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Headword: Brenthuesthai
Adler number: beta,532
Translated headword: to be haughty, to take umbrage
Vetting Status: high
[Used] with an accusative. [Meaning] to get carried away by rage or to pretend to be angry.[1]
"But he, putting on airs, got far more haughty."[2]
Also [sc. attested is] brenqu/etai ["is haughty"], [meaning] is conceited. Brenthos is a type of perfume that women smear themselves with and get big ideas.[3]
Also [sc. attested is] brenqu/h| ["you act haughty"], [meaning] you are arrogant and you have big ideas about yourself. For some giving in to themselves go around with a pompous bearing. Thus, while Prodikos is wise, and Socrates enjoys an empty reputation among us for wisdom.[4] Aristophanes in Clouds [writes]: "you act haughty in the streets and you roll your eyes around."[5] [This means] you puff yourself up in your appearance and you glare like a bull or like a braggart. The metaphor [comes] from the perfume brenthos.
Also [sc. attested is] brenquo/menos ["he being haughty"], [meaning] being conceited, thinking big.
Agathias [writes]: "and they, acting exceedingly haughty on account of the new arrivals, despised the things at their feet."[6]
And elsewhere: "he went to the empress all full of himself and haughty."[7]
Greek Original:
Brenthuesthai: aitiatikêi. dia thumon meteôrizesthai ê prospoieisthai orgizesthai. ho de sobareuomenos pollôi mallon katebrenthueto. kai Brenthuetai, epairetai. brenthos de eidos murou, hôi chriomenai hai gunaikes mega phronousi. kai Brenthuêi, semnunêi kai mega phroneis eph' hautôi. hoi gar apodedôkotes heautois sobarôs te badizousin. hôs tou men Prodikou ontos sophou, tou de Sôkratous kenên hêmin epi sophiai doxan karpoumenou. Aristophanês Nephelais: brenthuêi en taisin hodoisin, kai tô 'phthalmô paraballêi. aposemnuneis seauton tôi schêmati kai taurêdon horais ê alazonikôs. hê metaphora apo brentheiou murou. kai Brenthuomenos, epairomenos, mega phronôn. Agathias: hoi de meizonôs, eiper echrên epi tois phthasasi brenthuomenoi tôn en posi katôligôroun. kai authis: ho de es tên basilida eporeueto exônkômenos kai mala brenthuomenos.
[1] Same or similar glossing in other lexica.
[2] Theophylact Simocatta, Histories 1.3.12.
[3] Similar material in other lexica.
[4] This is an explanation of Aristophanes, Clouds 360-364, from which the quotation in the next sentence is taken.
[5] Aristophanes, Clouds 363 (web address 1 below).
[6] Agathias, Histories 5.16 Niebuhr.
[7] Menander Protector fr. 9.3 Blockley.
Associated internet address:
Web address 1
Keywords: biography; botany; comedy; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; ethics; gender and sexuality; historiography; history; imagery; philosophy; women
Translated by: William Hutton on 24 October 2000@23:32:36.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (augmented notes; added keyword; cosmetics) on 30 May 2001@10:36:12.
David Whitehead (another keyword) on 18 October 2005@06:04:44.
David Whitehead (augmented notes and keywords; tweaks and cosmetics) on 13 June 2011@06:52:54.
David Whitehead (updated a reference) on 3 January 2012@05:04:02.
David Whitehead (cosmetics) on 3 June 2012@08:59:04.
Catharine Roth (cosmetics) on 14 August 2012@00:10:27.
David Whitehead (tweaking) on 23 September 2015@10:43:09.

Headword: Chara
Adler number: chi,85
Translated headword: joy
Vetting Status: high
[Meaning] pleasure, cheerfulness, delight. Some say that the same thing is signified by these words, as far as the underlying concept is concerned. But Prodicus[1] tried to assign a particular signification to each of these nouns,[2] just as those from the Stoa [do], saying[3] that 'joy' is a reasonable elation, while 'pleasure' is elation without reason; 'delight' is pleasure that comes from things we see, 'cheerfulness' from words. But this is [the approach] of prescriptivists. For it is not a mistake to call pleasure 'joy'; just as it is not a mistake to call the monad indivisible; nor to call joy 'joy' or the monad 'monad'. But agreeing to call one thing by a thing that is different is absurd and false.
