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Headword: *)abi/wton
Adler number: alpha,49
Translated headword: unlivable
Vetting Status: high
[Meaning something] bad [and] annoying, painful.[1]
"He found it an unlivable situation if he could not control the city".[2]
Also [sc. attested is the masculine] a)bi/wtos, he who is not alive.[3]
Greek Original:
*)abi/wton: kako\n a)hde\s, o)dunhro/n. o( de\ a)biw/tws ei)=xen, ei) mh\ krath/soi th=s po/lews. kai\ *)abi/wtos, o( mh\ zw=n.
[1] Same material in other lexica; references at Photius alpha39 Theodoridis. The headword -- shown by the glossing to be neuter nominative/accusative singular rather than masculine accusative singular -- is evidently quoted from somewhere. The possibilities are numerous. (Latte on Hesychius s.v. confidently asserts Euripides, Alcestis 242.)
[2] Quotation unidentifiable -- but perhaps from Plutarch, who has several instances of the idiom a)biw/tws e)/xein.
[3] For this word see also alpha 50.
Keywords: biography; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; ethics; history; politics; tragedy
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 26 August 1998@19:01:02.
Vetted by:
William Hutton (Added headword, modified translation, raised status) on 29 January 2001@17:14:44.
William Hutton (Added note) on 29 January 2001@17:18:16.
David Whitehead (added note and keywords; cosmetics; raised status) on 30 January 2001@03:39:11.
David Whitehead on 30 January 2001@03:40:51.
David Whitehead (restorative cosmetics) on 13 April 2004@09:57:16.
David Whitehead (augmented notes and keywords; tweaks and cosmetics) on 19 December 2011@07:44:30.
David Whitehead on 19 December 2011@07:45:11.
David Whitehead (expanded n.1; another keyword) on 1 February 2012@05:18:15.
David Whitehead on 16 August 2013@06:43:40.

Headword: *(abroko/mas
Adler number: alpha,83
Translated headword: Abrokomas, Habrokomas, Abrocomas
Vetting Status: high
This man was satrap[1] under Artaxerxes, king of the Persians.[2]
Greek Original:
*(abroko/mas: ou(=tos satra/phs h)=n *)artace/rcou tou= *persw=n basile/ws.
From Harpokration (and Photius) s.v. The name has a smooth breathing (Abrokomas) there, as in Xenophon before them (below); in the Suda it is rough (Habrokomas).
[1] Provincial governor; see sigma 153 (and generally OCD(4) p.1321).
[2] There were several Persian kings of this name (see generally OCD(4) p.175), but probably Artaxerxes II (405/4-359/8) is meant; he had a general called Abrokomas, mentioned by Xenophon in the Anabasis.
Keywords: biography; chronology; dialects, grammar, and etymology; geography; historiography; history; military affairs; politics
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 26 August 1998@19:36:18.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (added headword, notes, keyword; cosmetics) on 29 September 2000@05:33:34.
William Hutton (Cosmetics) on 1 February 2001@00:51:03.
David Whitehead (augmented notes and keywords) on 19 July 2011@09:44:36.
Catharine Roth (cosmeticule) on 21 December 2011@01:44:30.
David Whitehead (updated 2 refs) on 29 July 2014@12:13:20.
David Whitehead (more keywords) on 2 April 2015@11:02:29.

Headword: *)agaqoklh=s
Adler number: alpha,117
Translated headword: Agathokles, Agathocles
Vetting Status: high
This man became tyrant [of Syracuse] and, as Timaeus says, in his early youth was a common prostitute, ready [to give himself] to the most debauched, a jackdaw, a buzzard,[1] presenting his backside to all who wanted it. When he died, says [Timaeus], his wife cried out to him in lamentation, "What [did] I not [carnally do to] you? And what [did] you not [reciprocate to] me?"[2] That nature had endowed Agathokles with great advantages is clear. For escaping the wheel, the smoke[of the kiln and] the clay,[3] he came to Syracuse, at about the age of eighteen, and in a short time, starting from such beginnings, he became master of the whole of Sicily, exposed the Carthaginians to extreme dangers, and finally, having grown old in the role of dynast, ended his life with the title of king.[4]
Greek Original:
*)agaqoklh=s: ou(=tos e)ge/neto tu/rannos kai\, w(/s fhsi *ti/maios, kata\ th\n prw/thn h(liki/an koino\s po/rnos, e(/toimos toi=s a)kratesta/tois, koloio\s, trio/rxhs, pa/ntwn tw=n boulome/nwn toi=s o)/pisqen e)/mprosqen gegonw/s. o(\s o(/te a)pe/qane, th\n gunai=ka fhsi\ kataklaiome/nhn au)to\n ou(/tw qrhnei=n: ti/ d' ou)k e)gw\ se/; ti/ d' ou)k e)me\ su/; o(/ti de\ e)k fu/sews a)na/gkh mega/la proterh/mata gegone/nai peri\ to\n *)agaqokle/a, tou=to dh=lon. ei)s ga\r ta\s *surakou/sas paregenh/qh feu/gwn to\n troxo\n, to\n kapno\n, to\n phlo\n, peri/ te th\n h(liki/an o)ktwkai/deka e)/th gegonw\s, kai\ meta/ tina xro/non o(rmhqei\s u(po\ toiau/ths u(poqe/sews, ku/rios me\n e)genh/qh pa/shs *sikeli/as, megi/stois de\ kindu/nois perie/sthse *karxhdoni/ous, te/los e)gghra/sas th=| dunastei/a|, kate/streye to\n bi/on basileu\s prosagoreuo/menos.
360-289 BCE; he ruled Syracuse from 317-289. See generally OCD(4) p.36, under Agathocles(1).
The entry presents a semi-verbatim and mildly abridged extract from Polybius (12.15.2-7: web address 1 below), who is in turn citing, disapprovingly, Timaeus of Tauromenium (FGrH 566 F124b).
[1] On this passage K.J. Dover, Greek Homosexuality (London 1978) p.103 writes: 'The jackdaw here probably sybolises impudence and shamelessness; the buzzard, in Greek triorkhes, having three testicles, presumably symbolises insatiable lust, which is assumed to characterise the true pornos'. Cf. tau 995, where the first part of this quotation reappears.
[2] Probably Theoxene, the daughter or stepdaughter of Ptolemy I Soter and the third wife of Agathokles. See F.W. Walbank, A historical commentary on Polybius (Oxford, 1967) v.2 p.361.
[3] His father owned a large pottery. See Diodorus 19.2.7; 20.63.4. As with equivalent figures in (e.g.) late-C5 Athens, such as Kleon, we see here the conceit that those whose wealth lay in manufacture would actually participate in (and be debased by) the actual manufacturing.
[4] Agathokles assumed the title of king in 305. See Diodorus 20.54.1.
Berve, H., Die Herrschaft des Agathokles (Verlag der Bayerischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, 1953)
Agathokles(15) in RE 1.1 748-757
Associated internet address:
Web address 1
Keywords: biography; constitution; daily life; ethics; gender and sexuality; historiography; history; politics; trade and manufacture; women; zoology
Translated by: David Whitehead on 10 February 2001@10:07:49.
Vetted by:
William Hutton (Modified translation, cosmetics, added keywords, set status) on 6 June 2001@00:10:30.
Tony Natoli (Modified translation, added notes and bibliography, raised status.) on 12 August 2001@02:19:21.
David Whitehead (restorative and other cosmetics) on 17 September 2002@05:10:41.
David Whitehead (more keywords) on 9 October 2005@10:59:41.
David Whitehead (more keywords) on 20 November 2005@10:37:08.
Jennifer Benedict (added link) on 26 March 2008@00:30:36.
David Whitehead (cosmetics) on 22 December 2011@06:16:09.
David Whitehead (updated a ref) on 29 July 2014@12:23:59.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 1 January 2015@23:51:52.
Catharine Roth (tweaked link) on 17 February 2018@23:14:40.

