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Headword: Dêmosthenês
Adler number: delta,454
Translated headword: Demosthenes
Vetting Status: high
An Athenian, son of Demosthenes and Cleobule; rhetor, of the deme Paeania. [He was] painstaking rather than naturally gifted, Hermippus[1] says; and he lacked self-control with regard to pleasures (the same source says this too). Hence as a young man he was called Batalus[2] (because he often wore women's clothing), and after he was an adult, Argas[3] (that is the name of a snake). He became ambitious to be an orator through hearing the orator Callistratus speaking on behalf of Oropus.[4] He studied with Isaeus,[5] the pupil of Isocrates,and conversed with Zoilus of Amphipolis[6] when he was a sophist in Athens, and of Polycrates[7] and Alcidamas,[8] the pupil of Gorgias, and of Isocrates himself.[9] He engaged in literary studies along with Aesion of Athens[10] and the philosopher Theopompus of Chios.[11] He also studied with Eubulides the dialectician and Plato. He died as an exile in Calauria,[12] in the temple of Poseidon, because of Antipater of Macedon; he took the poison he carried in his ring, aged 62.
Greek Original:
Dêmosthenês, Athênaios, huios Dêmosthenous kai Kleoboulês, rhêtôr, tôn dêmôn Paianieus: epimelês mallon ê euphuês, hôs Hermippos historei: kai pros tas hêdonas akolastos, hôs kai touto phêsin ho autos. hothen kai neos men ôn Batalos eklêthê, hôs kai gunaikeiai esthêti pollakis chrêsamenos: Argas de meta to eis andras telesai: hoper estin onoma opheôs. epethumêse de rhêtorikês Kallistraton theasamenos ton rhêtora huper Ôrôpiôn legonta. diêkouse de Isaiou, tou Isokratous mathêtou, kai tois logois echrêto Zôïlou tou Amphipolitou, sophisteuontos en Athênais, kai Polukratous kai Alkidamantos, tou Gorgiou mathêtou, kai autou mentoi Isokratous. sunephilologêse de Aisiôni tôi Athênaiôi kai Theopompôi tôi Chiôi philosophôi. diêkroasato de kai Euboulidou tou dialektikou kai Platônos: eteleutêse de phugôn eis Kalabrian en tôi tou Poseidônos hierôi dia ton Makedona Antipatron, prosenenkamenos pharmakon to en tôi daktuliôi, etê biôsas duo kai hexêkonta.
384-322 BC. See generally RE Demosthenes(16); NP Demosthenes(2); OCD4 Demosthenes(2). See also delta 455 and delta 456.
[1] [epsilon 3045] Hermippus.
[2] cf. beta 177 and beta 178.
[3] cf. alpha 3760.
[4] RE Kallistratos(1); OCD4 Callistratus(2); cf. omega 204.
[5] [iota 620] Isaeus.
[6] [zeta 130] Zoilus.
[7] RE Polykrates(7); OCD4 Polycrates(2).
[8] [alpha 1283] Alcidamas.
[9] [iota 652] Isocrates.
[10] cf. alphaiota 322.
[11] [theta 172] Theopompus.
[12] The transmitted text says "Calabria" (in S Italy), but see kappa 188 and the note there.
Keywords: biography; clothing; ethics; gender and sexuality; geography; history; philosophy; politics; religion; rhetoric; women; zoology
Translated by: Malcolm Heath on 28 June 2000@13:46:42.
Vetted by:
Malcolm Heath on 28 June 2000@13:48:15.
David Whitehead (augmented notes; added keywords; cosmetics) on 26 March 2001@03:27:57.
David Whitehead (cosmetics) on 9 February 2003@10:07:26.
David Whitehead (another keyword) on 9 October 2005@06:36:57.
David Whitehead (more keywords; cosmetics) on 26 June 2012@08:14:00.
David Whitehead (updated some refs) on 1 August 2014@07:51:11.

Headword: Dêmosthenês
Adler number: delta,455
Translated headword: Demosthenes
Vetting Status: high
The orator; he was a man of outstanding ability in reflection and in the expression of his thoughts; hence, too, he was regarded as the most eloquent among his contemporaries, since he was most competent in inferring what was not apparent[1] and in explaining what he had understood. In all that he tried to say or do in defence of the public interest, although he did not live at a time propitious for the reputation of political leaders, he alone among Athenians of his own time spoke out freely against the Macedonian tyrants; they saw him as someone impossible to bribe, at a time when it so happened that those in the other cities who, because they desired enrichment more than the public good, were bought by gifts of money, for the sake of their own gain placed what they saw as their own immediate interest before what was in the common interest. Hence, even the things for which they later blamed him were forgiven by the Athenians, and they welcomed him back again and relied on his advice in everything. And the nobility of his death most of all caused them to regret openly their decisions. Not long after the news came of Demosthenes' death, they went back on decisions they had taken more for fear of Macedon than with full integrity of judgement, and they voted to grant immunity from taxation to the eldest member of Demosthenes' family, and to set up a bronze image of him in the agora;[2] and they inscribed an elegy on the base of the statue: 'If your power had been equal to your judgement, Demosthenes, never would the Ares of Macedon have ruled the Greeks.'