Greek Original:
Chara: hêdonê, euphrosunê, terpsis. tines phasi kata to hupokeimenon tauton sêmainomenon einai. Prodikos de epeirato hekastôi tôn onomatôn toutôn idion ti sêmainomenon hupotassein, hôsper kai hoi apo tês Stoas, charan men legontes eulogon eparsin, hêdonên de eparsin alogon, terpsin de tên dia theôrias hêdonên, euphrosunên de tên dia logôn hêdonên: nomothetountôn de esti touto. to men gar eipein hêdonên charan ouch hamartêma, hôsper oude to tên monada adiaireton: oude gar to tên charan charan eipein ê tên monada monada: to de sumbebêkenai thateron thaterôi legein atopon te kai pseudos.
From Alexander of Aphrodisias, Commentaries on Aristotle's Topics 181.1-9 (on Topics 2.6 = 112b22).
[1] The sophist Prodicus of Ceos: see generally pi 2365.
[2] On Prodicus and his skills in dealing with synonymy cf. Plato, Protagoras 337A-C and especially 358B. See also Democritus B 26 DK.
[3] The logical and grammatical antecedent of this participle is the Stoics, but this has not stopped someone from ascribing this precise division of terms and the method on which it is based to Prodicus (DK A19). Aristotle (see note above) distinguishes himself from Prodicus by identifying xara/, te/ryis, eu)frosu/nh as types of h(donai/ (pleasures) without distinguishing further between the terms.
cf. also the scholia to Plato, Phaedrus 267B.
M. Reesor. "The Stoic *I*D*I*O*N and Prodicus' Near-Synonyms." American Journal of Philology 104 (1983) 130 ff.
Keywords: definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; ethics; philosophy; rhetoric
Translated by: William Hutton on 25 October 2000@13:10:55.
Vetted by:
Marcelo Boeri (Minor alterations to trasnlation. Footnote added. Set status) on 26 October 2000@19:27:45.
Marcelo Boeri on 29 October 2000@23:35:17.
David Whitehead (added note; cosmetics) on 20 December 2002@06:03:12.
Catharine Roth (betacode typo) on 12 December 2011@10:57:35.
David Whitehead (another keyword; tweaks and cosmetics; raised status) on 13 December 2011@03:07:21.
David Whitehead (cosmetics) on 8 November 2013@03:52:13.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 3 February 2015@23:35:34.

Headword: Dialoidoreitai
Adler number: delta,638
Translated headword: lambastes, rails at
Vetting Status: high
It is construed with a dative.[1]
"For Aristophanes says these things not so much because he likes Prodicus as because he hates Socrates. For in the Birds he lambastes Prodicus."[2]
Greek Original:
Dialoidoreitai. dotikêi suntassetai. ho gar Aristophanês ou philôn Prodikon tauta phêsin, hoson misôn Sôkratên. en gar tois Ornisi dialoidoreitai Prodikôi.
[1] Besides the instance quoted below, see e.g. Herodotus 2.121.d (cited in LSJ s.v.).
[2] Quoted from a scholion to Aristophanes, Clouds 361, which compares Socrates unfavorably with Prodicus of Keos (on whom see generally pi 2365/pi 2366): web address 1 below. The cross-reference is to Birds 693: web address 2 below (and again at pi 2366).
Associated internet addresses:
Web address 1,
Web address 2
Keywords: biography; comedy; dialects, grammar, and etymology; ethics; philosophy
Translated by: William Hutton on 25 October 2000@15:21:58.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (augmented notes; minor cosmetics) on 26 March 2001@04:30:00.
David Whitehead (augmented and rearranged notes; more keywords; cosmetics) on 29 June 2012@07:09:17.
Catharine Roth (cosmeticules) on 25 August 2013@20:36:42.