Headword: *)agasiklh=s
Adler number: alpha,169
Translated headword: Agasikles, Agasicles
Vetting Status: high
A proper name. He is said to have bribed[1] the Halimousians, and for that reason, although he was a foreigner, to have been accorded [sc. Athenian] citizenship.[2]
Greek Original:
*)agasiklh=s: o)/noma ku/rion. o(\s le/getai *(alimousi/nois sundika/sai kai\ dia\ tou=to ce/nos w)\n e)ggrafh=nai th=| politei/a|.
After the initial generic gloss, this entry is abridged from Harpokration s.v.
[1] Reading sundeka/sai for the transmitted sundika/sai ("to share in judging"). See LSJ s.v. sundeka/zw at web address 1; see also n. 1 to alpha 1231.
[2] This is RE Agasikles 2; his claim to Athenian citizenship was contested in a speech by Dinarchus.
Associated internet address:
Web address 1
Keywords: biography; constitution; definition; economics; ethics; history; law; politics; rhetoric
Translated by: Gregory Hays on 7 June 1999@11:24:47.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (modified translation, with explanatory note.) on 15 September 2000@06:18:36.
David Whitehead on 15 September 2000@06:20:34.
David Whitehead (more keywords) on 9 October 2005@11:01:00.
Jennifer Benedict (betacode, added link, cosmetics) on 26 March 2008@01:51:40.
David Whitehead (augmented notes and keywords) on 27 March 2008@08:39:44.
David Whitehead (tweaks and cosmetics) on 19 July 2011@09:57:12.
Catharine Roth (upgraded link) on 5 April 2015@21:47:43.

Headword: *)age/neia
Adler number: alpha,197
Translated headword: low birth
Vetting Status: high
Bad birth.
Greek Original:
*)age/neia: h( dusge/neia.
The headword literally means lack of birth. It is first attested in the Politics of Aristotle 6.1317b40 (web address 1 below) where a)ge/neia, peni/a and banausi/a are the defining characteristics, from a hostile standpoint, of democracy.
Similar entry in Hesychius, but in the accusative case and with the two nouns reversed.
Associated internet address:
Web address 1
Keywords: constitution; daily life; definition; ethics; philosophy; politics
Translated by: William Hutton on 17 October 2000@02:31:44.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (added note and keyword) on 25 April 2002@10:02:20.
Jennifer Benedict (added link, betacode) on 26 March 2008@02:11:08.
David Whitehead (more keywords; cosmetics) on 27 March 2008@08:46:46.
David Whitehead (another note) on 29 December 2011@07:40:46.
Catharine Roth (upgraded link) on 31 December 2011@18:20:24.

Headword: *)agkuloxei/lhs kai\ *)agkulo/xeilos
Adler number: alpha,255
Translated headword: crooked-beaked
Vetting Status: high
Bent-beaked, an epithet of the eagle, which has curved talons.[1] But in reference to Cleon [it means] having crooked hands for theft and seizure.
Greek Original:
*)agkuloxei/lhs kai\ *)agkulo/xeilos: skolio/xeilos, e)pi/qeton tou= a)etou=, e)pikampei=s ta\s xhla\s e)/xwn. e)pi\ de\ *kle/wnos, a)gku/las ta\s xei=ras e)/xwn pro\s to\ kle/ptein kai\ a(rpa/zein.
The headword actually presents two words (related to chi 225) that differ only in having different adjectival endings: a)gkuloxei/lhs and a)gkulo/xeilos; LSJ only documents the existence of the former.
[1] From the scholia to Aristophanes, Knights 197 (web address 1 below), where an adjective variously transmitted as a)gkuloxei/lhs or a)gkuloxh/lhs ('crooked clawed', from chi 276) is applied to Cleon (kappa 1731). The latter is what modern editors rightly print, but note that in late Greek the two words would have been homophones. See LSJ at a)gkuloxh/lhs (web address 2).
Associated internet addresses:
Web address 1,
Web address 2
Keywords: biography; comedy; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; economics; ethics; imagery; medicine; politics; zoology
Translated by: Roger Travis on 4 October 2000@11:53:19.
Vetted by:
William Hutton (Modified headword and translation, augmented notes and added links, added keywords, set status) on 15 June 2001@09:32:39.
David Whitehead (added x-ref; restorative cosmetics) on 10 February 2003@09:16:21.
David Whitehead (tweaked notes; more keywords; cosmetics) on 1 June 2009@04:19:34.
David Whitehead (more keywords; tweaks) on 4 January 2012@08:56:26.

