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Headword: *)andro/maxos
Adler number: alpha,2185
Translated headword: Andromachus, Andromakhos, Andromachos
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
Of Neapolis in Syria. Sophist. Son of Zonas or Sabinus; he taught in Nicomedia under the emperor Diocletian.
Greek Original:
*)andro/maxos, *neapoli/ths e)k *suri/as, sofisth\s, ui(o\s *zwna= h)\ *sabi/nou, paideu/sas kata\ *nikomh/deian e)pi\ *dioklhtianou= basile/ws.
Note:
RE Andromachos (20); PLRE I Andromachus (2). He is probably the Andromachus mentioned in Eunapius, Lives of the Sophists 457. He taught [sigma 475] Siricius.
Keywords: biography; chronology; geography; philosophy
Translated by: Malcolm Heath on 7 June 2000@11:19:04.
Vetted by:
William Hutton (Minor adaptations.) on 7 June 2000@22:45:46.
Malcolm Heath (expanded x-ref) on 17 May 2002@22:48:29.
David Whitehead (added keyword) on 2 August 2002@08:07:15.
David Whitehead (another keyword; cosmetics) on 1 March 2012@05:43:26.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 10 December 2014@00:40:33.

Headword: *)aphliano/s
Adler number: alpha,3153
Translated headword: Apelianos, Apellianus
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
Proper name.
Greek Original:
*)aphliano/s: o)/noma ku/rion.
Notes:
Same entry, according to Adler, in the Ambrosian Lexicon.
In the Passion of Severus, Memnon [Author, Myth], et al. (37 Christian soldiers, martyred in Philippopolis, present-day Plovdiv, and commemorated in the Eastern Orthodox calendar on 20 August), the name of Apellianus is given as a proconsul in Thrace under Diocletian and Maximian (c. 303-305). The office, however, is fictitious.
References:
PLRE 80.
Analecta Bollandia 31 (1912) 192-4
Acta Sanctorum August IV.30-31
Keywords: biography; Christianity; chronology; constitution; definition; geography; religion
Translated by: Catharine Roth on 5 July 2000@15:13:19.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead on 19 August 2002@08:00:31.
David Whitehead (another note; more keywords) on 29 March 2012@06:02:23.
David Whitehead (expanded note) on 9 August 2015@05:04:57.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 12 September 2015@12:25:57.

Headword: *)aporrw=gas
Adler number: alpha,3508
Translated headword: precipices
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
[Meaning] cleaved-off promontories.
"When he found any precipices affording passage, Diocletian closed them off too."[1]
Also [sc. attested is the nominative singular] a)porrw/c, [meaning] a fragment of a mountain.
And a branch of a family.
"This man was an off-shoot of the Furies."[2]
"And the rock was entirely precipitous below, and there was no sort of way-up."[3]
"There was a certain Timon, a vagabond, encompassed by unpassable thorns, an off-shoot of the Furies."[4] He was a so-called misanthrope, who Neanthes says fell from a pear-tree and became lame; he would admit no physician, but got gangrene and died, and after his death his tomb was inaccessible, beaten by the sea all around and in the road leading out from Piraeus to Sounion.[5] "Unpassable" meaning [sc. he was] unapproachable and unstable and as if hedged round with thorns. Also harsh or hidden by stakes and pales. Meaning a sullen man and a misanthrope.
