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Headword: *)andro/maxos
Adler number: alpha,2185
Translated headword: Andromachus, Andromakhos, Andromachos
Vetting Status: high
Of Neapolis in Syria. Sophist. Son of Zonas or Sabinus; he taught in Nicomedia under the emperor Diocletian.
Greek Original:
*)andro/maxos, *neapoli/ths e)k *suri/as, sofisth\s, ui(o\s *zwna= h)\ *sabi/nou, paideu/sas kata\ *nikomh/deian e)pi\ *dioklhtianou= basile/ws.
RE Andromachos (20); PLRE I Andromachus (2). He is probably the Andromachus mentioned in Eunapius, Lives of the Sophists 457. He taught [sigma 475] Siricius.
Keywords: biography; chronology; geography; philosophy
Translated by: Malcolm Heath on 7 June 2000@11:19:04.
Vetted by:
William Hutton (Minor adaptations.) on 7 June 2000@22:45:46.
Malcolm Heath (expanded x-ref) on 17 May 2002@22:48:29.
David Whitehead (added keyword) on 2 August 2002@08:07:15.
David Whitehead (another keyword; cosmetics) on 1 March 2012@05:43:26.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 10 December 2014@00:40:33.

Headword: *)aphliano/s
Adler number: alpha,3153
Translated headword: Apelianos, Apellianus
Vetting Status: high
Proper name.
Greek Original:
*)aphliano/s: o)/noma ku/rion.
Same entry, according to Adler, in the Ambrosian Lexicon.
In the Passion of Severus, Memnon [Author, Myth], et al. (37 Christian soldiers, martyred in Philippopolis, present-day Plovdiv, and commemorated in the Eastern Orthodox calendar on 20 August), the name of Apellianus is given as a proconsul in Thrace under Diocletian and Maximian (c. 303-305). The office, however, is fictitious.
PLRE 80.
Analecta Bollandia 31 (1912) 192-4
Acta Sanctorum August IV.30-31
Keywords: biography; Christianity; chronology; constitution; definition; geography; religion
Translated by: Catharine Roth on 5 July 2000@15:13:19.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead on 19 August 2002@08:00:31.
David Whitehead (another note; more keywords) on 29 March 2012@06:02:23.
David Whitehead (expanded note) on 9 August 2015@05:04:57.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 12 September 2015@12:25:57.

Headword: *)aporrw=gas
Adler number: alpha,3508
Translated headword: precipices
Vetting Status: high
[Meaning] cleaved-off promontories.
"When he found any precipices affording passage, Diocletian closed them off too."[1]
Also [sc. attested is the nominative singular] a)porrw/c, [meaning] a fragment of a mountain.
And a branch of a family.
"This man was an off-shoot of the Furies."[2]
"And the rock was entirely precipitous below, and there was no sort of way-up."[3]
"There was a certain Timon, a vagabond, encompassed by unpassable thorns, an off-shoot of the Furies."[4] He was a so-called misanthrope, who Neanthes says fell from a pear-tree and became lame; he would admit no physician, but got gangrene and died, and after his death his tomb was inaccessible, beaten by the sea all around and in the road leading out from Piraeus to Sounion.[5] "Unpassable" meaning [sc. he was] unapproachable and unstable and as if hedged round with thorns. Also harsh or hidden by stakes and pales. Meaning a sullen man and a misanthrope.
Greek Original:
*)aporrw=gas: e)coxa\s a)pesxisme/nas. e)peidh/ tinas a)porrw=gas eu(=re pa/rodon dido/ntas, kai\ au)ta\s a)pe/kleisen o( *dioklhtiano/s. kai\ *)aporrw/c, a)po/spasma o)/rous. kai\ ge/nous a)pogonh/. ou(=tos de\ h)=n a)/ra *)erinnu/wn a)porrw/c. pa=sa d' a)porrw\c pe/trh e)/hn u(pe/nerqe, kai\ a)/mbasis ou) nu/ tis h)=en. *ti/mwn h)=n tis a)i/+drutos a)ba/toisin eu)skw/loisi perieirgme/nos, *)erinnu/wn a)porrw/c. o( lego/menos misa/nqrwpos, o(/n fhsi *nea/nqhs a)po\ a)xra/dos peso/nta xwlo\n gene/sqai: mh\ prosie/menon de\ i)atrou\s, a)poqanei=n sape/nta, kai\ meta\ th\n teleuth\n au)tou= to\n ta/fon a)/baton gene/sqai, u(po\ qala/sshs perirrage/nta kai\ e)n o(dw=| th=| e)k *peiraiw=s ei)s *sou/nion fugou/sh|. a)ba/tois de\ a)nti\ tou= a)/batos kai\ a)/statos kai\ oi(=on a)ka/nqais tetrixwme/nos. kai\ sklhro\s h)\ sko/loyi kai\ patta/lois h)fanisme/nos. a)nti\ tou= skuqrwpo\s kai\ misa/nqrwpos.
The headword, accusative plural, is presumably extracted from the first quotation given; same or similar glossing in other lexica.
[1] Quotation (transmitted, in Adler's view, via the Excerpta Constantini Porphyrogeniti) unidentifiable.
[2] Quotation unidentifiable (Adler suggestes Eunapius); for its substance, however, cf. below.
[3] Callimachus, Hecale fr. 309; see already alpha 1517.
[4] Aristophanes, Lysistrata 808-811 (web address 1 below), followed by comment from the scholia there; cf. tau 632.
[5] Neanthes FGrH 84 F35; cf. sigma 797. Plutarch [Antonius 70.3] records that Timon was buried 'at Halai near the sea'. There were two Attic demes of this name, H. Aixonides on the SW coast and H. Araphenides on the NE. If Timon is a real person (for doubts see e.g. Aristophanes, Birds, edited with introduction and commentary by Nan Dunbar 708-9), he may have a second-century descendent -- from Halai Aixonides -- in Lexicon of Greek Personal Names ii s.v. no.21 (T. Menemachou).
Associated internet address:
Web address 1
Keywords: biography; botany; comedy; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; ethics; geography; historiography; history; medicine; mythology; poetry
Translated by: Jennifer Benedict on 8 November 2001@13:06:40.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (modified and augmented notes; added keywords; cosmetics) on 12 November 2001@04:02:01.
David Whitehead (added keyword) on 22 August 2002@03:26:16.
Tony Natoli (Augmented note 5) on 19 February 2003@03:10:08.
David Whitehead (further augmentation of note 5) on 19 February 2003@07:44:39.
David Whitehead (tweak to tr) on 13 February 2012@03:09:37.
David Whitehead (added primary note and more keywords; betacode and other cosmetics) on 5 April 2012@04:26:46.
David Whitehead on 29 August 2015@07:02:56.
Catharine Roth (cosmetics) on 20 September 2015@19:18:54.

Headword: *bassarika/
Adler number: beta,140
Translated headword: Bassarika, Bassarica
Vetting Status: high
Soterichos wrote a [Bassarika] or Dionysiaka. He lived during the reign of Diocletian.[1]
Also [sc. attested is the genitive singular] "of Bassaric". In the Epigrams: "the twisted tambourine, goad of a Bassaric throng".[2] That is, of a sluttish [one].
Greek Original:
*bassarika/ h)/toi *dionusiaka\ e)/graye *swth/rixos, gegonw\s e)pi\ *dioklhtianou=. kai\ *bassarikou=. e)n *)epigra/mmasi: strepto\n *bassarikou= r(o/mbon qia/soio mu/wpa. toute/sti pornikou=.
The headword adjective, here neuter plural, is a synonym for Bacchic.
[1] See sigma 877.
[2] Greek Anthology 6.165.1 (Phalaecus); cf. rho 223, sigma 1193. See further extracts from this epigram, a dedication to Dionysus, at alpha 1721, alpha 4681, beta 548, theta 379, theta 613, iota 72, kappa 2115, kappa 2279, and lambda 360. On the epigram's attribution, see alpha 1721 note.
Keywords: biography; chronology; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; epic; ethics; gender and sexuality; meter and music; mythology; poetry; religion; women
Translated by: William Hutton on 7 June 2003@09:42:31.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (augmented notes; cosmetics) on 8 June 2003@07:20:26.
David Whitehead (another note; more keywords; tweaking) on 22 May 2012@05:04:24.
David Whitehead (cosmetics) on 17 September 2015@02:57:44.
Catharine Roth (expanded note) on 5 December 2018@00:57:15.
Ronald Allen (augmented n.2, added cross-references) on 30 May 2023@11:02:18.

