:29:24.
David Whitehead (another keyword) on 4 October 2007@03:40:05.
William Hutton (Modifed and updated notes.) on 11 November 2007@07:16:09.
David Whitehead (cosmetics) on 19 December 2011@06:14:37.
David Whitehead (expanded n.1; another keyword) on 1 February 2012@03:58:10.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 5 August 2013@00:52:27.
David Whitehead on 16 August 2013@06:33:19.
William Hutton (typo) on 21 August 2013@10:06:07.

Headword: Abachthanê
Adler number: alpha,24
Translated headword: abakhthani
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
A Hebrew expression.
Greek Original:
Abachthanê: lexis Hebraïkê.
Notes:
Strictly speaking the headword is a truncated Aramaic, rather than Hebrew, term. Its proper form in Greek transliteration is sabaxqa/ni and translates "you have forsaken me." The term occurs at Matthew 27:46 and Mark 15:34, where Jesus on the cross quotes Psalm 21:2 LXX (22:2 MT): "God, my God, ... why have you forsaken me?" (see eta 210). For the Hebrew, see Kohlenberger, 3.367. In Aramaic, "why have you forsaken me" is למא שבקתני lama šaḇaqtani. The Suda has carelessly disassociated the sigma, creating in effect "lamas aḇaqtani or a)baxqanh--a clear signal that the compiler was unfamiliar with Aramaic. The Psalmic Hebrew original is עזבתני 'azaḇtani, from עזב ʿazaḇ "forsake, forget". For the triliteral root citation, see Brown, Driver, and Briggs, 736ff. For šaḇaqtani (from שבק šeḇaq), see Perschbacher, 364; Danker, 909.
The Suda item has a circumflex accent on the final syllable. In the Hebrew עזבתני ʿazaḇtani, the accent falls on the penultimate syllable (-ta-), consistent with perfects suffixed with a first person singular pronoun; for this, see Kelley, 154.A; Gesenius, 155(58.1). So in the Aramaic, the accent falls on the penultimate syllable (-ta-). That said, the accent in Greek transliteration is inconsistent. Perschbacher places it over the final iota (sabaxqani/) in the headword; however, his citation from The Greek New Testament According to the Majority Text (1982) places the accent over the penultimate (sabaxqa/ni). In addition, Perschbacher offers the transliteration sabaxqanei/ from The New Testament in the Original Greek (1881). Danker places the accent over the penultimate syllable.
Phonologically, the Aramaic shin (ש š /ʃ/) cannot be accommodated by Greek, which must substitute sigma. For a parallel instance, see omega 182 (note 47). Both chi (for Aramaic ק qaf) and theta (for Aramaic ת taw) function as aspirated plosives (equivalent to English "kit" and "top"). See Allen, 16-17. The theta is noteworthy insofar as its sound value parallels that of the taw (ת) in šaḇaqtani, hardened by silent shewa and dagesh lene. Moreover, the Aramaic in Greek transliteration bolsters the linguistic argument for the compound "chi-theta" as successive aspirated plosives. See Allen, 24-27. Aramaic taw, like its Hebrew counterpart, otherwise has a "th" (as in "both") value. See "Aramaic" in Encyclopaedia Judaica, 3.263; a modern descriptive approach is found in "Aramaic" (Kaufman). For theta as a fricative in Hebrew transliteration, see omega 182 (note 47).
That the Suda terminates the headword with eta rather than iota (paralleling the Aramaic khireq-yod or long "i") showcases a phonological shift in Greek. By the 3rd century CE, the Greek letters eta, and the digraph epsilon-iota (note the -ei alternative in Perschbacher) were sounded as long iota. See Allen, 74. The Suda compiler viewed eta as the more elegant solution. This feature bears directly on the Suda's own taxonomy: the homophones epsilon-iota, eta, and iota follow zeta in the Suda's "alphabetical" scheme. See "Suidas" in the Encyclopaedia Britannica, XXVI.51.
References:
Allen, W.S. Vox Graeca. Cambridge: Cambridge University, 1968
"Aramaic" in Encyclopaedia Judaica. Jerusalem: Encyclopaedia Judaica, 1973
Brown, F., Driver, S.R., and Briggs, C.A. A Hebrew and English Lexicon of the Old Testament. Oxford: Clarendon, 1951
Danker, F.W. A Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament and Other Early Christian Literature. Chicago: University of Chicago, 2000
Kautzsch, E. Gesenius' Hebrew Grammar. Oxford: Clarendon, 1910
Kelley, P.H. Biblical Hebrew: An Introductory Grammar. Grand Rapids: William B. Erdmans, 1992
Kohlenberger, J.R. The Interlinear Hebrew-English Old Testament. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1987
Kaufman, S.A. "Aramaic" in Hetzron, R. The Semitic Languages. New York: Routledge, 1997
Perschbacher, W.J. The New Analytical Greek Lexicon. Peabody: Hendrickson, 1996
"Suidas" in Encyclopaedia Britannica. Cambridge: Cambridge University, 1910
Keywords: Christianity; chronology; dialects, grammar, and etymology; poetry; religion
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 4 December 1999@16:23:20.
Vetted by:
Raphael Finkel on 9 December 1999@11:17:30.
Elizabeth Vandiver on 14 December 1999@16:17:44.
Craig Miller on 27 May 2002@01:29:46.
Craig Miller (Reformatted translation; modified/expanded notes; added bibliography; expanded keywords. Cosmetics pending by editor.) on 27 May 2002@01:58:58.
Craig Miller (Cosmetics) on 27 May 2002@15:48:11.
Craig Miller on 27 May 2002@16:11:44.
Catharine Roth (added cross-reference) on 4 October 2002@00:55:00.
Raphael Finkel (Added Hebrew and Aramaic characters.) on 31 October 2002@10:06:56.
Raphael Finkel (Minor fixes.) on 31 October 2002@12:39:23.
Elizabeth Vandiver (Added italics; cosmetics) on 12 February 2005@21:58:54.
Catharine Roth (cosmetics) on 1 March 2006@01:08:11.
David Whitehead (another keyword; tweaks and cosmetics) on 19 December 2011@06:21:33.
Catharine Roth (coding, typo) on 5 August 2013@00:57:53.
Raphael Finkel (Fixed translation of LXX; changed to ISO 259 Romanization of Hebrew and Aramaic.) on 7 August 2014@13:30:23.
Raphael Finkel (Standardized Romanization fonts.) on 7 August 2014@13:46:48.
David Whitehead (coding) on 15 August 2015@07:25:56.