Greek Original:
*)aporrw=gas: e)coxa\s a)pesxisme/nas. e)peidh/ tinas a)porrw=gas eu(=re pa/rodon dido/ntas, kai\ au)ta\s a)pe/kleisen o( *dioklhtiano/s. kai\ *)aporrw/c, a)po/spasma o)/rous. kai\ ge/nous a)pogonh/. ou(=tos de\ h)=n a)/ra *)erinnu/wn a)porrw/c. pa=sa d' a)porrw\c pe/trh e)/hn u(pe/nerqe, kai\ a)/mbasis ou) nu/ tis h)=en. *ti/mwn h)=n tis a)i/+drutos a)ba/toisin eu)skw/loisi perieirgme/nos, *)erinnu/wn a)porrw/c. o( lego/menos misa/nqrwpos, o(/n fhsi *nea/nqhs a)po\ a)xra/dos peso/nta xwlo\n gene/sqai: mh\ prosie/menon de\ i)atrou\s, a)poqanei=n sape/nta, kai\ meta\ th\n teleuth\n au)tou= to\n ta/fon a)/baton gene/sqai, u(po\ qala/sshs perirrage/nta kai\ e)n o(dw=| th=| e)k *peiraiw=s ei)s *sou/nion fugou/sh|. a)ba/tois de\ a)nti\ tou= a)/batos kai\ a)/statos kai\ oi(=on a)ka/nqais tetrixwme/nos. kai\ sklhro\s h)\ sko/loyi kai\ patta/lois h)fanisme/nos. a)nti\ tou= skuqrwpo\s kai\ misa/nqrwpos.
Notes:
The headword, accusative plural, is presumably extracted from the first quotation given; same or similar glossing in other lexica.
[1] Quotation (transmitted, in Adler's view, via the Excerpta Constantini Porphyrogeniti) unidentifiable.
[2] Quotation unidentifiable (Adler suggestes Eunapius); for its substance, however, cf. below.
[3] Callimachus, Hecale fr. 309; see already alpha 1517.
[4] Aristophanes, Lysistrata 808-811 (web address 1 below), followed by comment from the scholia there; cf. tau 632.
[5] Neanthes FGrH 84 F35; cf. sigma 797. Plutarch [Antonius 70.3] records that Timon was buried 'at Halai near the sea'. There were two Attic demes of this name, H. Aixonides on the SW coast and H. Araphenides on the NE. If Timon is a real person (for doubts see e.g. Aristophanes, Birds, edited with introduction and commentary by Nan Dunbar 708-9), he may have a second-century descendent -- from Halai Aixonides -- in Lexicon of Greek Personal Names ii s.v. no.21 (T. Menemachou).
Associated internet address:
Web address 1
Keywords: biography; botany; comedy; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; ethics; geography; historiography; history; medicine; mythology; poetry
Translated by: Jennifer Benedict on 8 November 2001@13:06:40.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (modified and augmented notes; added keywords; cosmetics) on 12 November 2001@04:02:01.
David Whitehead (added keyword) on 22 August 2002@03:26:16.
Tony Natoli (Augmented note 5) on 19 February 2003@03:10:08.
David Whitehead (further augmentation of note 5) on 19 February 2003@07:44:39.
David Whitehead (tweak to tr) on 13 February 2012@03:09:37.
David Whitehead (added primary note and more keywords; betacode and other cosmetics) on 5 April 2012@04:26:46.
David Whitehead on 29 August 2015@07:02:56.
Catharine Roth (cosmetics) on 20 September 2015@19:18:54.

Headword: *bassarika/
Adler number: beta,140
Translated headword: Bassarika, Bassarica
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
Soterichos wrote a [Bassarika] or Dionysiaka. He lived during the reign of Diocletian.[1]
Also [sc. attested is the genitive singular] "of Bassaric". In the Epigrams: "the twisted tambourine, goad of a Bassaric throng".[2] That is, of a sluttish [one].
Greek Original:
*bassarika/ h)/toi *dionusiaka\ e)/graye *swth/rixos, gegonw\s e)pi\ *dioklhtianou=. kai\ *bassarikou=. e)n *)epigra/mmasi: strepto\n *bassarikou= r(o/mbon qia/soio mu/wpa. toute/sti pornikou=.
Notes:
The headword adjective, here neuter plural, is a synonym for Bacchic.
[1] See sigma 877.
[2] Greek Anthology 6.165.1 (Phalaecus); cf. rho 223, sigma 1193.
Keywords: biography; chronology; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; epic; ethics; gender and sexuality; meter and music; mythology; poetry; religion; women
Translated by: William Hutton on 7 June 2003@09:42:31.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (augmented notes; cosmetics) on 8 June 2003@07:20:26.
David Whitehead (another note; more keywords; tweaking) on 22 May 2012@05:04:24.