Headword: *)agnw/neios
Adler number: alpha,285
Translated headword: Hagnoneian, Hagnonian
Vetting Status: high
The son of [H]agnon.[1]
Also [sc. attested is] [H]agnonides.[2]
Greek Original:
*)agnw/neios: o( tou= *)/agnwnos pai=s. kai\ *)agnwni/dhs.
[1] An entry seemingly generated by Thucydides 5.11.1, which records the demolition in 422 BCE of the "Hagnonian buildings" of Amphipolis, i.e. those buildings associated with its Athenian founder Hagnon, father of Theramenes (theta 342, etc.). The scholiast to the passage glosses the adjective, there in the neuter plural, as "those of (H)agnon". Here it is nominative singular; but even so it cannot have been an authentic way to refer to Hagnon's son.
[2] Athenian political figure of the third quarter of the C4 BCE, implicated in the "Harpalos Affair" (see generally alpha 4000).
Keywords: architecture; biography; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; historiography; history; politics
Translated by: Roger Travis on 23 October 2000@13:31:07.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (added notes and keyword; cosmetics) on 29 April 2002@06:29:13.
David Whitehead (another keyword) on 20 November 2005@09:58:45.
David Whitehead (more keywords; tweaks and cosmetics) on 5 January 2012@07:31:30.

Headword: *)agora/sw
Adler number: alpha,305
Translated headword: I will go to market
Vetting Status: high
Meaning I will spend time in [the] marketplace. Aristophanes [writes]: "and I will go to market in arms alongside Aristogeiton."[1] Meaning I will spend time in the market with Aristogeiton, near Aristogeiton.[2] That is,[3] "in a myrtle branch we will carry our sword, just like Harmodios and Aristogeiton". For they, having drawn their swords from myrtle branches, struck down the tyrant.
Greek Original:
*)agora/sw: a)nti\ tou= e)n a)gora=| diatri/yw. *)aristofa/nhs: a)gora/sw t' e)n toi=s o(/plois e(ch=s *)aristogei/toni. a)nti\ tou= e)n th=| a)gora=| diatri/yw meta\ *)aristogei/tonos, e)ggu\s *)aristogei/tonos. toute/stin e)n mursi/nw| kla/dw| to\ ci/fos fore/somen, w(/sper *(armo/dios kai\ *)aristogei/twn. ou(=toi ga\r a)po\ tw=n mursi/nwn kla/dwn ta\ ci/fh a)naspa/santes to\n tu/rannon kate/balon.
See also epsilon 1384, phi 592.
[1] Aristophanes, Lysistrata 633 (web address 1 below), with comment from the scholia there.
[2] On the statues of the tyrannicides (see further, next note) Aristogeiton and Harmodios in the Athenian Agora, see in brief J.M. Camp, The Athenian Agora (London 1986) 38; cf. OCD(4) s.v. Aristogiton (pp.156-7); and at length M.W. Taylor, The Tyrant Slayers (New York 1981) 51-77.
[3] What follows this less-than-apposite opening is a line from one of the skolia (drinking songs) -- best preserved in Athenaeus, Deipnosophists 15.695A-B [15.50 Kaibel] -- which commemorated the assassination of Hipparchos in 514 BCE. See generally M. Ostwald, Nomos and the Beginnings of the Athenian Democracy (Oxford 1969) 121-136.
Associated internet address:
Web address 1
Keywords: biography; botany; comedy; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; ethics; history; military affairs; meter and music; politics; trade and manufacture
Translated by: William Hutton on 30 October 2000@00:44:39.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (added notes; cosmetics) on 30 October 2000@04:35:33.
David Whitehead (another keyword) on 9 October 2005@11:05:58.
David Whitehead (tweaked tr; x-refs; more keywords) on 28 February 2006@03:08:29.
David Whitehead (more keywords; tweaks and cosmetics) on 5 January 2012@09:28:58.
David Whitehead (updated a ref) on 30 July 2014@02:58:03.
David Whitehead (typo; other tweaking) on 9 April 2015@09:02:53.

Headword: *)/agos
Adler number: alpha,314
Translated headword: pollution, leader
Vetting Status: high
Pollution, or elbow.[1] What is honourable and worthy of reverence is also called agos; hence priesthoods [are called] all-holy [panageis], and a number of other things.[2]
Thucydides [writes]: "the Spartans sent envoys to Athens demanding the expulsion of the goddess's curse [agos]. It was that against Cylon, the ancient Athenian Olympic victor. [...] And they banished the accursed [enageis]."[3]
But agos when oxytone [means] leader.[4]
Greek Original:
*)/agos: mi/asma, h)\ a)gkw/n. le/getai de\ a)/gos kai\ to\ ti/mion kai\ a)/cion seba/smatos, e)c ou(= kai\ ai( i(e/reiai panagei=s, kai\ a)/lla tina/. *qoukudi/dhs: pe/myantes oi( *lakedaimo/nioi pre/sbeis e)ke/leuon tou\s *)aqhnai/ous to\ a)/gos e)lau/nein th=s qeou=. h)=n de\ to\ kata\ *ku/lwna to\n *)olumpioni/khn to\n *)aqhnai=on to\n pa/lai. kai\ h)/lasan tou\s e)nagei=s. *)ago\s de\ o)cuto/nws o( h(gemw/n.
The opening material here is also in Photius and other lexica.
[1] The second gloss here is a mistake (perhaps by confusion with the following entry, where the same word, a)gkw/n, is translated 'embrace').
[2] An a)/gos is "any matter of religious awe": LSJ s.v.; see also pi 150.
[3] Thucydides 1.126.2-12 (web address 1), here so drastically abridged as to be misleading. (This banishment was part of the events of 632 BCE, now relevant two centuries later in the build-up to the Peloponnesian War. The original 'accursed' had returned -- and nobody was banished in 432.)
[4] From Philoponus, Differences. (For this epic/poetic noun see LSJ s.v.)
Associated internet address:
Web address 1
Keywords: athletics; biography; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; historiography; history; politics; religion
Translated by: Malcolm Heath on 7 July 1999@10:54:13.
Vetted by:
William Hutton (Altered headword, cosmetics, raised status) on 21 October 2000@16:02:46.
David Whitehead (augmented keywords; cosmetics) on 9 February 2003@08:40:55.
Catharine Roth (tweaked notes, added cross-reference and link) on 23 April 2008@15:19:18.
David Whitehead (expanded notes; more keywords; cosmetics) on 6 January 2012@04:34:35.
Catharine Roth (upgraded link) on 6 January 2012@12:22:26.