Headword: *bonifa/tios
Adler number: beta,379
Translated headword: Boniphatios, Bonifatius, Boniface
Vetting Status: high
[no gloss]
Greek Original:
Transliteration of a Latin name: a Roman general (d. 432 CE) active in N Africa. See generally PLRE 2.237-40, under Boniface(3); OCD(4) p.239. Or perhaps a saint of this name: Boniface of Tarsus is commemorated for his martyrdom in the reign of Diocletian (sermon by Ephraim the Syrian), and Socrates' Ecclesastical History mentions Boniface I as bishop of Rome (4th century).
cf. ps.-Herodian 8, and (according to Adler) the Ambrosian Lexicon.
Keywords: biography; Christianity; dialects, grammar, and etymology; history; military affairs
Translated by: Jennifer Benedict on 13 June 2002@20:32:59.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (added note and keywords) on 2 September 2002@06:20:25.
Catharine Roth (expanded notes, added keyword, raised status) on 24 February 2011@22:50:06.
David Whitehead (cosmetics) on 31 May 2012@07:59:35.
Catharine Roth (tweaked note, added keyword) on 29 June 2012@01:44:50.
David Whitehead (updated a ref) on 1 August 2014@05:41:52.
David Whitehead on 21 September 2015@07:53:53.

Headword: *xhmei/a
Adler number: chi,280
Translated headword: alchemy
Vetting Status: high
[Meaning] the preparation of silver and gold. Diocletian sought out and burned books about this.
[It is said] that due to the Egyptians' revolting behavior Diocletian treated them harshly and murderously. After seeking out the books written by the ancient [Egyptians] concerning the alchemy of gold and silver, he burned them so that the Egyptians would no longer have wealth from such a technique, nor would their surfeit of money in the future embolden them against the Romans.[1]
Look under 'skin'.[2]
Greek Original:
*xhmei/a: h( tou= a)rgu/rou kai\ xrusou= kataskeuh/, h(=s ta\ bibli/a diereunhsa/menos o( *dioklhtiano\s e)/kausen. o(/ti dia\ ta\ newterisqe/nta *ai)gupti/ois *dioklhtianw=| tou/tois a)nhme/rws kai\ fonikw=s e)xrh/sato. o(/te dh\ kai\ ta\ peri\ xhmei/as xrusou= kai\ a)rgu/rou toi=s palaioi=s au)tw=n gegramme/na bibli/a diereunhsa/menos e)/kause pro\s to\ mhke/ti plou=ton *ai)gupti/ois e)k th=s toiau/ths prosgi/nesqai te/xnhs mhde\ xrhma/twn au)tou\s qarrou=ntas periousi/a| tou= loipou= *(rwmai/ois a)ntai/rein. zh/tei e)n tw=| de/ras.
[1] Repeated from delta 1156; see also chi 227.
[2] delta 250.
Keywords: biography; definition; economics; ethics; geography; historiography; history; science and technology; trade and manufacture
Translated by: Ross Scaife ✝ on 7 November 2002@14:05:17.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (cosmetics) on 11 November 2002@05:23:51.
David Whitehead (more keywords) on 4 December 2005@08:52:15.
Catharine Roth (added cross-reference) on 20 March 2008@01:43:51.
David Whitehead on 11 November 2013@06:52:41.

Headword: *dioklhtiano/s
Adler number: delta,1156
Translated headword: Diocletian
Vetting Status: high
Emperor of the Romans. During his reign[1] and that of his in-law Maximian[2] a horrific persecution against the Christians occurred.[3] For they gave the order by territory and city that the churches of Christ be destroyed and their sacred writings burnt, and that any Christians discovered be forced to worship pagan deities. Overwhelmed by the number of Christians seized, they made an ordinance that any Christians who were discovered should have their right eye gouged out, not only for the pain, but for the dishonor and the mark and the distinction from the Roman way of life. Divine justice came upon them and justly struck them down: the one had his throat slit by the Senate, the other was strangled.[4]
This mad and Christ-hating man, angry in his memory of those who had plotted trouble concerning the empire, did not seek to rule in Egypt moderately or gently, but rather he went there defiling [the land] with proscriptions and murders of the notables. After seeking out the books written by the ancient [Egyptians] concerning the alchemy of gold and silver, he burned them so that the Egyptians would no longer have wealth from such a technique, nor would their surfeit of money in the future embolden them against the Romans.[5]
In regard to his character he was capricious and evil, but with his sharp and intelligent mind he often covered up the shortfalls of his inner nature, and blamed each hard act on other people. But he was careful and quick when it came to applying what had to be done and he transformed many aspects of devotion to the emperor to something far more presumptuous than had been the ancestral custom for the Romans.[6]
[It is said] that Diocletian and Maximian gave up their imperial positions and returned to private life.[7] Diocletian went to an Illyrian city named Salonai, whereas Maximian went to the territory of the Leucanians.[8] And whereas Maximian came to regret this out of longing for his rule, Diocletian grew old peacefully for three years, demonstrating his abundant virtue, though not completely abandoning Hellenic religion.[9]
Greek Original:
*dioklhtiano/s, basileu\s *(rwmai/wn. e)pi\ tou/tou kai\ *macimianou= gambrou= au)tou= diwgmo\s kata\ *xristianw=n e)kinh/qh frikwde/statos: prose/tacan ga\r kata\ xw/ran kai\ po/lin ta\s *xristou= e)kklhsi/as katastre/fesqai kai\ ta\s qei/as au)tw=n grafa\s katakai/esqai, tou\s de\ *xristianou\s eu(riskome/nous a)nagka/zesqai qu/ein toi=s dai/mosin. h(tthqe/ntes de\ tw=| plh/qei tw=n a)nairoume/nwn *xristianw=n e)ce/qento do/gma w(/ste tou\s eu(riskome/nous *xristianou\s e)coru/ttesqai to\n decio\n o)fqalmo/n, ou) mo/non dia\ to\ o)dunhro/n, a)lla\ dia\ to\ a)/timo/n te kai\ pro/dhlon kai\ th=s tw=n *(rwmai/wn politei/as a)llo/trion: ou(\s h( qei/a di/kh e)ndi/kws metelqou=sa dikai/ws e)ce/koye: kai\ o( me\n e)sfa/gh u(po\ th=s sugklh/tou, o( de\ a)ph/gcato. ou(=tos o( a)/nous kai\ miso/xristos mnh/mh| kai\ o)rgh=| tw=n peri\ th\n a)rxh\n newterisqe/ntwn peri\ th\n *ai)/gupton ou) metri/ws ou)de\ h(me/rws tw=| kratei=n a)pexrh/sato, a)lla\ prografai=s te kai\ fo/nois tw=n e)pish/mwn miai/nwn e)ph=lqe th\n *ai)/gupton. o(/te dh\ kai\ ta\ peri\ xhmei/as a)rgu/rou kai\ xrusou= toi=s palaioi=s au)tw=n gegramme/na bibli/a diereunhsa/menos e)/kause pro\s to\ mhke/ti plou=ton *ai)gupti/ois e)k th=s toiau/ths perigi/nesqai te/xnhs mhde\ xrhma/twn au)tou\s qarrou=ntas periousi/a| tou= loipou= *(rwmai/ois a)ntai/rein. h)=n de\ to\ h)=qos poiki/los tis kai\ panou=rgos, tw=| de\ li/an sunetw=| kai\ o)cei= th=s gnw/mhs e)peka/lupte polla/kis ta\ th=s oi)kei/as fu/sews e)lattw/mata, pa=san sklhra\n pra=cin e(te/rois a)natiqei/s. e)pimelh\s de\ o(/mws kai\ taxu\s e)n tai=s tw=n prakte/wn e)pibolai=s kai\ polla\ tw=n th=s basilikh=s qerapei/as e)pi\ to\ au)qade/steron para\ ta\ kaqesthko/ta *(rwmai/ois pa/tria meteskeu/asen. o(/ti *dioklhtiano\s kai\ *macimiano\s th\n basilei/an a)fe/ntes to\n i)diw/thn meth=lqon bi/on. kai\ o( me\n e)s *sa/lwnas, po/lin *)illurikh/n, o( de\ e)s th\n *leukanw=n a)fi/keto. kai\ o( me\n *macimiano\s po/qw| th=s a)rxh=s e)s metame/leian h)=lqe, *dioklhtiano\s de\ e)n h(suxi/a| kategh/ra e)n e)/tesi trisi/n, u(perba/llousan a)reth\n e)ndeica/menos, th=s de\ *(ellhnikh=s qrhskei/as ou)d' o(/lws a)posta/s.
See web address 1 and web address 2: entries on Diocletian and Maximian at the de imperatoribus Romanis sites. The present material, drawn from the Suda's preferred sources for late imperial history (George the Monk, John of Antioch, et al.), contains several inaccuracies; see below, nn.2 and 4.
[1] 284-305 CE.
[2] 286-305. (But the two were not, in fact, related by marriage.)
[3] The Great Persecution began in 303 CE.
[4] Up to this point, the proximate source is Constantine Porphyrogenitus, De virtutibus et vitiis 1.146.13-14. The first two sentences occur in the Chronicon of George the Monk. Actually Diocletian seems to have died of an illness (or possibly voluntary suicide), while Maximian was eventually forced to commit suicide. See further below, n. 8.
[5] cf. chi 280.
[6] e.g. with limited access, requirement of prosku/nhsis. From John of Antioch fr. 165, also in Constantine Porphyrogenitus De virtutibus et vitiis.
[7] May 1 305 CE.
[8] Salona(i) is present-day Split, on the Croatian coast; Lucania is in southern Italy. (These retirements occurred some 5-6 years before their deaths, on which see above, n. 4.)
[9] John of Antioch fr. 251.
Associated internet addresses:
Web address 1,
Web address 2
Keywords: biography; Christianity; chronology; economics; ethics; geography; historiography; history; medicine; military affairs; religion; science and technology
Translated by: Ross Scaife ✝ on 7 November 2002@08:00:58.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (modified translation; augmented notes and keywords) on 7 November 2002@08:50:14.
David Whitehead (another keyword) on 3 October 2005@09:50:34.
David Whitehead (another keyword) on 4 December 2005@08:57:50.
David Whitehead (more keywords; tweaks and cosmetics) on 12 July 2012@04:42:37.
Catharine Roth (reduced links) on 25 August 2013@20:54:42.
David Whitehead (expanded some notes) on 11 November 2015@03:18:02.
Catharine Roth (expanded source notes) on 2 September 2016@23:19:07.
Catharine Roth on 2 September 2016@23:22:51.
Catharine Roth on 3 September 2016@01:08:02.