Greek Original:
Dêmosthenês, ho rhêtôr, anêr ên gnônai te kai eipein, hosa enthumêtheiê, dunatôtatos genomenos. hothen kai deinotatos edoxe tôn kath' hauton, hoia dê hikanôtatos to aphanes eikasai kai to gnôsthen exêgêsasthai. kai en hois huper tôn koinôn legein ti ê prattein epecheirêse, kairôi men epitêdeiôi ou mala echrêsato es doxan tôn dêmagôgountôn. pleista de heis anêr houtos tôn kath' hauton Athênaiôn tois Makedonôn turannois sun parrêsiai anteipôn para toisde adôrotatos edoxen einai. hote dê sunebaine tous en tais allais polesin, hoia dê tôn kerdôn ephiemenous mallon ek tou es to koinon lusitelountos, exônêthentas chrêmatôn dosei to kata sphas hôs edokoun en tôi parautika kerdous tou spheterou heineka pro tou es ta koina sumpherontos tithesthai. hothen autôi kai eph' hois husteron êitiathê sungnontes hoi Athênaioi katedexanto te authis kai es panta sumboulôi echrêsanto. kai autôi hê teleutê gennaia epigenomenê malista es metameleian êgagen autous ouk aphanê tôn gnôsthentôn. ou pollôi goun husteron ê exangelthênai tethnêkota Dêmosthenên meteginôskon eph' hois deei tôn Makedonôn mallon ê gnômêi têi dikaiotatêi ekrinan, kai ateleian te tôi presbutatôi genous tou Dêmosthenous psêphizontai kai chalkoun stênai auton en agorai, kai elegeion têi basei tou andriantos epegrapsan: eiper isên rhômên gnômêi, Dêmosthenes, eiches, oupot' an Hellênôn êrxen Arês Makedôn.
Arrian, Historia Successorum Alexandri fr.23 Roos-Wirth (FGrH 156 F176a). For Demosthenes see already delta 454, and cf. delta 456.
[1] Again at epsiloniota 57.
[2] cf. [Plutarch], Lives of the Ten Orators 847C-E.
Keywords: art history; biography; constitution; economics; ethics; geography; historiography; history; imagery; poetry; politics; rhetoric
Translated by: Malcolm Heath on 28 June 2000@13:51:36.
Vetted by:
Ross Scaife ✝ (changed keyword, upped status) on 28 June 2000@15:20:04.
David Whitehead (added note and keywords; cosmetics) on 26 March 2001@03:46:37.
David Whitehead (added note) on 26 March 2001@03:58:40.
David Whitehead (added keywords) on 9 February 2003@10:08:54.
Catharine Roth (rearrangement) on 24 August 2005@11:23:49.
David Whitehead (more keywords) on 9 October 2005@06:37:48.
David Whitehead (more x-refs; more keywords) on 26 June 2012@08:17:54.
Catharine Roth (note number) on 18 July 2016@15:55:44.

Headword: Dêmosthenês
Adler number: delta,456
Translated headword: Demosthenes
Vetting Status: high
A knife-maker, of the [sc. Athenian] deme Paeania; Demosthenes the rhetor was his son.[1] When he was orphaned he had 3 guardians, Aphobus, Demophon and Therippides; they neglected him and his property, so he put himself into the hands of Isaeus as his teacher. He was so dedicated to work that they say he shut himself in house and shaved part of his head, to stop himself going out or receiving visitors. When he had finished his education, he brought a successful guardianship action against his guardians. He wanted to be a sophist, but gave this up because he was slandered in connection with Moschus, a young man of good family. He began to act as a speech-writer, but was again slandered as having disclosed the opposing speeches to Apollodorus and Phormio. So he gave this up as well, and entered politics. He had a speech impediment, and moved his shoulder in an undignified way; his hearing was weak, and his breath inadequate. He corrected all these faults by practice. Because he was not good at delivery he was coached in this as well by Andronicus. He served as khoregos and trierarch, ransomed prisoners and helped people provide for their daughters' marriage. When he was serving as khoregos he was struck by Meidias, but (they say) took a 3000 drachma bribe to drop the case. He brought a case for wounding against his cousin Demaenetus, and (they say) agreed to a reconciliation. He proposed to the wife of the general Chabrias after Chabrias' death, and married the daughter of Ctesippus. In politics he opposed Philip. When Philip attacked Thebes, he successfully argued for an alliance; they were defeated at Chaeronea, losing 1000 dead and 2000 captured. He had a much-loved daughter, and was grieved by her death; but when the sorrow was a week old, news came that Philip had been killed by Pausanias, and he changed his clothes and sacrificed to the gods. He was also opposed politically to Alexander, Philip's son. When Harpalus stole a large sum of money from Alexander and took refuge in Athens, Demosthenes was thought to have received a share; he went into exile in Troezen. After Alexander's death in Babylon, Demosthenes was recalled and returned home. Antipater, as ruler of Greece, sent to demand the surrender of the ten orators;[2] the Athenians agreed to their surrender, and Demosthenes went into exile in Sicily. The actor Archias, sent against him by Antipater, dragged him from the temple of Poseidon, which was an asylum; but he had poison under the seal on his ring, and died with a groan.[3]