Headword: *)/agrion u(poble/pei me
Adler number: alpha,357
Translated headword: looks at me angrily
Vetting Status: high
To be used in preference to "stares at."[1]
"The elephants were running up and trumpeting in anger."[2]
Also [sc. attested is] "[they] looking angrily".[3]
And elsewhere: "he would have incited and provoked beastliness and anger, if he had ever become lord of the land."[4]
Greek Original:
*)/agrion u(poble/pei me: ma=llon xrhste/on h)\ u(poble/petai. oi( de\ e)le/fantes a)ne/trexon kai\ e)bo/wn a)griai/nontes. kai\ a)/grion u(poble/pontes. kai\ au)=qis: o( de\ to\ qhriw=des kai\ a)/grion u(peki/nei kai\ dihre/qizen, ei)/ pou ku/rios ge/nhtai tou= xwri/ou.
[1] The point (hard to convey in English translation) is that the active voice of the verb u(poble/pein is preferable to the middle. The quotation itself, also in Eudemus, is unidentifiable.
[2] Quotation (with another idiom: the participle a)griai/nontes) unidentifiable.
[3] Quotation unidentifiable.
[4] Quotation unidentifiable. (At delta 1012, where it reappears, Adler suggests Aelian.)
Keywords: biography; dialects, grammar, and etymology; ethics; geography; history; military affairs; politics; zoology
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 28 August 1998@16:40:39.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (modified translation and note; added further notes; added keynotes; cosmetics) on 12 February 2001@08:53:18.
David Whitehead (augmented notes and keywords; tweaks and cosmetics) on 8 January 2012@08:10:29.
Catharine Roth (tweak) on 8 January 2012@22:16:43.

Headword: *)agu/rrios
Adler number: alpha,385
Translated headword: Agyrrhios, Agyrrhius
Vetting Status: high
A proper name. [The man] who was slandered for weakness, that he actually breaks wind. Aristophanes in Plutus [says this]. And he was also ridiculed for over-boldness.[1]
Also [sc. attested is] Agyrrhios, an Athenian demagogue of some renown.[2]
Agyrrhios got away with having the beard of Pronomos.[3] The general Agyrrhios was effeminate.[4] He commanded in Lemnos,[5] and [he was the man] who curtailed the poets' fee.[6] But Pronomos was a piper with a great beard.[7]
Greek Original:
*)agu/rrios: o)/noma ku/rion. o(\s e)pi\ malaki/a| diebe/blhto w(s kai\ pe/rdesqai au)to/n. *)aristofa/nhs *plou/tw|. e)kwmw|dei=to de\ kai\ ei)s qrasu/thta. kai\ *)agu/rrios, dhmagwgo\s *)aqhnai/wn ou)k a)fanh/s. *)agu/rrios to\n *prono/mou pw/gwn' e)/xwn le/lhqen. o( *)agu/rrios strathgo\s qhludriw/dhs, a)/rcas e)n *lh/mnw|, o(\s to\n misqo\n tw=n poihtw=n sune/temen. o( de\ *pro/nomos au)lhth\s h)=n me/gan pw/gwna e)/xwn.
[1] From the scholia to Aristophanes, Plutus [Wealth] 176; cf. pi 1039. Aristophanes in fact writes that Agyrrhios' flatulence, and much else besides, was motivated by Wealth: *)agu/rrios d' ou)xi\ dia\ tou=ton [Wealth] pe/rdetai;
[2] Despite 'also' (which simply stems, here, from the incorporation of Harpokration s.v., commenting on Demosthenes 24.134), this is the same man, Agyrrhios of Kollytos (LGPN ii s.v. no.1). See generally Develin (1989) Index I no.44; Hansen (1989) p.34; P.J. Rhodes in OCD(4) s.v. (p.45).
[3] Aristophanes, Ecclesiazusae 102-3, with comment from the scholia there; cf. pi 2527.
[4] This adjective for effeminate derives from a word for 'hairdresser' and is also used for a type of kiss, and a type of melody. See kappa 912 (note 1), mu 134.
[5] For his generalship in 389/8 see Develin (1989) p.215. The demagogue Agyrrhios and the general here described are the same man; cf. already n.2.
[6] A measure not otherwise attested (amongst A's documented interest in fees: see the summary in Hansen (1989) p.34).
[7] For the Theban piper Pronomos see Geisau, RE XXIII, 748 (and pi 2527). He is depicted playing the double aulos on the so-called Pronomos krater (Web address 1).
Develin, Robert: 1989: Athenian Officials 684-321 BC. Cambridge.
Hansen, Mogens Herman. 1989: "Rhetores and Strategoi in Fourth-Century Athens." In The Athenian Ecclesia II. Copenhagen. Pp. 25-72.
Stroud, Ronald S. 1998: The Athenian Tax Law of 374/3 B.C. Hesperia Supplement 29, Princeton NJ (American School of Classical Studies at Athens) See esp pp.18ff.
Associated internet address:
Web address 1
Keywords: biography; comedy; definition; economics; gender and sexuality; history; medicine; military affairs; meter and music; poetry; politics; rhetoric
Translated by: Debra Hamel on 12 August 1999@20:03:15.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (added headword; augmented bibliography; cosmetics) on 29 September 2000@08:02:15.
Robert Dyer (Added note 4 and reference to Pronomus in Aristophanes. Cosmetics.) on 29 January 2002@15:00:15.
David Whitehead (augmented notes and keywords; cosmetics) on 27 May 2004@04:54:54.
Catharine Roth (betacode cosmetics) on 17 August 2004@22:38:04.
David Whitehead (another keyword) on 9 October 2005@11:09:41.
David Whitehead (another keyword) on 27 November 2005@09:40:38.
David Whitehead (augmented n.2; another keyword; cosmetics) on 20 July 2011@04:55:36.
David Whitehead (updated a ref) on 30 July 2014@03:01:13.