Headword: *dioshmei/a
Adler number: delta,1205
Translated headword: Zeus-omen, Zeus-sign
Vetting Status: high
A [sign of] divine anger.[1]
"The thousand Scythians were present, more rapid than any Zeus-omen, whether a flash of light or a hurricane or a thunderbolt or a storm or a meteorite".[2]
Aternatively a dioshmi/a is an unexpected storm. Aristophanes[3][writes]: "it is a divine omen,[4] and a raindrop[5] has struck me!" –- [Herald:] "the Thracians are to withdraw,[6] and return the day after tomorrow;[7] for the prytaneis are dismissing the assembly".[8] In reference to business being postponed. The Athenians were respectful[9] of divine omens and used to break up the assemblies or everything else they were going to accomplish, every time a sign came from the sky.
And Eunapius says about the emperor Carinus: "and all of his outbursts were more violent than a Zeus-omen and he used to have fits of rage in the midst of his subjects".[10]
Greek Original:
*dioshmei/a: qeomhni/a. parh=san de\ oi( xi/lioi *sku/qai, pa/shs o)cu/teroi dioshmei/as h)/toi a)straph=s h)\ prhsth=ros h)\ keraunou= h)\ skhptou= h)\ dia/|ttontos a)ste/ros. h)\ *dioshmi/a e)sti\n o( para\ kairo\n xeimw/n. *)aristofa/nhs: dioshmi/a e)sti/, kai\ r(ani\s be/blhke/ me. tou\s *qra=|kas a)pie/nai, parei=nai d' ei)s e)/nhn: oi( ga\r pruta/neis lu/ousi th\n e)kklhsi/an. e)pi\ tw=n a)naballome/nwn. parefula/ttonto de\ *)aqhnai=oi ta\s qeoshmi/as kai\ die/luon ta\s e)kklhsi/as dioshmi/as genome/nhs, h)\ a)/llo ti me/llontes a)nu/ein. kai\ *eu)na/pio/s fhsi peri\ *kari/nou tou= basile/ws: kai\ pa/nta h)=n au)tou= baru/tera dioshmi/as kai\ e)lu/tta e)n me/sois toi=s u(phko/ois.
The headword is also written dioshmi/a: Aelius Aristides, Pros Platona, p.105 Jebb, 22; Cassius Dio 38.13.4, al. One frequently finds the ending -ei/a in manuscripts as an orthographic variant (an accepted form in later Greek; see Hesychius delta1918 dioshmei/a: tera/stion shmei=on; Simplicius on Aristotle, Physics 221b23; John Lydus, De ostentis 1; 15b; 37; 38; [John Lydus] De mensibus 2. However, I doubt that we should read here –ei/a and –i/a a few lines afterwards. Adler’s apparatus attributes –ei/a to mss A (which bears -i/a as a correction) and FV; in the second occurrence, only FV read –ei/a. Adler has evidently chosen to follow A’s reading in any case.
[1] *qeomhni/a is better characterized as "negative sign" (see Herodian, Partitiones p. 56, 15 qeomhni/a: h( tou= qeou= o)rgh/) as referred to plagues and famines; Anna Comnena, Alexiad 4, 2, 1; Arrian, Bithyniaca fr. 37, 4; scholia to Hesiod, Works and Days 661; scholia to Homer, Iliad 8 77a2. The word is very frequently used by George the Monk, Malalas, Nicephorus Gregoras. Hesychius epsilon2620 gives dioshmei/a as a gloss for the very rare word e)naisimi/a.
[2] Quotation (from the lost section of the Excerpta Constantini) unidentifiable. Cardinal Mai’s attribution of it to Dexippus (delta 237), based on De legationibus 386,15, is arbitrary, as Adler remarked (temere attribuit).
[3] Aristophanes, Acharnians 171-173 (web address 1), with comment from the scholia there. A discussion is taking place in the Assembly about paying the wage the Thracian mercenaries are asking to ransack Boeotia. Dicaeopolis takes his advantage from a drop of rain, interpreted as a portent, to find a good excuse to break up the meeting as inauspicious and have it adjourned to another day. He is tired of war and is disagreeing with an assembly whose only interest is the increase of the scale of the conflict; moreover, he is clearly against giving a salary to soldiers whose "barbarian" manners appear immediately, since they try to steal the garlic Dicaeopolis has brought for himself. For other allusions to the violent, often bloody behaviour of the Thracians see Aristophanes, Lysistrata 563f; cf. Thucydides 7.29.4, describing a savage attack of the mercenaries on Mycalessos.
[4] cf. Eustathius on Homer, Iliad 1.34 to\ a)stra/ptein to\n *di=a, h)/toi to\n a)e/ra [...] (o(\ kai\ dioshmi/a dia\ tou=to w)no/mastai, "[a manifestation of divine will is] when Zeus, or the sky, shows a sudden lightning: for this reason, that [phenomenon] is called dioshmi/a". Some natural phenomena, such as earthquakes, thunders and storms, were held by the Athenians to be bad omens, so that they would interrupt an assembly and suspend a deliberation every time such an unexpected event occurred. Thucydides 5.45.4 has an earthquake as a dioshmi/a (web address 2); see also Dio Chrysostom 38,18; Philostratus, Life of Apollonius of Tyana 4.34. For other portents, such as a flash of lightening, see Aristophanes, Ecclesiazusae 792; Clouds 579; Philostratus, op.cit. 8.23.
[5] r(ani\s "raindrop", a word reminiscent of Euripidean language: see Andromache 227, Iph.Taur. 645, Ion 106, Iph.Aul. 1515, fr.856.4.
[6] a)pie/nai: jussive infinitive; cf. Aristophanes, Wasps 386.
[7] ei)s e)/nhn, "the day after tomorrow" (e)/nefin Hesiod, Works and Days 410, quoted by the scholiast ad loc., which explains the word: ei)s tri/thn h(me/ran). Cf. Antiphon 6.21; Theocritus, Idylls 18.14; Hesychius epsilon1116 and epsilon2996; epsilon 1292. The old adjective e(/nos (cf. Latin senex), normally with rough aspiration in Attic, meaning “belonging to last year” or generally “old” (Plato, Cratylus 409B) is attested only in a few instances, mostly in formal language, with reference to magistrates: cf. Aristotle, Politics 1322a12; idem, Athenaion Politeia 4.2 strathgoi\ e(/noi; IG 12.324.26 *(ellhnotami/ai e(/noi; Demosthenes 25.20; epsilon 1197 ai( e(/nai a)rxai/. See also the common phrase e)/nh te kai\ ne/a (Aristophanes, Clouds 1134; epsilon 1292, epsilon 1293), which indicates the last day of the month. The connection between the meaning of the adjective e(/nos and the expressions ei)s e)/nhn (sc. h(me/ran) or e)/nefin is unclear; however, the lack of the aspiration, rather than being a mere graphical or regional variant, might also indicate a totally different derivation of e)/nh and also support the hypothesis of a relationship with the Sanscrit an-ja-s, "another".
[8] The authority to dismiss a meeting due to a bad omen rested with the presiding magistrate(s). According to Pollux 8.24 the e)chghtai\ were appointed to the interpretation of signs and used to give instruction about the will of gods.
[9] The information given by the Suda stems from the scholia vetera and Tricliniana, which, however, read *dio\s h(me/ras instead of dioshmi/as.
[10] Eunapius fr.4 FHG (4.14); cf. kappa 291. The cruelty of Emperor Carinus’ character as described by Eunapius is echoed by other sources. See Historia Augusta, Carus, 16 sqq.; Epit. 38, 7; Eutropius, Breviarium 9.19.1. The historical reliability of such accounts is questionable, however, since any negative detail about Carinus may have been exaggerated during the reign of Diocletian, his rival and successor (delta 1156).
Aristophanes, Acharnians, edited with introduction and commentary by S. Douglas Olson, Oxford-New York, Oxford Clarendon Press 2002
Aristophanes, Acharnians, edited with introduction and commentary by A. Sommerstein, Warminster, Wiltshire, Aris & Phillips, 1980
Associated internet addresses:
Web address 1,
Web address 2
Keywords: biography; comedy; constitution; daily life; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; ethics; historiography; history; imagery; poetry; religion
Translated by: Antonella Ippolito on 24 January 2005@21:15:01.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (modified headword and aspects of transation; cross-references; more keywords; (extensive) cosmetics) on 25 January 2005@05:42:36.
Catharine Roth (betacode cosmetics) on 26 January 2005@14:33:33.
Catharine Roth (corrected my correction of betacode) on 27 January 2005@00:17:11.
Catharine Roth (adjusted links) on 12 February 2005@12:10:31.
Catharine Roth (tried again to fix link) on 12 February 2005@12:11:55.
David Whitehead (more keywords; tweaks and cosmetics) on 13 July 2012@03:51:34.
Catharine Roth (coding and other cosmetics) on 11 November 2014@17:24:38.
Catharine Roth (cosmetics) on 16 November 2014@01:37:03.
Catharine Roth (reordered links) on 5 September 2016@01:18:29.