Headword: Abês
Adler number: alpha,38
Translated headword: stupid
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
[Meaning someone or something] unintelligent.
Greek Original:
Abês: ho asunetos.
Notes:
(Entry lacking, Adler reports, in ms S.)
The headword is found only in lexicographers, who seem unsure of its meaning(s): besides the above, cf. a)nai/sxuntos 'shameless' (Hesychius) and a)no/sios 'unholy' (Hesychius and the Etymologicum Gudianum).
Keywords: definition; ethics
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 26 August 1998@18:51:47.
Vetted by:
William Hutton (Altered translation, added keyword, set status) on 26 January 2001@23:17:19.
David Whitehead (added note) on 13 April 2004@09:52:21.
Catharine Roth (augmented note, raised status) on 10 October 2007@00:29:57.
David Whitehead (tweaked note) on 19 December 2011@07:02:35.
David Whitehead (another note and keyword; cosmetic) on 28 March 2014@06:27:47.
David Whitehead (cosmetics) on 2 April 2015@09:19:12.

Headword: Abiadênos
Adler number: alpha,40
Translated headword: Abiadenian
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
From the city Abiadene.
Greek Original:
Abiadênos: apo poleôs Abiadênês.
Notes:
No such city is attested, so surely the name in question here is Adiabene (see alpha 470, and generally OCD(4) p.12), even though that is consistently classified as a "territory" (in present-day Iraq) rather than a "city".
This entry occurs only here and in the derivative ps.-Zonaras.
Keywords: definition; geography
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 26 August 1998@18:53:03.
Vetted by:
William Hutton (Added headword, cosmetics, set status) on 26 January 2001@23:20:36.
David Whitehead (added note) on 9 February 2001@06:01:49.
Catharine Roth (augmented note, raised status) on 9 October 2007@13:07:20.
David Whitehead (cosmetics) on 19 December 2011@07:05:59.
David Whitehead (updated a ref) on 29 July 2014@12:10:51.

Headword: Abiathar
Adler number: alpha,41
Translated headword: Abiathar
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
Proper name.
Greek Original:
Abiathar: onoma kurion.
Notes:
In Mark 2.26, Abiathar is a priest who gives sacred food to David and his men.
In 1 Samuel 21.4-8, the priest is Ahimilech, and Abiathar is his son; cf. 1 Samuel 22.20.
Keywords: biography; Christianity; definition; food; religion
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 26 August 1998@18:53:54.
Vetted by:
William Hutton (Added headword, set status.) on 26 January 2001@23:22:05.
David Whitehead (augmented keywords) on 27 February 2003@08:34:57.
David Whitehead on 1 August 2011@07:36:15.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 7 August 2013@23:37:32.

Headword: Abigas
Adler number: alpha,43
Translated headword: Abigas
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
A river.
Greek Original:
Abigas: potamos.
Notes:
In Numidia; the present-day Oued bou Roughal, in (present-day) Algeria. Barrington Atlas Map 34 grid F2. Mentioned in (e.g.) Procopius, History of the Wars of Justinian 4.19.7.
See again under rho 270.
Keywords: definition; geography; historiography
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 26 August 1998@18:57:23.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (added headword and note) on 9 October 2000@06:42:22.
David Whitehead (augmented note (with info supplied by Nicholas Fincher) and keywords) on 8 September 2004@06:58:03.
David Whitehead on 19 July 2011@08:01:42.
David Whitehead (x-ref) on 25 August 2011@05:20:08.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 7 August 2013@23:40:15.

Headword: Abioud
Adler number: alpha,48
Translated headword: Abioud, Abihud
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
Proper name.
Greek Original:
Abioud: onoma kurion.
Notes:
Exodus 6:23 (etc.): a son of Aaron.
cf. the genealogy of Christ at Matthew 1:13 (son of Zorobabel, father of Eliakim).
Keywords: biography; Christianity; definition; religion
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 26 August 1998@19:00:24.
Vetted by:
William Hutton (Added headword, set status) on 28 January 2001@20:47:42.
William Hutton (Added note and keyword) on 29 January 2001@19:34:27.
David Whitehead (added keywords; cosmetics) on 27 February 2003@08:44:09.
Catharine Roth (cosmetic, keyword) on 17 November 2009@18:43:35.
David Whitehead (expanded notes) on 19 December 2011@07:26:26.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 8 August 2013@00:39:08.

Headword: Abitos
Adler number: alpha,53

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