Headword: Isokratês
Adler number: iota,652
Translated headword: Isokrates, Isocrates
Vetting Status: high
Son of Theodoros the aulos-maker; Athenian, orator, born during the 86th Olympiad, which is [to say] after the Peloponnesian War.[1] And on account of the lack of vigor of his voice and his lack of outspokenness he did not deliver [sc. speeches in] lawsuits,[2] but he taught many [people], and he wrote 32 speeches. He died at the age of 106.[3] His brothers were Tisippos and Theomnestos and Theodoros. His teacher [was] Gorgias, but some say Tisias, others Erginos,[4] others Prodikos, others Theramenes. His speeches are numerous.
Greek Original:
Isokratês, Theodôrou aulopoiou, Athênaios, rhêtôr, genomenos epi tês p#2# olumpiados, ho esti meta ta Peloponnêsiaka. kai dia men tês phônês tên atonian kai to aparrêsiaston dikas ouk eipen, edidaxe de pleistous, kai logous gegrapse lb#: biôsas de etê #2# pros tois r# eteleutêsen. adelphoi de autôi egenonto Tisippos kai Theomnêstos kai Theodôros: didaskalos de Gorgias, hoi de Tisian phasin, hoi de Erginon: hoi de Prodikon ephasan, hoi de Thêramenên. hoi de logoi autou pleistoi.
OCD(4) s.v. Isocrates.
[1] The 86th Olympiad covers the years 436/5 to 433/2, so 'after the Peloponnesian War' (of 431-404) is incorrect. For the phrase justifiably used, see under theta 93 and theta 385.
[2] Isocrates himself referred several times to this defect and its consequences (e.g. 5.81, 12.9-10, Letters 7.7); and see also [Plutarch], Lives of the Ten Orators 838E.
[3] He died in 338, so this figure is too large.
[4] D. Ruhnken emended this to "Archinos".
Keywords: biography; chronology; geography; law; medicine; meter and music; rhetoric; trade and manufacture
Translated by: George Pesely on 22 October 2000@20:05:37.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (added headword and bibliography; augmented note; cosmetics; raised status) on 23 October 2000@06:45:38.
David Whitehead (added keywords; cosmetics) on 28 February 2003@09:32:56.
David Whitehead (augmented notes, at the prompting of Claude Desplanques; another keyword) on 12 February 2008@04:58:11.
David Whitehead (more keywords; tweaking) on 15 January 2013@07:59:09.
David Whitehead (typo, spotted by Ron Allen) on 2 June 2013@04:07:23.
David Whitehead (updated a ref) on 4 August 2014@03:58:47.
David Whitehead (coding) on 27 April 2016@07:10:51.

Headword: Kothornos
Adler number: kappa,1909
Translated headword: buskin, boot
Vetting Status: high
[An item of] footwear fitting either foot.[1]
Aristophanes [writes]: "what [is] the buskin of your journey?". As if, what have you come wearing on your feet?[2]
This [i.e. "Buskin"] was also the name for Theramenes, an Athenian orator and pupil of Prodicus of Keos. It referred to his constant shifts of position. For this man was enthusiastic both for the Thirty and for the democracy.[3]
The buskin fits both men and women as footgear.[4]
Greek Original:
Kothornos: hupodêma amphoterodexion. Aristophanês: tis ho kothornos tês hodou; hoion ti hupodêsamenos parei; houtôs ekaleito kai Thêramenês, Athênaios rhêtôr, mathêtês Prodikou tou Keiou. eirêtai de epi tou strephomenou sunechôs. houtos gar kai tois l# sunespeude kai tôi plêthei. hoti ho kothornos andrasi kai gunaixi pros tas hupodeseis harmottei.
[1] Similarly in other lexica; see the references at Photius kappa857 Theodoridis.
[2] Aristophanes, Birds 994, with scholion. For modern comment see Aristophanes, Birds, edited with introduction and commentary by Nan Dunbar (Oxford 1995) 552-3.
[3] See fully under theta 342 (and delta 234).