Headword: *(erkou/lios
Adler number: epsilon,3018
Translated headword: Herculius, Maximian
Vetting Status: high
This man,[1] without any concealment, was both wild and autocratic, hinting at the harshness of his own intent by the striking [force] of his character. At any rate he surendered entirely to his own nature and to that of Diocletian and in every endeavour, as a willing helper, devised a plan both extraordinary and harsh.
Greek Original:
*(erkou/lios: ou(=tos kai\ di/xa panto\s prokalu/mmatos a)/grio/s te h)=n kai\ turanniko/s, to\ th=s oi)kei/as gnw/mhs traxu\ tw=| kataplhktikw=| tou= prosw/pou paradhlw=n. th=| gou=n e(autou= fu/sei panta/pasin e)ndidou\s kai\ tw=| *dioklhtianw=| pro\s a(/pan a)/topo/n te kai\ sklhro\n bou/leuma e(kou/sios u(pourgo\s kaqi/stato.
John of Antioch fr.166 FHG (4.602), now 249 Roberto.
[1] Here called Herculius; better known as Maximian; in any event M.Aurelius Valerius Maximianus Herculius (250-310), joint Roman Emperor with Diocletian 286-305. See under delta 1156, and De Imperatoribus Romanis entry at web address 1 (Michael DiMaio, Jr.).
Associated internet address:
Web address 1
Keywords: biography; ethics; historiography; history
Translated by: David Whitehead on 24 December 2007@07:36:22.
Vetted by:
Catharine Roth (added link, set status) on 24 December 2007@12:24:20.
David Whitehead (x-ref) on 30 December 2007@03:52:27.
David Whitehead on 28 October 2012@06:44:01.
Catharine Roth (expanded note) on 28 November 2014@12:01:15.
David Whitehead on 29 January 2015@08:55:33.

Headword: *)esxatia/
Adler number: epsilon,3252
Translated headword: frontier
Vetting Status: high
[Meaning] the [areas] next to the boundaries of territories, adjacent to either a mountain or a sea, they used to call 'frontiers'.[1]
Also (?)cheapness is called a 'frontier'.[2]
And elsewhere: "Diocletian, holding a discussion about the issues, thought it was necessary also to fortify each frontier with sufficient forces and to establish outposts."[3]
Greek Original:
*)esxatia/: ta\ pro\s toi=s te/rmasi tw=n xwri/wn e)sxatia\s e)/legon, oi(=s geitnia=| ei)/te o)/ros ei)/te qa/lassa. kai\ h( eu)te/leia le/getai e)sxatia/. kai\ au)=qis: o( *dioklhtiano\s lo/gon poiou/menos tw=n pragma/twn w)|h/qh dei=n kai\ duna/mesin a)rkou/sais e(ka/sthn e)sxatia\n o)xurw=sai kai\ frou/ria poih=sai.
cf. epsilon 3253.
[1] = Harpokration 138.5 (E146 Keaney), citing Demosthenes for this usage in the speech In Reply to Phainippos. Forms of the headword are used several times there, e.g. Demosth. 42.5 (web address 1). Also = Photius, Lexicon epsilon2048; and cf. Hesychius epsilon6453 and 6454, Etymologicum Magnum 384.27-8.
[2] Not in the preserved literature, and not registered by LSJ. Adler reports no manuscript variants for h( eu)te/leia, but she does note Kuster's emendation to ta\ teleutai=a ('the uttermost (parts)'), proposed on the basis of Etymologicum Magnum 384.30-32 ("Attic writers call (frontiers) the uttermost parts of the fields -- as Homer says [a version of Odyssey 4.517 is quoted; see also 5.489, 18.358, 24.150]").
[3] Ascribed to Eunapius by Friedrich Reitemeier in his edition (1784) of Zosimus, and accepted as such by Dindorf (1.213.10-13) and Müller (fr.5 FHG = 4.14). For Diocletian see generally delta 1156.
Associated internet address:
Web address 1
Keywords: biography; definition; economics; epic; geography; historiography; history; imagery; military affairs; rhetoric
Translated by: William Hutton on 30 January 2008@01:18:07.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (x-refs; another keyword; tweaks and cosmetics) on 30 January 2008@03:51:45.
William Hutton (augmented note 1) on 30 January 2008@05:23:48.
David Whitehead (tweaking) on 2 November 2012@06:43:35.
David Whitehead (expanded nn.2-3; coding and other cosmetics) on 18 February 2016@06:37:01.