Headword: *)agxi/strofoi
Adler number: alpha,410
Translated headword: changeable
Vetting Status: high
[Those] gathered together, or quickly turning about.[1]
Procopius [writes]: "the battle had become fierce and at close range, and both sides were making quick-turning pursuits against each other."[2]
And elsewhere: "then you, deploying the phalanxes, becoming gathered together, are face to face with your pursuers."[3]
And elsewhere: "in the changeability of fortune."[4]
And Theramenes, being wily and changeable, caters to the moment, always giving himself to the stronger side.[5]
Greek Original:
*)agxi/strofoi: sustrafe/ntes, h)\ taxu\ e)pistrefo/menoi. *proko/pios: h(/ te ma/xh kartera\ e)gego/nei kai\ e)k xeiro\s h)=n, a)gxistro/fous te ta\s diw/ceis e)poiou=nto e)s a)llh/lous e(ka/teroi. kai\ au)=qis: ei)=ta u(mei=s ta\s fa/laggas e)celi/cantes a)gxi/strofoi geno/menoi, a)ntime/twpoi gi/nesqe toi=s diw/kousi. kai\ au)=qis: tw=| a)gxistro/fw| th=s tu/xhs. kai\ o( *qhrame/nhs poiki/los tis w)\n kai\ a)gxi/strofos, kaqwmi/lei toi=s kairoi=s pro\s to\ krei=tton a)ei\ didou\s e(auto/n.
[1] Same glossing in Photius and elsewhere. The headword, a nominative plural, is evidently quoted from somewhere (possibly, though not necessarily, the Dion. Hal. quotation given below).
[2] Procopius, History of the Wars of Justinian 1.15.14-15.
[3] Quotation unidentifiable; again at epsilon 1617.
[4] Dionysius of Halicarnassus, Roman Antiquities 9.13.1.
[5] A scholiast to Aristophanes, Frogs 970. On Theramenes see generally kappa 1909 and theta 342.
Keywords: biography; comedy; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; ethics; historiography; history; military affairs; politics
Translated by: George Pesely on 22 October 2000@20:13:03.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (added note and keywords; cosmetics) on 13 February 2001@07:46:02.
David Whitehead (augmented keywords) on 28 February 2003@09:26:05.
David Whitehead (augmented notes and keywords; tweaks and cosmetics) on 9 January 2012@08:13:04.

Headword: *)adiki/a
Adler number: alpha,485
Translated headword: injustice
Vetting Status: high
Plato says[1] that injustice is a disease of the soul. No disease of the soul is beneficial. And so every evil is harmful to the one possessing it; injustice [is] an evil; so [it is] harmful. For injustice does injustice even to nature itself, to the extent that it itself is appropriated. It is also destructive, partly of the civic community, partly of all exchange; to humans [it is] averse and contrary to nature; for humans [are] communal by nature.
Greek Original:
*)adiki/a: *pla/twn fhsi\ th\n a)diki/an no/son yuxh=s ei)=nai. mhdemi/a de\ no/sos yuxh=s w)fe/limo/s e)sti. kai\ ou(/tws pa=sa kaki/a blabera/ e)sti tw=| e)/xonti au)th/n: h( de\ a)diki/a kaki/a: ou)kou=n blabero/n. h( ga\r a)diki/a kai\ th\n fu/sin au)th\n a)dikei=, par' o(/son au(/th sfeteri/zetai. e)/sti de\ kai\ fqartikh/, tou=to me\n th=s e)n po/lei koinwni/as, tou=to de\ pa/shs sunallagh=s: e)nanti/a de\ kai\ para\ fu/sin toi=s a)nqrw/pois: oi( ga\r a)/nqrwpoi fu/sei koinwnikoi/.
For this headword see already alpha 484 (and cf. alpha 483, alpha 486). The present material derives from Alexander of Aphrodisias, Commentaries on Aristotle's Topica 173.27-174.1 and 186.5-7.
[1] Plato, Sophist 228E (see also Republic 610C).
Keywords: definition; ethics; imagery; law; philosophy; politics
Translated by: David Mirhady on 20 May 1999@13:23:23.
Vetted by:
Catharine Roth (Added note.) on 13 July 2000@23:40:43.
Marcelo Boeri (Added note.) on 20 May 2001@18:57:39.
Marcelo Boeri on 21 May 2001@08:08:26.
David Whitehead (small changes to tr; expanded notes) on 14 July 2003@07:26:47.
David Whitehead (another keyword) on 9 October 2005@11:10:48.
David Whitehead (more keywords; cosmetics) on 10 January 2012@11:35:56.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 27 November 2014@23:18:59.

Headword: *)admisouna/lios
Adler number: alpha,494
Translated headword: admissionalis, usher
Vetting Status: high
The foremost of the silentiarii.
Greek Original:
*)admisouna/lios: o( tw=n *silentiari/wn prw=tos.
(Entry lacking, Adler reports, in mss AS, and placed earlier in GIT.)
"In the later imperial period, [a silentiarius was] a certain high officer at court, a privy-councillor" (Lewis & Short, A Latin Dictionary, s.v.). The Latin term admissionalis, under various hellenized spellings, occurs copiously in the De ceremoniis aulae Byzantinae of Constantine VII Porphyrogenitus.
Keywords: definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; historiography; history; politics
Translated by: Jennifer Benedict on 23 October 1999@21:32:55.
Vetted by:
William Hutton on 21 November 1999@13:40:53.
David Whitehead (added note; changed keywords) on 25 January 2001@04:47:27.
David Whitehead (modified notes and keywords; cosmetics) on 30 April 2002@09:02:36.
Catharine Roth (cosmetics) on 3 January 2008@11:44:11.
David Whitehead on 11 January 2012@05:52:18.
David Whitehead (another note) on 25 April 2015@10:43:45.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 3 October 2021@01:19:21.