[4] From delta 234.
Keywords: biography; clothing; comedy; definition; ethics; gender and sexuality; history; imagery; philosophy; rhetoric; women
Translated by: David Whitehead on 31 August 2001@04:06:30.
Vetted by:
Catharine Roth (cosmetics, status) on 19 October 2003@16:59:40.
David Whitehead (more keywords) on 20 October 2003@03:32:05.
David Whitehead on 6 March 2013@08:41:35.

Headword: Prodikos
Adler number: pi,2365
Translated headword: Prodikos, Prodicus
Vetting Status: high
A Ceian; from the island of Ceos, and the city of Iulis. Philosopher of nature and sophist. Contemporary of Democritus of Abdera[1] and of Gorgias;[2] pupil of Protagoras of Abdera.[3] He died in Athens of drinking hemlock, as a corrupter of the young.[4]
Greek Original:
Prodikos, Keios, ho apo Keô tês nêsou, poleôs de Ioulidos, philosophos phusikos kai sophistês, sunchronos Dêmokritou tou Abdêritou kai Gorgiou, mathêtês Prôtagorou tou Abdêritou. en Athênais kôneion piôn apethanen, hôs diaphtheirôn tous neous.
C5 BC. See generally RE Prodikos(3); OCD4 Prodicus; DK 84; Philostratus, Lives of the Sophists 1.12.
[1] delta 447: Democritus.
[2] gamma 388: Gorgias.
[3] pi 2958: Protagoras.
[4] Highly improbable. See rather sigma 829: Socrates.
Keywords: biography; chronology; ethics; geography; law; medicine; philosophy; rhetoric
Translated by: Malcolm Heath on 27 June 2001@11:21:29.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (added note and keyword; cosmetics) on 28 June 2001@03:55:47.
David Whitehead (more keywords; cosmetics) on 16 November 2011@09:25:45.
David Whitehead (updated a ref) on 2 August 2014@11:42:03.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 11 December 2014@01:24:41.

Headword: Prodikon
Adler number: pi,2366
Translated headword: advocate; Prodikos, Prodicus
Vetting Status: high
[An "advocate" is] a judge/juror in relation to friends, and an arbitrator.[1] Aristophanes in Centaur [writes]: "for personally, if anything has done you injustice, I want the case to go to arbitration by one of your own friends."[2]
And [there is] a proverb: 'wiser than Prodicus'.[3] Aristophanes in Clouds [writes]: "for we would certainly not listen to another more than Prodicus on account of his wisdom and judgement."[4] Prodicus [was] a sophist, Keian by descent. He was at his prime during Socratic times. This man was the first to create a fifty-drachma display[-lecture].[5] Plato in Protagoras and Xenophon in the Memorabilia make mention of him.[6] But in truth Aristophanes also did in Broilers, thus: "either Prodicus or one of his disciples destroyed this man or [his] book."[7] And [Aristophanes] also slandered him in Birds: "you may in future tell Prodicus [to go] from me and weep".[8] This man was also a teacher of Theramenes, the so-called Kothornos, who took part in the tyranny of the 30. He was called Kothornos because he was equally enthusiastic about the 30 and about the democracy.[9] It is also said that there was a book written by Prodicus [entitled] Horai, in which he made Heracles encounter Virtue and Vice; each of them calls him to behave like her, but Heracles opts for Virtue, judging her exertions preferable to the sweet opportunites offered by the other.[10]
Greek Original:
Prodikon: dikastên epi philôn, kai diaitêtên. Aristophanês Kentaurôi: egô gar, ei ti s' êdikêk', ethelô dikên dounai prodikon heni tôn philôn tôn sôn heni. kai paroimia: Prodikou sophôteros. Aristophanês Nephelais: oute gar allôi g' hupakousaimen plên ê Prodikôi sophias kai gnômês heneka. sophistês de ho Prodikos, Keios to genos. êkmase de kata tous chronous Sôkratous. prôtos de houtos tên pentêkontadrachmon epideixin epoiêsato. mnêmoneuei de autou kai Platôn en Prôtagorai kai Xenophôn en tois Apomnêmoneumasin. ou mên alla kai Aristophanês en Tagênistais houtôs: ton andra touton ê biblion diephtheiren ê Prodikos ê tôn adoleschôn heis ge tis. diaballei de auton kai en Ornisi: par' emou Prodikôi klaein eipête to loipon. didaskalos de ên houtos kai Thêramenous, tou epikaloumenou Kothornou, hos tês tôn l# turannidos metesche. kothornos de ekaleito, epei kai tois l# sunespeude kai tôi plêthei. pheretai de kai biblion Prodikou epigraphomenon Hôrai, en hôi pepoiêke ton Hêraklea têi Aretêi kai têi Kakiai suntunchanonta, kai kalousês hekateras epi ta êthê autou, prosklinai têi Aretêi ton Hêraklea kai tous ekeinês hidrôtas prokrinai tôn proskairôn tês kakias hêdonôn.