Headword: *)indiktiw\n
Adler number: iota,373
Translated headword: indiction
Vetting Status: high
They say [i)ndiktiw/n] and i)/ndiktos.
Greek Original:
*)indiktiw\n kai\ *)/indiktos le/getai.
The form i)ndiktiw/n is a transliteration of Latin indictio, and i)/ndiktos is a later Greek synonym for i)ndiktiw/n.
An indictio in early imperial Latin is an "imposition of taxes", but starting in 287 Diocletian introduced a new tax assessment system based a five-year period; the idea was probably based on the old five-year lustrum, a republican religious ceremony theoretically held every five years after the completion of a census. Beginning in 297 Diocletian's five-year system, originally called e)pigrafh/, received the additional name indictio. In 314 a fifteen-year indictio was first instituted by Licinius (rather than by Constantine the Great as often assumed), and was made to start retroactively from 312; each indictio began on September 23, the birthday of Augustus. Later, between 452 and 459, the beginning of the indictio was changed to September 1 to simplify calculations.
Starting as early as 356, in Cod. Theod. 12.12.2, indictio was being used as a method of dating based on the relative year within a fifteen-year period: that is, "quarta indictione" or "i)ndiktiw=ni d /" meant "in the fourth year [out of fifteen] of the indiction" (not "in the fourth indiction"). The individual fifteen-year indictiones were never numbered sequentially. See (on this and in general) E.J. Bickerman, Chronology of the Ancient World (1968) 78-79.
Constantine Porphyrogenitus (De Thematibus Europ. 8) cites from Hesychius an anecdotal etymology of i)ndiktiw/n. Supposedly Augustus named it from "i)naktiw/n" in reference to his victory at Actium (31 BCE), and the fifteen-year duration supposedly reflected the fact that Antony and Octavian had been co-consuls for fifteen years before Octavian, the future Augustus, conquered him and became sole ruler.
For further source citations for the usage of indictio and i)ndiktiw/n, see Lampe (1961-8), TLL (1934-64), or Sophocles (1887). For a discussion of the term and bibliography, see s.v. indictio in Cancik & Schneider (1996, Eng. trans. 2005), or consult web address 1 (Catholic Encyclopedia), web address 2 (German Wikipedia), and web address 3 (Dictionnaire des antiquités grecques et romaines).
Sophocles, E.A. Greek Lexicon of the Roman and Byzantine Periods (From B.C. 146 to A.D. 1100), New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1887
Lampe, G.W.H. A Patristic Greek Lexicon, 5 vols., Oxford: Clarendon. 1961-8
Lesky, Albin(us), ed. Thesaurus Linguae Latinae (TLL), vol. 7, pt. 1 (I-INTERVVLSVS), Leipzig: Teubner, 1934-64
Cancik, Herbert & Schneider, Helmuth, eds. Brill's Encyclopaedia of the Ancient World, New Pauly, vol. 6 (HAT-IUS), Leiden-Boston: Brill, 2005
Cancik, Herbert & Schneider, Helmuth, eds. Der Neue Pauly Enzyklopaedie der Antike, vol. 6 (GRU-IUG), Metzler: Stuttgart-Weimar, 1996
Associated internet addresses:
Web address 1,
Web address 2,
Web address 3
Keywords: chronology; dialects, grammar, and etymology; economics; history; military affairs; religion
Translated by: Catharine Roth on 28 April 2006@13:43:39.
Vetted by:
Abram Ring (augmented notes, web addr., and biblio.) on 29 April 2006@10:44:41.
Abram Ring (updated notes and bibliography) on 3 May 2006@16:47:59.
Abram Ring (added web ref from Dictionaire des Antiquites Gr. et Rom.) on 4 May 2006@11:47:35.
David Whitehead (two small additions to notes; more keywords) on 5 May 2006@03:42:32.
David Whitehead (cosmetics) on 11 January 2013@08:06:01.
Catharine Roth (cosmeticule) on 11 January 2013@23:19:36.
Catharine Roth (supplemented note) on 29 August 2013@22:19:28.
David Whitehead (expanded note) on 30 August 2013@03:18:04.
Catharine Roth (deleted a link, tweaked another) on 20 January 2019@22:38:38.

Headword: *kurisi/khs
Adler number: kappa,2768
Translated headword: Kyrisikes, Cyrisices
Vetting Status: high
Surname of Saint Eustratios.[1]
Greek Original:
*kurisi/khs: e)pw/numon tou= a(gi/ou *eu)strati/ou.
Possibly derived (as Adler suggests) from Symeon Metaphrastes, PG 116.473c.
[1] Martyred in Armenia under the emperor Diocletian: see web address 1.
Associated internet address:
Web address 1
Keywords: biography; Christianity; chronology; geography; religion
Translated by: William Hutton on 5 March 2008@17:45:47.
Vetted by:
Catharine Roth (added note and link, set status) on 5 March 2008@19:35:15.
David Whitehead (augmented note) on 6 March 2008@04:42:57.
William Hutton (augmented note) on 6 March 2008@06:14:31.
David Whitehead on 25 March 2013@08:25:13.

Headword: *ma/nhs
Adler number: mu,149
Translated headword: Manes, Mani
Vetting Status: high
Name of a Persian, who, having fled from the kingdom of the Persians in the reign of Constantine the Great,[1] threw into confusion the doctrines of the Christians.
It is declined Manentos.[2]
Greek Original:
*ma/nhs: o)/noma *persou=, o(\s a)podra\s e)k th=s tw=n *persw=n basilei/as e)pi\ tou= mega/lou *kwnstanti/nou ta\ *xristianw=n e)ta/ratte do/gmata. kli/netai *ma/nentos.
See also mu 147, kappa 2174 (with bibliography). The founder of the Manichaean religion lived from 216 to 276 CE, and his life and doctrine are better understood from recent discoveries.
[1] Impossible. Alexander of Lycopolis says, more plausibly, that he "was" (gegone/nai) in the time of Valerian (253-60; Tractatus de placitis Manichaeorum 2.11). On this and in general see OCD(4) p.892, under "Manichaeism". See also Catholic Encyclopedia (web address 1).
[2] For the declension of the name as if it were maneis (the aorist passive participle of mainomai 'rave, be mad'), see Titus of Bostra, Adversus Manichaeos 1; Philoxenus, Ep. 35 (A. Mai, Nova Bibliotheca Patrum, v. 8.3, Rome 1871, p. 183); John of Damascus, Against the Manichaeans 1.67; Eusebius, Eccl. Hist. 7.31.1ff.
Associated internet address:
Web address 1
Keywords: biography; Christianity; chronology; dialects, grammar, and etymology; geography; religion
Translated by: Byard Bennett on 7 November 2000@17:04:57.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (added note and keywords; cosmetics) on 14 September 2001@06:51:47.
Catharine Roth (added link) on 14 September 2001@11:38:12.
Robert Dyer (Added x-refs and ref. to Eusebius, cosmetics) on 23 June 2003@05:00:14.
David Whitehead (another keyword) on 3 October 2005@10:00:43.
David Whitehead (another keyword; cosmetics) on 1 May 2013@05:34:02.
David Whitehead (updated a ref) on 9 August 2014@07:14:00.
David Whitehead (coding) on 17 May 2016@06:59:02.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 7 July 2020@01:08:36.

Headword: *ma/ris
Adler number: mu,201
Translated headword: Maris
Vetting Status: high
Bishop of Chalcedon in Bithynia. As he was being led by the hand (for he suffered from a disease of the eyes in addition to old age), he came upon Julian[1] sacrificing to Tyche in the basilica of Constantinople. Approaching the emperor he upbraided him insolently, calling him "impious, apostate, atheist." The emperor countered this insolence with words [only], calling him a blind man; and he said, "Not even your Galilean god will heal you." For he was accustomed to call Christ "the Galilean." But Maris addressed the emperor even more outspokenly: "I give thanks," he said, "to God who has blinded me so that I may not see your face, which has sunk so far into impiety." Julian made no answer to this, but he dealt cleverly with this situation also, for he had seen that those who suffered martyrdom under Diocletian[2] were honored by the Christians, and many eagerly strove for martyrdom. As if combating the Christians by this very desire, he turned to another policy. He renounced the excessive cruelty of Diocletian; nevertheless he did not refrain entirely from persecution. I call it "persecution" to harass in any way those who are living peacefully. He harassed them in this manner: by a law he ordered that the Christians should not participate in any way in education, lest, he said, by sharpening their tongues they should be better prepared to debate with the pagan dialecticians. By employing many strategems against many individuals, he persuaded certain people to give in and sacrifice. Among these was Hekebolios the sophist of Constantinople.[3]
Greek Original:
*ma/ris, th=s e)n *biquni/a| *xalkhdo/nos e)pi/skopos: katalabw\n de\ *)iouliano\n to\n *paraba/thn qu/onta th=| *tu/xh| e)n th=| basilikh=| *kwnstantinoupo/lews, thnikau=ta xeiragwgou/menos [h)=n ga\r dh\ pro\s tw=| gh/ra| u(po/xusin o)fqalmw=n u(pomei/nas], polla\ to\n basile/a proselqw\n periu/brise to\n a)sebh= kalw=n, to\n a)posta/thn, to\n a)/qeon. o( de\ lo/gois ta\s u(/breis h)mu/neto tuflo\n kale/sas, kai\ ou)k a)/n, fhsi/n, ou)de\ o( *galilai=o/s sou qeo\s qerapeu/sh| se. *galilai=on ga\r ei)w/qei kalei=n to\n *xristo/n. o( de\ dh\ *ma/ris parrhsiai/teron pro\s to\n basile/a ei)=pen: eu)xaristw=, fhsi/, tw=| qew=| tw=| tuflw/santi/ me, i(/na mh\ i)/dw to\ pro/swpo/n sou, ou(/tws e)kpeptwko\s pro\s th\n a)se/beian. ou)de\n pro\s tau=ta o( *)iouliano\s a)pekri/nato, deinw=s de\ kai\ tou=to meth/rxeto: e(wrakw\s ga\r tou\s e)pi\ *dioklhtianou= marturh/santas u(po\ tw=n *xristianw=n timwme/nous, proqu/mws te speu/dein e)pi\ tw=| marturh=sai pollou\s e)peigome/nous w(/sper au)tw=| tou/tw| tou\s *xristianou\s a)muno/menos, e)pi\ e(te/ran e)tre/peto. kai\ th\n me\n u(perba/llousan e)pi\ *dioklhtianou= w)mo/thta u(pere/qeto: ou) mh\n pa/nth tou= diw/kein a)pe/sxeto. diwgmo\n de\ le/gw to\ o(pwsou=n tara/ttein tou\s h(suxa/zontas. e)ta/ratte de\ w(=de: no/mw| e)ke/leue *xristianou\s paideu/sews mh\ mete/xein, i(/na mh/, fhsi/n, a)konw/menoi th\n glw=ttan e(toi/mws pro\s tou\s dialektikou\s tw=n *(ellh/nwn a)pantw=si. polla\ de\ e)pi\ polloi=s mhxanhsa/menos e)/peise/ tinas pro\s to\ qu/ein a)pokli=nai: e)n oi(=s kai\ *(ekhbo/lion *kwnstantinoupo/lews sofisth/n.
C4 AD. Source: Socrates, Historia ecclesiastica (PG 67) 3.12-13 (translation at web address 1).
[1] iota 437.
[2] delta 1156.
[3] epsilon 431.
Associated internet address:
Web address 1
Keywords: biography; Christianity; ethics; geography; historiography; law; medicine; religion; rhetoric
Translated by: Catharine Roth on 5 September 2003@21:56:32.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (added notes; augmented keywords) on 6 September 2003@07:38:54.
David Whitehead (another keyword) on 3 October 2005@07:40:47.
David Whitehead (more keywords) on 21 April 2008@09:44:33.
Catharine Roth (added link and keyword) on 21 April 2008@10:02:29.
David Whitehead on 6 May 2013@08:27:49.