David Whitehead (cosmetics) on 17 September 2015@02:57:44.
Catharine Roth (expanded note) on 5 December 2018@00:57:15.

Headword: *bonifa/tios
Adler number: beta,379
Translated headword: Boniphatios, Bonifatius, Boniface
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
[no gloss]
Greek Original:
*bonifa/tios.
Notes:
Transliteration of a Latin name: a Roman general (d. 432 CE) active in N Africa. See generally PLRE 2.237-40, under Boniface(3); OCD(4) p.239. Or perhaps a saint of this name: Boniface of Tarsus is commemorated for his martyrdom in the reign of Diocletian (sermon by Ephraim the Syrian), and Socrates' Ecclesastical History mentions Boniface I as bishop of Rome (4th century).
cf. ps.-Herodian 8, and (according to Adler) the Ambrosian Lexicon.
Keywords: biography; Christianity; dialects, grammar, and etymology; history; military affairs
Translated by: Jennifer Benedict on 13 June 2002@20:32:59.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (added note and keywords) on 2 September 2002@06:20:25.
Catharine Roth (expanded notes, added keyword, raised status) on 24 February 2011@22:50:06.
David Whitehead (cosmetics) on 31 May 2012@07:59:35.
Catharine Roth (tweaked note, added keyword) on 29 June 2012@01:44:50.
David Whitehead (updated a ref) on 1 August 2014@05:41:52.
David Whitehead on 21 September 2015@07:53:53.

Headword: *xhmei/a
Adler number: chi,280
Translated headword: alchemy
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
[Meaning] the preparation of silver and gold. Diocletian sought out and burned books about this.
[It is said] that due to the Egyptians' revolting behavior Diocletian treated them harshly and murderously. After seeking out the books written by the ancient [Egyptians] concerning the alchemy of gold and silver, he burned them so that the Egyptians would no longer have wealth from such a technique, nor would their surfeit of money in the future embolden them against the Romans.[1]
Look under 'skin'.[2]
Greek Original:
*xhmei/a: h( tou= a)rgu/rou kai\ xrusou= kataskeuh/, h(=s ta\ bibli/a diereunhsa/menos o( *dioklhtiano\s e)/kausen. o(/ti dia\ ta\ newterisqe/nta *ai)gupti/ois *dioklhtianw=| tou/tois a)nhme/rws kai\ fonikw=s e)xrh/sato. o(/te dh\ kai\ ta\ peri\ xhmei/as xrusou= kai\ a)rgu/rou toi=s palaioi=s au)tw=n gegramme/na bibli/a diereunhsa/menos e)/kause pro\s to\ mhke/ti plou=ton *ai)gupti/ois e)k th=s toiau/ths prosgi/nesqai te/xnhs mhde\ xrhma/twn au)tou\s qarrou=ntas periousi/a| tou= loipou= *(rwmai/ois a)ntai/rein. zh/tei e)n tw=| de/ras.
Notes:
[1] Repeated from delta 1156; see also chi 227.
[2] delta 250.
Keywords: biography; definition; economics; ethics; geography; historiography; history; science and technology; trade and manufacture
Translated by: Ross Scaife ✝ on 7 November 2002@14:05:17.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (cosmetics) on 11 November 2002@05:23:51.
David Whitehead (more keywords) on 4 December 2005@08:52:15.
Catharine Roth (added cross-reference) on 20 March 2008@01:43:51.
David Whitehead on 11 November 2013@06:52:41.