Headword: *)aqhno/dwros
Adler number: alpha,735
Translated headword: Athenodoros, Athenodorus
Vetting Status: high
Stoic philosopher, of the time of the Roman emperor Octavian. Under Octavian there was every reason for unbridled excess of power to be a universal misfortune, but the aforementioned Athenodoros persuaded him away from that with his advice. Then Tiberius succeeded to the principate.[1] For at that time the flatterers that had gained esteem through gifts and honors from the emperor had entered into the highest offices, but those who were seemly and modest and who did not choose the same lifestyle as those men were, as one might imagine, in an uproar, since they did not enjoy the same [honors]. Thus from this point on the cities were filled with revolts and disturbances, and the fact that the government had been turned over to officials who could not resist profit made life grievous and painful for the better class of people in peacetime and undermined their determination in times of war. In those times also pantomime dancing was introduced for the first time,[2] and many other things happened which were the cause of great evils.
Everything was leading Athenodoros toward philosophy, both the inclinations of his nature and the inclinations of his prudent predilection, when Proclus was alive. And he explained things clearly to his students. Sallustius, amazed at him, said with regard to his zeal that "like indeed to a fire the man seems to ignite the things around him." Nevertheless he encouraged Athenodoros not to practice philosophy.
Greek Original:
*)aqhno/dwros: *stwi+ko\s filo/sofos, e)pi\ *)oktaoui+anou= basile/ws *(rwmai/wn: e)f' ou(= pa=sa a)na/gkh koino\n ei)=nai dustu/xhma th\n tou= kra/tous a)/logon e)cousi/an, e)c ou(= dh\ ma/lista tai=s *)aqhnodw/rou tou/tou sumbouli/ais e)pei/sqh. kai\ diade/xetai *tibe/rios th\n basilei/an. to/te ga\r oi( ko/lakes para\ tou= basile/ws dwrew=n kai\ timw=n a)ciou/menoi megi/stwn a)rxw=n e)pe/bainon, oi(/ te e)pieikei=s kai\ a)pra/gmones mh\ to\n au)to\n e)kei/nois ai(rou/menoi bi/on ei)ko/tws e)sxetli/azon, ou) tw=n au)tw=n a)polau/ontes. w(/ste e)k tou/tou ta\s me\n po/leis sta/sewn plhrou=sqai kai\ taraxw=n ta\ de\ politika\ ke/rdous h(/ttosin a)/rxousin e)kdido/mena, to\n me\n e)n ei)rh/nh| bi/on luphro\n kai\ o)dunhro\n toi=s xarieste/rois e)poi/oun, th\n de\ e)n toi=s pole/mois proqumi/an e)ce/luon. kata\ de\ tou\s kairou\s e)kei/nous kai\ h( panto/mimos o)/rxhsis ei)sh/xqh ou)/pw pro/teron ou)=sa: kai\ prose/ti ge e(/tera pollw=n kakw=n ai)/tia gegono/ta. o(/ti tw=| *)aqhnodw/rw| pa/nta pareskeu/asto pro\s filosofi/an ta/ te a)po\ th=s fu/sews kai\ ta\ a)po\ th=s e)pieikou=s proaire/sews, o(/te *pro/klos e)/zh. kai\ diafanw=s e)chgei=to toi=s plhsia/zousin. o(\n o( *salou/stios qauma/zwn e)pi\ spoudh=s e)/legen, o(/ti puri\ a)/ra e)w/|kei o( a)/nqrwpos e)ca/ptonti pa/nta ta\ parakei/mena. a)ll' o(/mws e)/peisen *)aqhno/dwron mh\ filosofh=sai.
The entry seems to confuse at least two Athenodoroi. Paragraph 1 (from Zosimus 1.5.3-6.2) concerns Athenodorus of Tarsus, the well-known Stoic advisor of Augustus, on whom see generally OCD(4) s.v., p.195. Paragraph 2 (= Damascius fr. 145 Zintzen, 88 Asmus) is about a contemporary of the Neoplatonist Proclus.
[1] tau 551, tau 552.
[2] cf. omicron 671.
Banchich, T.M. "Eunapius, Eustathius, and the Suda." AJP 109 (1988) 223-225
Keywords: biography; chronology; daily life; economics; ethics; history; imagery; military affairs; meter and music; philosophy; politics
Translated by: William Hutton on 3 April 2001@22:36:10.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (augmented note and keywords; cosmetics) on 20 May 2002@09:13:47.
David Whitehead (more keywords) on 28 November 2005@08:22:25.
David Whitehead (more x-refs; cosmetics) on 20 January 2012@04:24:27.
David Whitehead (updated a ref) on 30 July 2014@03:36:38.
David Whitehead (more keywords) on 1 May 2015@10:38:03.
Catharine Roth (added bibliography) on 27 January 2016@22:47:15.