Headword: *)/olura
Adler number: omicron,224
Translated headword: spelt, coarse grain
Vetting Status: high
[Meaning] grain, a kind of seed.
Greek Original:
*)/olura: zeia/, ei)=dos spe/rmatos.
cf. the scholia to Homer, Iliad 5.196 and 8.564, where the headword (which can be variously accented) occurs.
Both the headword itself, o)/lura, and the first gloss, zeia/, mean coarse grain or coarse wheat. Spelt, Triticum spelta, is mentioned by (e.g.) Herodotus 2.36.2: "while others live on wheat and barley, Egyptians consider it the greatest shame to live on them; they prepare their bread from olyra, which some call zeia". However, Egyptians used mainly emmer, T. dicoccoides. Spelt and emmer (and also einkorn) are early types of wheat which have glumes and seedcovers that are difficult to release by threshing. "Naked" wheat, T. aestivum s.l., leaves a clear kernel after threshing. The early wheats had a long lifetime and were probably consumed as gruel. They can still be found; they are disease-resistant and are undemanding, esp. spelt, as to the quality of the soil and other conditions.
Spelta itself is a word of Celtic origin, first occurring in the Diocletian's Price-Edict (301 CE).
J.K. Harlan, "The Early History of Wheat: Early Traces to the Sack of Rome," in L.T. Evans and W.J Peacock, (eds.) Wheat Science - today and tomorrow (Cambridge U.P. 1980) and literature quoted there
Robert Sallares, The Ecology of the Ancient Greek World (London, Duckworth, 1991) 313-389, esp. 348-350
Keywords: agriculture; botany; daily life; definition; epic; food; historiography
Translated by: Carl Widstrand on 12 January 2000@18:41:01.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (augmented notes, bibliography, keywords; cosmetics) on 5 February 2003@03:47:40.
David Whitehead (cosmetics; raised status) on 25 June 2013@04:03:18.
Catharine Roth (coding, cosmeticule) on 8 January 2021@01:08:46.
Catharine Roth (typo) on 9 January 2021@01:40:54.

Headword: *pafnou/tios
Adler number: pi,828
Translated headword: Paphnoutios, Paphnutius
Vetting Status: high
Bishop of one of the cities of Upper Thebes,[1] a man loved by God and a worker of miracles. In the time of the persecution[2] one of his eyes was put out. The emperor[3] used to summon him and kiss his eye. The bishops in council[4] decided to introduce a novel rule for the church, that those in holy orders, that is bishops, presbyters, deacons, and subdeacons, should not sleep with the wives whom they had married while they were still laymen. When it was time to discuss this matter, Paphnutius stood up in the middle of the assembly of bishops and cried out in a loud voice that they should not lay a heavy yoke on men in holy orders, saying that marriage was honorable, lest they harm the church more by excessive strictness. For not everyone can bear ascesis of passionlessness, nor perhaps will the chastity of each man's wife be maintained. And he called the intercourse with one's lawful wife 'chastity'; it was sufficient for one who had attained the rank of the clergy no longer to enter into marriage, according to the ancient tradition of the church, but not to be separated from her with whom already earlier he had joined in a single[5] marriage while a layman. And he said this, having no experience of marriage or -- to speak plainly -- of any woman; for from childhood he had been raised among ascetics and was renowned for chastity more than any other. And the whole assembly of the clergy was persuaded by Paphnutius' words, and they silenced the inquiry concerning this matter, leaving it to the judgment of those who wished to abstain from intercourse with their wives.
Greek Original:
*pafnou/tios, mia=s po/lews tw=n a)/nw *qhbw=n e)pi/skopos, a)nh\r qeofilh\s kai\ shmeiofo/ros: o(\s e)n tw=| kairw=| tou= diwgmou= to\n o)fqalmo\n e)ceko/ph. tou=ton o( basileu\s metepe/mpeto kai\ au)tou= to\n o)fqalmo\n katefi/lei. e)do/kei de\ kata\ su/nodon toi=s e)pisko/pois no/mon nearo\n e)s th\n e)kklhsi/an e)sfe/rein, w(/ste tou\s i(erwme/nous, le/gw dh\ e)pisko/pous, presbute/rous, diako/nous, u(podiako/nous, mh\ sugkaqeu/dein tai=s gametai=s, a(\s e)/ti lai+koi\ o)/ntes h)ga/gonto. kai\ e)pei\ peri\ tou/tou bouleu/esqai prou)/keito, dianasta\s e)n me/sw| tou= sullo/gou tw=n e)pisko/pwn o( *pafnou/tios e)bo/a makra/, mh\ baru\n zugo\n e)pitiqe/nai toi=s i(erwme/nois a)ndra/si, ti/mion ei)=nai to\n ga/mon le/gwn, mh\ th=| u(perbolh=| th=s a)kribei/as ma=llon th\n e)kklhsi/an prosbla/ywsin. ou) ga\r pa/ntas du/nasqai fe/rein th=s a)paqei/as a)/skhsin, ou)de\ i)/sws fulaxqh/sesqai th\n swfrosu/nhn th=s e(ka/stou gameth=s: kai\ swfrosu/nhn e)ka/lei th=s nomi/mou gunaiko\s th\n sune/leusin: a)rkei=sqai/ te to\n fqa/santa klh/rou tuxei=n mhke/ti e)pi\ ga/mon e)/rxesqai, kata\ th\n th=s e)kklhsi/as a)rxai/an para/dosin: mh\ mh\n a)pozeu/gnusqai tau/ths, h(\n a(/pac h)/dh pro/teron lai+ko\s w)\n h)ga/geto. kai\ tau=t' e)/legen, a)/peiros w)\n ga/mou kai\ a(plw=s ei)pei=n gunaiko/s: e)k paido\s ga\r e)n a)skhtai=s a)nete/qrapto kai\ e)pi\ swfrosu/nh| ei) kai/ tis a)/llos peribo/htos h)=n. kai\ pei/qetai su/mpas o( tw=n i(erwme/nwn su/llogos toi=s *pafnouti/ou lo/gois, kai\ th\n peri\ tou/tou zh/thsin a)pesi/ghsan, th=| gnw/mh| tw=n boulome/nwn a)pe/xesqai th=s o(mili/as tw=n gunaikw=n katalei/yantes.
From Socrates, Ecclesiastical History 1.11 (web address 1).
On Paphnutius, see Catholic Encyclopedia at web address 2.
[1] A strange vagueness, but it reproduces what the primary source says.
[2] This is taken to be the one under Maximinus (308-313), rather than the one under Diocletian (delta 1156) in 303.
[3] Constantine the Great (kappa 2284).
[4] At the First Council of Nicaea, in 325.
[5] The adverb a(/pac suggests that this permission would not apply if the clergyman had married more than once.
Associated internet addresses:
Web address 1,
Web address 2
Keywords: biography; children; Christianity; chronology; definition; ethics; gender and sexuality; geography; law; medicine; religion; women
Translated by: Catharine Roth on 12 May 2004@01:45:29.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (augmented notes and keywords; cosmetics) on 12 May 2004@03:41:23.
Catharine Roth (modified translation, added note) on 12 May 2004@11:38:21.
David Whitehead (another keyword) on 3 October 2005@07:42:58.
David Whitehead (more keywords; tweaks and cosmetics) on 18 September 2013@06:11:50.
David Whitehead (added one note, expanded another) on 17 June 2016@03:04:51.