Headword: *dioklhtiano/s
Adler number: delta,1156
Translated headword: Diocletian
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
Emperor of the Romans. During his reign[1] and that of his in-law Maximian[2] a horrific persecution against the Christians occurred.[3] For they gave the order by territory and city that the churches of Christ be destroyed and their sacred writings burnt, and that any Christians discovered be forced to worship pagan deities. Overwhelmed by the number of Christians seized, they made an ordinance that any Christians who were discovered should have their right eye gouged out, not only for the pain, but for the dishonor and the mark and the distinction from the Roman way of life. Divine justice came upon them and justly struck them down: the one had his throat slit by the Senate, the other was strangled.[4]
This mad and Christ-hating man, angry in his memory of those who had plotted trouble concerning the empire, did not seek to rule in Egypt moderately or gently, but rather he went there defiling [the land] with proscriptions and murders of the notables. After seeking out the books written by the ancient [Egyptians] concerning the alchemy of gold and silver, he burned them so that the Egyptians would no longer have wealth from such a technique, nor would their surfeit of money in the future embolden them against the Romans.[5]
In regard to his character he was capricious and evil, but with his sharp and intelligent mind he often covered up the shortfalls of his inner nature, and blamed each hard act on other people. But he was careful and quick when it came to applying what had to be done and he transformed many aspects of devotion to the emperor to something far more presumptuous than had been the ancestral custom for the Romans.[6]
[It is said] that Diocletian and Maximian gave up their imperial positions and returned to private life.[7] Diocletian went to an Illyrian city named Salonai, whereas Maximian went to the territory of the Leucanians.[8] And whereas Maximian came to regret this out of longing for his rule, Diocletian grew old peacefully for three years, demonstrating his abundant virtue, though not completely abandoning Hellenic religion.[9]
Greek Original:
*dioklhtiano/s, basileu\s *(rwmai/wn. e)pi\ tou/tou kai\ *macimianou= gambrou= au)tou= diwgmo\s kata\ *xristianw=n e)kinh/qh frikwde/statos: prose/tacan ga\r kata\ xw/ran kai\ po/lin ta\s *xristou= e)kklhsi/as katastre/fesqai kai\ ta\s qei/as au)tw=n grafa\s katakai/esqai, tou\s de\ *xristianou\s eu(riskome/nous a)nagka/zesqai qu/ein toi=s dai/mosin. h(tthqe/ntes de\ tw=| plh/qei tw=n a)nairoume/nwn *xristianw=n e)ce/qento do/gma w(/ste tou\s eu(riskome/nous *xristianou\s e)coru/ttesqai to\n decio\n o)fqalmo/n, ou) mo/non dia\ to\ o)dunhro/n, a)lla\ dia\ to\ a)/timo/n te kai\ pro/dhlon kai\ th=s tw=n *(rwmai/wn politei/as a)llo/trion: ou(\s h( qei/a di/kh e)ndi/kws metelqou=sa dikai/ws e)ce/koye: kai\ o( me\n e)sfa/gh u(po\ th=s sugklh/tou, o( de\ a)ph/gcato. ou(=tos o( a)/nous kai\ miso/xristos mnh/mh| kai\ o)rgh=| tw=n peri\ th\n a)rxh\n newterisqe/ntwn peri\ th\n *ai)/gupton ou) metri/ws ou)de\ h(me/rws tw=| kratei=n a)pexrh/sato, a)lla\ prografai=s te kai\ fo/nois tw=n e)pish/mwn miai/nwn e)ph=lqe th\n *ai)/gupton. o(/te dh\ kai\ ta\ peri\ xhmei/as a)rgu/rou kai\ xrusou= toi=s palaioi=s au)tw=n gegramme/na bibli/a diereunhsa/menos e)/kause pro\s to\ mhke/ti plou=ton *ai)gupti/ois e)k th=s toiau/ths perigi/nesqai te/xnhs mhde\ xrhma/twn au)tou\s qarrou=ntas periousi/a| tou= loipou= *(rwmai/ois a)ntai/rein. h)=n de\ to\ h)=qos poiki/los tis kai\ panou=rgos, tw=| de\ li/an sunetw=| kai\ o)cei= th=s gnw/mhs e)peka/lupte polla/kis ta\ th=s oi)kei/as fu/sews e)lattw/mata, pa=san sklhra\n pra=cin e(te/rois a)natiqei/s. e)pimelh\s de\ o(/mws kai\ taxu\s e)n tai=s tw=n prakte/wn e)pibolai=s kai\ polla\ tw=n th=s basilikh=s qerapei/as e)pi\ to\ au)qade/steron para\ ta\ kaqesthko/ta *(rwmai/ois pa/tria meteskeu/asen. o(/ti *dioklhtiano\s kai\ *macimiano\s th\n basilei/an a)fe/ntes to\n i)diw/thn meth=lqon bi/on. kai\ o( me\n e)s *sa/lwnas, po/lin *)illurikh/n, o( de\ e)s th\n *leukanw=n a)fi/keto. kai\ o( me\n *macimiano\s po/qw| th=s a)rxh=s e)s metame/leian h)=lqe, *dioklhtiano\s de\ e)n h(suxi/a| kategh/ra e)n e)/tesi trisi/n, u(perba/llousan a)reth\n e)ndeica/menos, th=s de\ *(ellhnikh=s qrhskei/as ou)d' o(/lws a)posta/s.