Headword: *)akarh=
Adler number: alpha,801
Translated headword: bit, pittance, scrap
Vetting Status: high
[sc. Something] short, sharp, impossible to cut.[1]
Aristophanes [writes]: "somehow or other you've been duped, you who rule many and do not get any benefit of it except that pittance you take away.[2] And that they drip down on you little by little with wool, just like olive oil, so as to keep you alive. For they want you to be poor."[3]
Greek Original:
*)akarh=: braxu\, o)cu\, o(\ ou)x oi(=o/n te kei=rai. *)aristofa/nhs: ou)k oi)=d' o(/ph e)gkeku/klhsai, o(\s pollw=n a)/rxwn ou)k a)polau/eis plh\n tou=q' o(\ fe/reis a)karh=. kai\ tou=t' e)ri/w| soi e)nsta/zousi kata\ mikro\n a)ei\, tou= zh=n e(/nex' w(/sper e)/laion. bou/lontai ga/r se pe/nht' ei)=nai.
See also alpha 802, and cf. generally alpha 800, alpha 803, alpha 804.
[1] Same glossing in Photius and other lexica, and also in the scholia to [Plato], Axiochus 366C, where the (neuter) headword occurs.
[2] Jury pay; see generally under tau 998.
[3] Aristophanes, Wasps 699-703 (abridged, and with one substantive textual divergence for the worse: "rule many" should be "rule many cities," see web address 1); again briefly at epsilon 88. The simile of the wool and the oil here is hard to fathom, and the note in MacDowell (below) 228 suggests that Aristophanes "seems to have combined, or confused, two ideas": applying oil to a sore ear (with wool) and drip-feeding an invalid.
Aristophanes, Wasps, edited with introduction and commentary by Douglas M. MacDowell (Oxford 1971 and reprints)
Associated internet address:
Web address 1
Keywords: comedy; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; economics; food; imagery; law; medicine; philosophy; politics; zoology
Translated by: Jennifer Benedict on 6 November 2000@21:33:53.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (augmented note; added bibliography; cosmetics) on 7 November 2000@03:39:07.
Catharine Roth (added keyword) on 19 October 2005@11:33:41.
David Whitehead (augmented notes and keywords; cosmetics) on 20 October 2005@03:15:52.
David Whitehead (another keyword) on 16 May 2006@02:59:58.
David Whitehead (augmented notes and keywords; tweaks and cosmetics) on 23 January 2012@06:37:57.
Catharine Roth (fixed link) on 26 January 2012@01:28:59.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 4 May 2015@00:36:16.

Headword: *)ake/raios
Adler number: alpha,836
Translated headword: uncorrupted, intact, fresh, unblemished
Vetting Status: high
[Meaning] complete.[1]
"Succeeding [sc. those who were] uncorrupted and not expecting, they controlled the land."[2]
And elsewhere: "but the honey, inasmuch as [it was] impure and drawn not from thorns but from serpents, upset the bowels."[3]
Polybius [writes]: "for they, being unconquered, had fought intact in body and spirit against them."[4] Meaning confident.
"[He] wishing to use fresh troops against the attacks of the Celts."[5] Meaning from a state of intactness.
And elsewhere: "but not being able to persuade [him] afresh because of the overcautiousness and inaction of the aforementioned king, he was forced to offer 500 talents. And so Seleucus agreed to help [him]."[6]
And elsewhere: "those wishing to take away his unblemished reputation began to ridicule him."[7]
Greek Original:
*)ake/raios: o( o(lo/klhros. a)kerai/ois te kai\ ou) prosdexome/nois e)pigeno/menoi th=s gh=s e)kra/toun. kai\ au)=qis: to\ de\ me/li a(/te ou)k a)ke/raion ou)/te a)po\ a)ka/nqwn a)ll' a)po\ e(rpetw=n sumpeporisme/non a)ne/strefe ta\ spla/gxna. *polu/bios: tou\s me\n ga\r a)htth/tous o)/ntas e)c a)kerai/ou dihgwni/sqai pro\s sfa=s. a)nti\ tou= e)c eu)ko/lou. qe/lwn a)kerai/ois xrh/sasqai tai=s tw=n *keltw=n o(rmai=s. e)c o(loklh/rou. kai\ au)=qis: ou) duna/menos de\ pei/qein e)c a)kerai/ou dia\ th\n eu)la/beian kai\ a)pragi/an tou= proeirhme/nou basile/ws h)nagka/sqh f# ta/lanta protei=nai. kai\ dh\ sugkate/qeto bohqh/sein o( *se/leukos. kai\ au)=qis: ou) boulome/noi a)ke/raion a)penegkei=n th\n fh/mhn au)tou= h)/rcanto diasu/rein au)to/n.
These examples illustrate the meaning of the word as 'undamaged, unaffected by wounds to body or spirit, unpolluted by extraneous matter' or 'in a state not affected by previous experiences or failures'. The adjective is not derived from the root of mixing seen in kera/nnumi but either from the word for 'blemishes' (see alpha 833) or from a root of damaging seen in kerai+/zw and khrai/nw. Chantraine connects it with kerai+/zw, but indicates that it has been influenced by kera/nnumi. He finds the relationship between a)ke/raios and a)kh/ratos unclear. The LSJ entry may be consulted at web address 1.
[1] Same gloss (for which cf. under alpha 833), according to Adler, in the Ambrosian Lexicon.
[2] Quotation unidentifiable.
[3] Iamblichus fr. 16 Habrich.
[4] Polybius 15.11.11 (web address 2; cf. 6.24.9, 9.31.1,6: a common phrase for the mental state, particularly of fresh troops, that has not yet been affected by loss and wounds).
[5] Polybius 3.70.9 (web address 3).
[6] Polybius fr. 96 Büttner-Wobst, known only here (and epsilon 1520); cf. 23.4.11, 38.7.8. Büttner-Wobst notes (p. 527) that Ursinus (Fulvio Orsini, 1529-1600) deemed it Polybian, but that Schweighäuser doubted the attribution of this fragment to Polybius. Walbank suggests (p. 751) that a possible context for the fragment is Polybius 25.2.14 (web address 4). If this is correct, then the fragment details the moment in the war (179 BCE) of Eumenes (epsilon 3579) and Ariarathes (alpha 3869) against Pharnaces of Pontus (cf. OCD(4) s.v Pharnaces I; Pontus: Barrington Atlas map 87 grid B4) when the latter offered a bribe to Seleucus (IV Philopator, c.218-175 BCE (assassinated), cf. OCD(4) s.v. Seleucus(4)) so as to draw Seleucid troops into the conflict. Although Seleucus might have acquiesced, per the Suda, he apparently had second thoughts and did not break his existing agreement with the Romans (Walbank, p. 274; Gruen, p. 646).
[7] Quotation unidentifiable. (Perhaps, though not not necessarily, from Polybius again.)
Pierre Chantraine, Dictionnaire étymologique de la langue grecque ed. 2 (Paris 2009) 45, 496
T. Büttner-Wobst, ed., Polybii Historiae, vol. IV, (Leipzig 1904)
F.W. Walbank, A Historical Commentary on Polybius, vol. III, (Oxford 1979)
E.S. Gruen, The Hellenistic World and the Coming of Rome, (Berkeley, 1986)
Associated internet addresses:
Web address 1,
Web address 2,
Web address 3,
Web address 4
Keywords: biography; botany; definition; ethics; food; geography; historiography; history; medicine; military affairs; politics; zoology
Translated by: Robert Dyer on 17 December 2001@02:45:23.
Vetted by:
Catharine Roth (augmented note, added link) on 23 January 2002@15:59:10.
David Whitehead (added x-ref and keywords; cosmetics) on 22 December 2002@09:54:20.
David Whitehead (more keywords) on 27 May 2007@08:52:41.
Catharine Roth (updated reference, cosmetics) on 24 August 2011@22:49:31.
David Whitehead (augmented notes and keywords; tweaks) on 23 January 2012@09:44:51.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 18 December 2014@22:32:36.
David Whitehead (my typo) on 19 December 2014@02:48:18.
Ronald Allen (added links, added to bibliography, augmented n.6) on 4 May 2018@23:38:42.
Ronald Allen (cosmeticule) on 9 May 2018@22:36:38.
Ronald Allen (bibliography format, cosmeticule; expanded n.6) on 11 June 2018@21:26:25.
Ronald Allen (added link, added bibliography, expanded n.6, added cross-references) on 11 June 2018@23:33:48.
Ronald Allen (my typo, added keywords) on 12 June 2018@22:39:27.