Headword: *porfu/rios
Adler number: pi,2098
Translated headword: Porphyrios, Porphyrius, Porphyry
Vetting Status: high
He who wrote against [the] Christians; [he] who was properly called King;[1] from Tyre, a philosopher, student of Amelios who was a student of Plotinos, and teacher of Iamblichos.[2] He flourished in the time of Aurelian and lasted until the emperor Diocletian. He wrote very many books, on philosophy and rhetoric and grammar. He was also a student of the critic Longinus.[3] [He wrote] On Divine Names, 1 [book]; On First Principles, 2; On Matter, 6; On the Soul against Boethus, 5; About Abstinence from Animate Creatures, 4; On 'Know Yourself',[4] 4; On Incorporeal Beings; On the Sect of Plato and Aristotle being One 6;[5] [Commentary] on the [Oracles] of Julian the Chaldean; Philosophical History in 4 books;[6] 15 speeches against the Christians; On the Philosophy of Homer; Against Aristotle in the matter of the Soul being Entelechy; 5 books of Philological Investigation; On Generation and Form and Difference and Uniqueness and Accidence; On the Sources of the Nile according to Pindar; 10 books of Tips for Kings out of Homer; 6 of Mixed Investigations; [Commentary] on the Prologue of Thucydides; Against Aristides, 6; [Commentary] on Minucian's Art of Rhetoric;[7] and lots of other works, especially astronomical; among them an Introduction to Astronomy in three books; also Grammatical Cruces.
This man is the Porphyry who wagged his wicked tongue against the Christians.
Greek Original:
*porfu/rios, o( kata\ *xristianw=n gra/yas: o(\s kuri/ws e)kalei=to *basileu/s: *tu/rios, filo/sofos, maqhth\s *)ameli/ou tou= *plwti/nou maqhtou=, dida/skalos de\ *)iambli/xou, gegonw\s e)pi\ tw=n xro/nwn *au)rhlianou= kai\ paratei/nas e(/ws *dioklhtianou= tou= basile/ws. e)/graye bibli/a pa/mpleista, filo/sofa/ te kai\ r(htorika\ kai\ grammatika/. h)=n de\ kai\ *loggi/nou tou= kritikou= a)kroasa/menos. *peri\ qei/wn o)noma/twn a#, *peri\ a)rxw=n b#, *peri\ u(/lhs #2#, *peri\ yuxh=s pro\s *bo/hqon e#, *peri\ a)poxh=s e)myu/xwn d#, *peri\ tou= *gnw=qi sauto\n d#, *peri\ a)swma/twn, *peri\ tou= mi/an ei)=nai th\n *pla/twnos kai\ *)aristote/lous ai(/resin z#, *ei)s th\n *)ioulianou= tou= *xaldai/ou filoso/fon i(stori/an e)n bibli/ois d#, *kata\ *xristianw=n lo/gous ie#, *peri\ th=s *(omh/rou filosofi/as. *pro\s *)aristote/lhn tou= ei)=nai th\n yuxh\n e)ntele/xeian, *filolo/gou i(stori/as bibli/a e#, *peri\ ge/nous kai\ ei)/dous kai\ diafora=s kai\ i)di/ou kai\ sumbebhko/tos, *peri\ tw=n kata\ *pi/ndaron tou= *nei/lou phgw=n, *peri\ th=s e)c *(omh/rou w)felei/as tw=n basile/wn bibli/a i#, *summi/ktwn zhthma/twn z#, *ei)s to\ *qoukudi/dou prooi/mion, *pro\s *)aristei/dhn z#, *ei)s th\n *minoukianou= te/xnhn, kai\ a)/lla plei=sta, kai\ ma/lista a)stronomou/mena: e)n oi(=s kai\ *ei)sagwgh\n a)stronomoume/nwn e)n bibli/ois trisi/: kai\ *grammatika\s a)pori/as. ou(=to/s e)stin o( *porfu/rios o( th\n kata\ *xristianw=n e)fu/briston glw=ssan kinh/sas.
234-c.305 AD. See also pi 2099, web address 1, web address 2, and generally OCD4 Porphyry.
[1] A more familiar Greek synonym of the Syrian name (which in Greek is transliterated as) Malkhos.
[2] cf. alpha 1549, pi 1811.
[3] lambda 645.
[4] The famous Delphic maxim: see gamma 334, cf. gamma 333.
[5] As noted by Gerson (2005: 9), this work in six books displays the Neoplatonic interest to argue for the harmony between Plato and Aristotle. This line corresponds to Porphyry's frag. 239T (ed. Smith).
[6] Valesius conjectured ta\ instead of th\n, because the commentary on the Oracles of Julian the Chaldean should be distinguished from the Philosophical History (pointed out by Yvan Bubloz). On Julian the Chaldaean, see iota 433.
[7] See mu 1087.
E.R. Dodds, "New Light on the 'Chaldean Oracles'", Harvard Theological Review 54 (1961): 267
L. Gerson, Aristotle and Other Platonists, Ithaca and London 2005
Hans Lewy, Chaldean Oracles and Theurgy, Paris, Études Augustiniennes, 1978, 449-452
Associated internet addresses:
Web address 1,
Web address 2
Keywords: biography; Christianity; chronology; epic; ethics; food; geography; historiography; philosophy; poetry; religion; rhetoric
Translated by: Ross Scaife ✝ on 10 June 2002@16:28:03.
Vetted by:
Catharine Roth (cosmetics) on 10 June 2002@17:55:02.
David Whitehead (added notes and keywords; cosmetics) on 11 June 2002@10:19:40.
Catharine Roth (added link) on 11 June 2002@21:43:30.
David Whitehead (modified translation) on 19 July 2004@10:38:28.
Catharine Roth (modification and note 5, also bibliography, contributed by Yvan Bubloz) on 19 July 2004@16:38:53.
Catharine Roth (added cross-reference) on 19 July 2004@16:52:20.
David Whitehead (another keyword) on 3 October 2005@10:03:26.
Marcelo Boeri (Added note and bibliography) on 31 October 2006@12:31:34.
Marcelo Boeri on 31 October 2006@12:32:27.
Catharine Roth (cosmetics) on 31 October 2006@16:07:10.
David Whitehead (expanded n.1; cosmetics) on 1 November 2006@03:03:44.
David Whitehead on 10 October 2013@08:50:52.
David Whitehead on 10 August 2014@06:32:26.
Catharine Roth (cosmetics, new link) on 15 October 2021@01:06:47.
Catharine Roth (restored previous link) on 15 October 2021@01:11:35.