Notes:
See web address 1 and web address 2: entries on Diocletian and Maximian at the de imperatoribus Romanis sites. The present material, drawn from the Suda's preferred sources for late imperial history (George the Monk, John of Antioch, et al.), contains several inaccuracies; see below, nn.2 and 4.
[1] 284-305 CE.
[2] 286-305. (But the two were not, in fact, related by marriage.)
[3] The Great Persecution began in 303 CE.
[4] Up to this point, the proximate source is Constantine Porphyrogenitus, De virtutibus et vitiis 1.146.13-14. The first two sentences occur in the Chronicon of George the Monk. Actually Diocletian seems to have died of an illness (or possibly voluntary suicide), while Maximian was eventually forced to commit suicide. See further below, n. 8.
[5] cf. chi 280.
[6] e.g. with limited access, requirement of prosku/nhsis. From John of Antioch fr. 165, also in Constantine Porphyrogenitus De virtutibus et vitiis.
[7] May 1 305 CE.
[8] Salona(i) is present-day Split, on the Croatian coast; Lucania is in southern Italy. (These retirements occurred some 5-6 years before their deaths, on which see above, n. 4.)
[9] John of Antioch fr. 251.
Associated internet addresses:
Web address 1,
Web address 2
Keywords: biography; Christianity; chronology; economics; ethics; geography; historiography; history; medicine; military affairs; religion; science and technology
Translated by: Ross Scaife ✝ on 7 November 2002@08:00:58.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (modified translation; augmented notes and keywords) on 7 November 2002@08:50:14.
David Whitehead (another keyword) on 3 October 2005@09:50:34.
David Whitehead (another keyword) on 4 December 2005@08:57:50.
David Whitehead (more keywords; tweaks and cosmetics) on 12 July 2012@04:42:37.
Catharine Roth (reduced links) on 25 August 2013@20:54:42.
David Whitehead (expanded some notes) on 11 November 2015@03:18:02.
Catharine Roth (expanded source notes) on 2 September 2016@23:19:07.
Catharine Roth on 2 September 2016@23:22:51.
Catharine Roth on 3 September 2016@01:08:02.

Headword: *dioshmei/a
Adler number: delta,1205
Translated headword: Zeus-omen, Zeus-sign
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
A [sign of] divine anger.[1]
"The thousand Scythians were present, more rapid than any Zeus-omen, whether a flash of light or a hurricane or a thunderbolt or a storm or a meteorite".[2]
Aternatively a dioshmi/a is an unexpected storm. Aristophanes[3][writes]: "it is a divine omen,[4] and a raindrop[5] has struck me!" –- [Herald:] "the Thracians are to withdraw,[6] and return the day after tomorrow;[7] for the prytaneis are dismissing the assembly".[8] In reference to business being postponed. The Athenians were respectful[9] of divine omens and used to break up the assemblies or everything else they were going to accomplish, every time a sign came from the sky.