This entry combines material on (i) the noun and adjective prodikos (from Photius pi1201 Theodoridis -- see n. 1 below) and (ii) the sophist Prodikos of Keos (for whom see already pi 2365).
[1] Accusative case(s), presumably from the quotation which follows. Note however that the Suda here garbles Photius' entry, where the headword is the a two-word phrase, pro/dikon di/khn (from the quotation), and the gloss reads th\n e)pi\ fi/lwn kai\ diaithtw=n "the sort [of suit] which relates to friends and arbitrators".
[2] Aristophanes fr. 267 Kock, now 278 K.-A.
[3] Apostolius 14.76, etc.
[4] Aristophanes, Clouds 360-361 (abridged), with scholion to 361; cf. omega 167.
[5] For this see Plato, Cratylus 384B (Socrates laments, tongue in cheek, that he himself could afford only the economy version, at one drachma); cf. Aristotle, Rhetoric 1415b15.
[6] Plato, Protagoras 314C and passim; Xenophon, Memorabilia 2.1.21-34 (summarised below, at n.10).
[7] Aristophanes fr. 490 Kock, now 506 K.-A.
[8] Aristophanes, Birds 692.
[9] cf. theta 342, kappa 1909.
[10] omega 167.
Keywords: biography; chronology; comedy; daily life; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; economics; ethics; geography; law; mythology; philosophy; politics; proverbs
Translated by: Kenneth Bumbaco on 11 May 2006@00:02:07.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (modified translation, augmented notes and keywords; cosmetics) on 11 May 2006@03:46:56.
David Whitehead (another note and keyword) on 11 May 2006@05:47:36.
David Whitehead (another note) on 11 May 2006@06:51:27.
David Whitehead on 14 October 2013@08:17:20.
David Whitehead (tweaked some refs) on 22 December 2014@07:32:17.
David Whitehead (codings) on 24 May 2016@06:17:55.

Headword: Thêramenês
Adler number: theta,342
Translated headword: Theramenes
Vetting Status: high
Athenian, orator, pupil of Prodicus of Ceos;[1] [the one] who was nicknamed "Kothornos".[2] [He wrote] rhetorical exercises; and some other [works].
Greek Original:
Thêramenês, Athênaios, rhêtôr, mathêtês Prodikou tou Keiou: hos epekaleito Kothornos. meletas rhêtorikas: kai alla tina.
cf. the scholia to Aristophanes, Clouds 361, where Prodicus (see next note) is mentioned.
See also theta 343, theta 344, theta 345.
[1] For Prodicus see generally pi 2365.
[2] See epsilon 3582, kappa 1909.
Keywords: biography; clothing; comedy; geography; imagery; rhetoric
Translated by: George Pesely on 22 October 2000@21:05:21.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (added headword and note; cosmetics; raised status) on 23 October 2000@06:56:48.
David Whitehead (augmented notes and keywords; cosmetics) on 28 February 2003@09:37:01.
David Whitehead (augmented notes; cosmetics) on 2 May 2004@08:26:42.
David Whitehead on 3 January 2013@06:53:03.


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