Headword: *)akhdh/s
Adler number: alpha,860
Translated headword: uncared-for, uncaring
Vetting Status: high
[Meaning one who/which is] unburied, neglected.[1]
"The Romans could not stand seeing their own enemies uncared-for."[2]
Also [sc. attested is the adverb] a)khdw=s ["in uncared-for fashion"], meaning in unburied fashion.
"Seeing a body of a shipwrecked man lying in uncared-for and neglected fashion, he did not dare to pass, but he buried the dead man, in humane fashion, hiding a sight not at all welcome to the sun."[3]
*)akhdh/s is also used in the Mythica [Fables]: "a bitter (soul?) [is changed?] into wolves, but an uncaring into goats."[4]
And elsewhere: "he broke open the tomb, without care for the burial and pitilessly, and from these stones set up a tower. Thence the city was captured."[5]
Greek Original:
*)akhdh/s: a)/tafos, a)melh/s. oi( de\ *(rwmai=oi tou\s e(autw=n polemi/ous a)khdei=s ou)x u(pe/meinan paridei=n. kai\ *)akhdw=s, a)nti\ tou= a)ta/fws. i)dw\n nauhgou= sw=ma e)rrimme/non a)khdw=s kai\ o)ligw/rws parelqei=n ou)k e)to/lmhsen, a)lla\ e)/qaye to\n teqnew=ta, qe/ama tw=| h(li/w| ou)damh=| fi/lon a)pokru/ptwn a)nqrwpi/nw| qesmw=|. le/getai kai\ *)akhdh\s e)n *muqikoi=s: pikrh\ me/n te lu/kois, au)ta\r xima/roisin a)khdh/s. kai\ au)=qis: dialu/ei to\n ta/fon a)khdw=s kai\ a)noi/ktws kai\ a)po\ tw=nde tw=n li/qwn a)ni/sthsi pu/rgon. e)kei=qen e(a/lw h( po/lis.
For the twin senses of the headword a)khdh/s glossed and illustrated here, see generally LSJ s.v.
[1] Similar glossing in Photius and elsewhere.
[2] Quotation (also in ps.-Zonaras) unidentifiable.
[3] Aelian fr. 241b Domingo-Forasté (242 Hercher). [Adler reports that ms. M reads the first person singular e)to/lmhsa ("I did not dare") but no corresponding variant for e)/qaye).]
[4] Quotation unidentifiable. We know of several lost books called Mythica, but none in hexameter verse, as this quotation is (Crusius includes it in an appendix to his edition of Babrius, p.216). It appears to belong to the theory of transmigration of souls, and may belong to the body of Orphic or even Pythagorean literature. George the Monk tells us that "bitter (acid, overcritical)" souls were, under this theory, changed into wolves in reincarnation (Chronicon breve 11.784.17). Lachmann would emend pikrh\ to pikroi\ and a)khdh/s to a)khdei=s, making both subjects plural.
[5] Part of Aelian fr. 63 Hercher (66 Domingo-Forasté). It refers to a capture of Syracuse by Phoenix [Author, Myth] of Acragas, but confuses historical facts (see sigma 441; cf. Callimachus fr. 64 Pfeiffer). The allusion is to the desecration of the tomb of the poet Simonides of Ceos, who was buried at Acragas; it must refer to a desecration by the Phoenician Carthaginians in the process of sacking Acragas in 406 BC.
Keywords: biography; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; ethics; geography; historiography; history; imagery; military affairs; meter and music; philosophy; poetry; politics; religion; zoology
Translated by: Robert Dyer on 9 June 2000@09:08:50.
Vetted by:
Catharine Roth (Added keyword.) on 19 August 2000@01:44:38.
Catharine Roth (augmented note) on 20 September 2001@17:44:48.
David Whitehead (cosmetics) on 30 May 2002@04:15:29.
David Whitehead (introductory note; more keywords; tweaks and cosmetics) on 10 April 2009@07:30:00.
David Whitehead (tweaks and cosmetics) on 24 January 2012@06:40:05.
Catharine Roth (tweaked note 3) on 26 January 2012@17:50:45.
David Whitehead (further tweaking of it) on 27 January 2012@03:48:50.
Catharine Roth (tweaked betacode) on 28 January 2012@00:22:42.
Catharine Roth (expanded note 4) on 10 May 2012@01:09:10.
Catharine Roth (cosmetics) on 11 November 2014@17:09:49.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 9 May 2015@10:08:11.
David Whitehead on 11 May 2015@03:10:09.

Headword: *)/akouron
Adler number: alpha,940

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