And Eunapius says about the emperor Carinus: "and all of his outbursts were more violent than a Zeus-omen and he used to have fits of rage in the midst of his subjects".[10]
Greek Original:
*dioshmei/a: qeomhni/a. parh=san de\ oi( xi/lioi *sku/qai, pa/shs o)cu/teroi dioshmei/as h)/toi a)straph=s h)\ prhsth=ros h)\ keraunou= h)\ skhptou= h)\ dia/|ttontos a)ste/ros. h)\ *dioshmi/a e)sti\n o( para\ kairo\n xeimw/n. *)aristofa/nhs: dioshmi/a e)sti/, kai\ r(ani\s be/blhke/ me. tou\s *qra=|kas a)pie/nai, parei=nai d' ei)s e)/nhn: oi( ga\r pruta/neis lu/ousi th\n e)kklhsi/an. e)pi\ tw=n a)naballome/nwn. parefula/ttonto de\ *)aqhnai=oi ta\s qeoshmi/as kai\ die/luon ta\s e)kklhsi/as dioshmi/as genome/nhs, h)\ a)/llo ti me/llontes a)nu/ein. kai\ *eu)na/pio/s fhsi peri\ *kari/nou tou= basile/ws: kai\ pa/nta h)=n au)tou= baru/tera dioshmi/as kai\ e)lu/tta e)n me/sois toi=s u(phko/ois.
Notes:
The headword is also written dioshmi/a: Aelius Aristides, Pros Platona, p.105 Jebb, 22; Cassius Dio 38.13.4, al. One frequently finds the ending -ei/a in manuscripts as an orthographic variant (an accepted form in later Greek; see Hesychius delta1918 dioshmei/a: tera/stion shmei=on; Simplicius on Aristotle, Physics 221b23; John Lydus, De ostentis 1; 15b; 37; 38; [John Lydus] De mensibus 2. However, I doubt that we should read here –ei/a and –i/a a few lines afterwards. Adler’s apparatus attributes –ei/a to mss A (which bears -i/a as a correction) and FV; in the second occurrence, only FV read –ei/a. Adler has evidently chosen to follow A’s reading in any case.
[1] *qeomhni/a is better characterized as "negative sign" (see Herodian, Partitiones p. 56, 15 qeomhni/a: h( tou= qeou= o)rgh/) as referred to plagues and famines; Anna Comnena, Alexiad 4, 2, 1; Arrian, Bithyniaca fr. 37, 4; scholia to Hesiod, Works and Days 661; scholia to Homer, Iliad 8 77a2. The word is very frequently used by George the Monk, Malalas, Nicephorus Gregoras. Hesychius epsilon2620 gives dioshmei/a as a gloss for the very rare word e)naisimi/a.
[2] Quotation (from the lost section of the Excerpta Constantini) unidentifiable. Cardinal Mai’s attribution of it to Dexippus (delta 237), based on De legationibus 386,15, is arbitrary, as Adler remarked (temere attribuit).
[3] Aristophanes, Acharnians 171-173 (web address 1), with comment from the scholia there. A discussion is taking place in the Assembly about paying the wage the Thracian mercenaries are asking to ransack Boeotia. Dicaeopolis takes his advantage from a drop of rain, interpreted as a portent, to find a good excuse to break up the meeting as inauspicious and have it adjourned to another day. He is tired of war and is disagreeing with an assembly whose only interest is the increase of the scale of the conflict; moreover, he is clearly against giving a salary to soldiers whose "barbarian" manners appear immediately, since they try to steal the garlic Dicaeopolis has brought for himself. For other allusions to the violent, often bloody behaviour of the Thracians see Aristophanes, Lysistrata 563f; cf. Thucydides 7.29.4, describing a savage attack of the mercenaries on Mycalessos.
[4] cf. Eustathius on Homer, Iliad 1.34 to\ a)stra/ptein to\n *di=a, h)/toi to\n a)e/ra [...] (o(\ kai\ dioshmi/a dia\ tou=to w)no/mastai, "[a manifestation of divine will is] when Zeus, or the sky, shows a sudden lightning: for this reason, that [phenomenon] is called dioshmi/a". Some natural phenomena, such as earthquakes, thunders and storms, were held by the Athenians to be bad omens, so that they would interrupt an assembly and suspend a deliberation every time such an unexpected event occurred. Thucydides 5.45.4 has an earthquake as a dioshmi/a (web address 2); see also Dio Chrysostom 38,18; Philostratus, Life of Apollonius of Tyana 4.34. For other portents, such as a flash of lightening, see Aristophanes, Ecclesiazusae 792; Clouds 579; Philostratus, op.cit. 8.23.