Greek Original:
Dêmosthenês, machairopoios, Paianieus, hou Dêmosthenês ho rhêtôr, hos orphanos kataleiphtheis epitropous esche g#, Aphobon, Dêmophônta, Thêrippidên. hôn amelountôn autou kai tês ousias, autos hauton enecheirise didaskalôi Isaiôi. philoponos de houtôs ên, hôste phasin heauton oikoi katheirxanta heautou xurêsai tês kephalês meros, hina mête proïoi mête dechoito tina. paideutheis de heile tês epitropês tous epitropous. sophisteuein boulêtheis apestê diablêtheis epi Moschôi meirakiôi tôn eugenôn. logographein de arxamenos dieblêthê palin, hôs enantious logous ekdous Apollodôrôi kai Phormiôni. kai toutou oun apostas êrxato politeuesthai. traulos de ôn kai ton ômon aprepôs ekinei, kai tên akoên asthenês kai to pneuma ou diarkês: haper askêsei diôrthôsato. tên te hupokrisin ouk ôn akros hup' Andronikôi kai tautên exêskêsen. echorêgêse de kai etriêrarchêse kai aichmalôtous elusato kai thugateras sunexedôken. hote de echorêgei, tuptêtheis hupo Meidiou trischiliais, hôs phasin, epeisthê. kai Dêmaineton anepsion grapsamenos traumatos, hôs phasin, dielusato. aitêsamenos de Chabriou tou stratêgou gunaika, Chabriou teleutêsantos, Ktêsippou thugatera egêmen. epoliteusato de kata Philippon: hou Thêbaiois epiontos, peithei sum- machêsai: kai kata Chairôneian hêttôntai, chiliôn apothanontôn kai dischiliôn aichmalôtôn. agapêtên de schôn thugatera teleutêsasan epenthei, kai hebdomaiou tou pathous ontos, angelthentos anêirêsthai Philippon hupo Pausaniou, metêmphiasato kai tois theois ethusen. epoliteusato de kai kata Alexandrou tou Philippou. hou Harpalos polla nosphisamenos chrêmata hôs Athênaious katephugen: hôn kai Dêmosthenês eilêphenai meros edoxe. kai ephugen eis Troizêna. Alexandrou de en Babulôni teleutêsantos, ho Dêmosthenês katêlthe klêtheis. Antipatros de arxas tôn Hellênôn, pempsas exaitei tous deka rhêtoras. ekdontôn Athênaiôn, ho Dêmosthenês eis Sikelian ephugen. Archias de ho hupokritês apostaleis ep' auton hup' Antipatrou biai apospai apo tou hierou Poseidônos, ho ên asulon. ho de hupo têi sphragidi pharmakon echôn, muzêsas apethanen.
[1] [delta 454 + delta 455] Demosthenes. Everything after this introductory sentence is in fact concerned with the son.
[2] cf. alpha 2704.
[3] cf. mu 1382.
Keywords: biography; children; economics; ethics; gender and sexuality; geography; history; law; medicine; military affairs; politics; religion; rhetoric; trade and manufacture; women
Translated by: Malcolm Heath on 28 June 2000@13:57:10.
Vetted by:
Malcolm Heath on 28 June 2000@13:59:46.
David Whitehead (augmented notes; added keywords; cosmetics) on 26 March 2001@03:55:02.
David Whitehead (cosmetics) on 9 February 2003@10:09:51.
David Whitehead (more keywords) on 9 October 2005@06:39:37.
David Whitehead (more keywords; cosmetics) on 26 June 2012@08:22:23.

Headword: Dêmosthenês Thraix
Adler number: delta,457
Translated headword: Demosthenes the Thracian, Demosthenes Thrax
Vetting Status: high
This man wrote a Paraphrase of the Iliad in prose; an Epitome of the works of Damagetus of Heraclea;[1] On Dithyrambic Poets; Paraphrase of Hesiod's Theogony.
Greek Original:
Dêmosthenês Thraix: houtos egrapse Metaphrasin Iliados pezôi logôi, Epitomên tôn Damagêtou tou Hêrakleôtou, Peri dithurambopoiôn, Metaphrasin eis tên Hêsiodou Theogonian.
See generally RE Demosthenes(10). For his epithet cf. Dionysius "the Thracian" (delta 1172) - in his case, in fact, a nickname.
[1] Damagetus, presumably another poet, has already had his own entry at delta 33.
Keywords: biography; epic; geography; poetry
Translated by: Malcolm Heath on 28 June 2000@14:03:50.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (augmented notes; added keywords; cosmetics) on 15 August 2001@10:26:09.
David Whitehead on 26 June 2012@08:28:29.
David Whitehead on 26 June 2012@08:28:48.


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