Headword: *proko/pios
Adler number: pi,2480
Translated headword: Prokopios, Procopius
Vetting Status: high
[It is said that][1] in the shrine of the holy greatmartyr Procopius in Chelone there stood a grave marker[2] of a certain eunuch on whose chest was written: 'Let him who disturbs the grave monuments be handed over to the hangman's noose'. And there was a grave marker of Plato the chamber-servant [cubicularius] who was burned in the days of Basiliscus.[3] And, when his parents asked the emperor for the eunuch Plato to be represented on a grave marker as a reminder for those who opposed the emperor, he did not prevent it. And in the renovation of the shrine of the greatmartyr, it was moved to the Hippodrome. And the houses of the eunuch are still extant at Chelone.
Greek Original:
*proko/pios: o(/ti e)n tw=| naw=| tou= a(gi/ou megaloma/rturos *prokopi/ou e)n th=| *xelw/nh| i(/stato eu)nou/xou tino\s sth/lh, h(=s e)n tw=| sth/qei e)/grafen: o( metatiqei\s qema/tia tw=| bro/xw| paradoqh/tw. h)=n de\ h( sth/lh *pla/twnos koubikoulari/ou, o(\s e)n tai=s h(me/rais tou= *basili/skou puri/kaustos ge/gone. tw=n de\ gone/wn au)tou= ai)thsa/ntwn tw=| basilei= ei)s mnhmo/sunon toi=s a)ntai/rousi basilei= sthlwqh=nai to\n eu)nou=xon *pla/twna, ou)k e)kw/lusen. e)n de\ tw=| a)nakaini/zesqai to\n tou= megaloma/rturos new\n metete/qh ei)s to\ *(ippodro/mion. oi( de\ oi)=koi tou= eu)nou/xou sw/|zontai e)n th=| *xelw/nh|.
This is Procopius the Martyr, not to be confused with his namesake the historian (for whom see pi 2479). His feast day is July 8, and he is supposed to have died in 305 CE under Diocletian (web address 1).
[1] This entry follows section 26 of the anonymous work of the 8th century CE titled Parastaseis syntomoi chronikai. See Cameron and Herrin (below).
[2] Apparently either a statue or a relief portrait. The shrine of Procopius at Chelone, in the outskirts of Constantinople, was located about one-half km. north of the Forum of Theodosius (Forum Tauri); cf. Cameron and Herrin (Map 1, p. xiii).
[3] Flavius Basiliscus was the Eastern Roman emperor from January 475 to August 476 CE; cf. alpha 3970, beta 163, and beta 164.
Averil Cameron and Judith Herrin, Constantinople in the early eighth century: the Parastaseis syntomai chronikai. Leiden: Brill, 1984
Associated internet address:
Web address 1
Keywords: architecture; art history; biography; Christianity; chronology; ethics; gender and sexuality; geography; historiography; history; religion
Translated by: Abram Ring on 5 May 2009@16:49:48.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (more keywords; tweaks and cosmetics) on 6 May 2009@03:46:42.
David Whitehead (another keyword) on 16 October 2013@05:44:02.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 13 November 2021@23:26:22.
Catharine Roth (deleted a link) on 14 November 2021@00:51:10.
Ronald Allen (cosmetics, expanded n.2 and n.3) on 16 November 2021@10:08:49.

Headword: *sofi/a
Adler number: sigma,809
Translated headword: [Holy] Wisdom, [Agia] Sophia
Vetting Status: high
[Note] that from the side of [the church of] the Holy Wisdom were removed 427 Greek [i.e. pagan] monuments, of Greek gods and of Carus the stepfather of Diocletian and of the 12 signs of the zodiac; and of Christian emperors 80 monuments, which Justinian distributed around the city [when] he built the great temple.[1]
Greek Original:
*sofi/a. o(/ti a)po\ tou= pleurou= th=s a(gi/as *sofi/as sth=lai a)fh|re/qhsan *(ellhnikai\ ukz# qew=n *(ellhnikw=n kai\ *ka/rou patrw|ou= *dioklhtianou= kai\ tw=n ib# zw|di/wn: basile/wn de\ *xristianw=n sth=lai p#, a(\s *)ioustiniano\s meri/sas th=| po/lei to\n me/gan nao\n w)|kodo/mhse.
cf. Preger, Scriptores originum Constantinopolitanarum 26.4ff. Chapter 11, lines 1-5 of the Parastaseis Syntomoi Chronikai refer to the same theft of monuments (and the editors register this parallel passage in the Suda). [Note and bibliography provided by Konstantinos A. Zafeiris.]
[1] cf. iota 446.
Cameron, A. and J. Herrin, eds. Constantinople in the early eighth century: the Parastaseis syntomoi chronikai, Columbia studies in the classical tradition, 10 (Leiden, 1984)
Keywords: architecture; art history; biography; Christianity; chronology; history; religion
Translated by: Catharine Roth on 28 November 2003@19:03:31.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (x-ref) on 30 November 2003@04:51:44.
Catharine Roth (added note and bibliography, supplied by K.A. Zafeiris) on 8 February 2004@18:11:47.
David Whitehead (typo) on 9 February 2004@03:01:58.
David Whitehead (another keyword) on 3 October 2005@10:06:10.
David Whitehead on 30 December 2013@07:27:22.
Catharine Roth (tweaked translation) on 5 April 2014@22:14:01.
Catharine Roth (typo, coding) on 23 November 2014@23:01:08.

Headword: *swth/rixos
Adler number: sigma,877
Translated headword: Soterichus, Soterichos, Soterikhos
Vetting Status: high
Of Oasis,[1] epic poet, lived in the time of [the emperor] Diocletian.[2] [He wrote] Encomium to Diocletian, Bassarics or Dionysiacs in 4 books,[3] The Story of Pantheia the Babylonian Woman, The Story of Ariadne, Life of Apollonius of Tyana,[4] Python or Alexandriac; there is also a history of Alexander the Macedonian's capture of Thebes;[5] and other things.
Greek Original:
*swth/rixos, *)oasi/ths, e)popoio/s, gegonw\s e)pi\ *dioklhtianou=. *)egkw/mion ei)s *dioklhtiano/n, *bassarika\ h)/toi *dionusiaka\ bibli/a d#, *ta\ kata\ *pa/nqeian th\n *babulwni/an, *ta\ kata\ *)aria/dnhn, *bi/on *)apollwni/ou tou= *tuane/ws, *pu/qwna h)\ *)alecandriako/n: e)/sti de\ i(stori/a *)aleca/ndrou tou= *makedo/nos, o(/te *qh/bas pare/labe: kai\ a)/lla.
C3/4 CE; FGrH 641.
[1] In Egypt.
[2] delta 1156.
[3] cf. beta 140.
[4] cf. alpha 3420, phi 421.
[5] In 335 BCE.
Keywords: biography; chronology; epic; ethics; historiography; history; military affairs; mythology; poetry; rhetoric; women
Translated by: David Whitehead on 18 December 2002@04:59:10.
Vetted by:
Catharine Roth (set status) on 27 December 2004@11:52:51.
David Whitehead (another keyword; cosmetics) on 31 December 2004@07:43:56.
David Whitehead (more keywords) on 14 October 2010@10:00:59.
David Whitehead on 19 August 2011@05:55:11.
David Whitehead on 19 August 2011@05:56:30.

Headword: *tabelli/wn
Adler number: tau,3
Translated headword: notary
Vetting Status: high
[Meaning] he who writes the city's contracts, the man called popularly 'lawyer'.[1]
"Validating all the documents of the citizens, sealing each of them with his personal mark."[2]
Greek Original:
*tabelli/wn: o( ta\ th=s po/lews gra/fwn sumbo/laia, o( para\ toi=s polloi=s nomiko\s lego/menos. a(/panta e)pitelw=n ta\ tw=n politw=n grammatei=a, e(/kaston au)tw=n oi)kei/ois e)pisfragi/zwn gra/mmasi.
The headword tabellio is a Latin word for a notary or drafter of legal documents: see OLD s.v. tabellio, quoting Ulpian, Digest Synonymous is tabellanio (Edict of Diocletian 7.41; cf. Souter s.v.).
[1] This word for lawyer (nomikos) is used in the New Testament, at Matthew 22:35 and elsewhere, as a general word for the (Jewish) lawyers who questioned Jesus. Its New Testament use would mean that the word was familiar in the compiler's Byzantine times, which I take to be the implicit background to 'called popularly'.
[2] Procopius, Secret History 28.6; see in context at pi 2303. Though the final phrase here might mean 'with his own letters', I take it to refer to use of a seal to make an impression; if this is correct, grammasi would refer to the seal design, not to letters of the alphabet.
Alexander Souter, Glossary of Later Latin to 600 AD (Oxford, 1949)
Keywords: biography; Christianity; definition; historiography; history; law; religion
Translated by: Paul McKechnie on 18 February 2000@18:35:49.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (augmented note and keywords; cosmetics) on 11 September 2002@07:21:31.
David Whitehead (more keywords; cosmetics) on 29 April 2011@08:47:32.
David Whitehead (tweaking; raised status) on 6 January 2014@04:11:13.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 7 January 2014@21:44:22.


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