[5] r(ani\s "raindrop", a word reminiscent of Euripidean language: see Andromache 227, Iph.Taur. 645, Ion 106, Iph.Aul. 1515, fr.856.4.
[6] a)pie/nai: jussive infinitive; cf. Aristophanes, Wasps 386.
[7] ei)s e)/nhn, "the day after tomorrow" (e)/nefin Hesiod, Works and Days 410, quoted by the scholiast ad loc., which explains the word: ei)s tri/thn h(me/ran). Cf. Antiphon 6.21; Theocritus, Idylls 18.14; Hesychius epsilon1116 and epsilon2996; epsilon 1292. The old adjective e(/nos (cf. Latin senex), normally with rough aspiration in Attic, meaning “belonging to last year” or generally “old” (Plato, Cratylus 409B) is attested only in a few instances, mostly in formal language, with reference to magistrates: cf. Aristotle, Politics 1322a12; idem, Athenaion Politeia 4.2 strathgoi\ e(/noi; IG 12.324.26 *(ellhnotami/ai e(/noi; Demosthenes 25.20; epsilon 1197 ai( e(/nai a)rxai/. See also the common phrase e)/nh te kai\ ne/a (Aristophanes, Clouds 1134; epsilon 1292, epsilon 1293), which indicates the last day of the month. The connection between the meaning of the adjective e(/nos and the expressions ei)s e)/nhn (sc. h(me/ran) or e)/nefin is unclear; however, the lack of the aspiration, rather than being a mere graphical or regional variant, might also indicate a totally different derivation of e)/nh and also support the hypothesis of a relationship with the Sanscrit an-ja-s, "another".
[8] The authority to dismiss a meeting due to a bad omen rested with the presiding magistrate(s). According to Pollux 8.24 the e)chghtai\ were appointed to the interpretation of signs and used to give instruction about the will of gods.
[9] The information given by the Suda stems from the scholia vetera and Tricliniana, which, however, read *dio\s h(me/ras instead of dioshmi/as.
[10] Eunapius fr.4 FHG (4.14); cf. kappa 291. The cruelty of Emperor Carinus’ character as described by Eunapius is echoed by other sources. See Historia Augusta, Carus, 16 sqq.; Epit. 38, 7; Eutropius, Breviarium 9.19.1. The historical reliability of such accounts is questionable, however, since any negative detail about Carinus may have been exaggerated during the reign of Diocletian, his rival and successor (delta 1156).
References:
Aristophanes, Acharnians, edited with introduction and commentary by S. Douglas Olson, Oxford-New York, Oxford Clarendon Press 2002
Aristophanes, Acharnians, edited with introduction and commentary by A. Sommerstein, Warminster, Wiltshire, Aris & Phillips, 1980
Associated internet addresses:
Web address 1,
Web address 2
Keywords: biography; comedy; constitution; daily life; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; ethics; historiography; history; imagery; poetry; religion
Translated by: Antonella Ippolito on 24 January 2005@21:15:01.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (modified headword and aspects of transation; cross-references; more keywords; (extensive) cosmetics) on 25 January 2005@05:42:36.
Catharine Roth (betacode cosmetics) on 26 January 2005@14:33:33.
Catharine Roth (corrected my correction of betacode) on 27 January 2005@00:17:11.
Catharine Roth (adjusted links) on 12 February 2005@12:10:31.
Catharine Roth (tried again to fix link) on 12 February 2005@12:11:55.
David Whitehead (more keywords; tweaks and cosmetics) on 13 July 2012@03:51:34.
Catharine Roth (coding and other cosmetics) on 11 November 2014@17:24:38.
Catharine Roth (cosmetics) on 16 November 2014@01:37:03.
Catharine Roth (reordered links) on 5 September 2016@01:18:29.

Headword: *(erkou/lios
Adler number: epsilon,3018

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