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Headword: *)aage/s
Adler number: alpha,2
Translated headword: unbroken, unbreakable
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
[Meaning something] unshattered,[1] strong.
Greek Original:
*)aage/s: a)/qrauston, i)sxuro/n.
Notes:
= Apollonius Sophistes, Lexicon Homericum 2.4. Likewise in Hesychius alpha7; Photius, Lexicon alpha4 Theodoridis; Etymologicum Gudianum 1.12. This form of the adjective is the neuter nominative/accusative singular, as at Homer, Odyssey 11.575 (web address 1).
All but the last word of this entry is absent from ms M (= Marcianus 448), as are the last several words of alpha 1 (a and b).
[1] cf. alpha 750.
Associated internet address:
Web address 1
Keywords: definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; epic; poetry
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 20 August 1998@17:55:22.
Vetted by:
Ross Scaife ✝ (raised status) on 26 September 2000@13:50:00.
Ross Scaife ✝ (testing) on 22 June 2001@13:33:15.
Catharine Roth (added link and keywords) on 6 March 2002@00:09:12.
David Whitehead (added x-ref; cosmetics) on 22 July 2003@09:58:28.
William Hutton (modified translation, augmented notes, added keyword, set status) on 19 August 2007@10:53:47.
David Whitehead (restored lost keywords) on 19 August 2007@11:26:45.
William Hutton (augmented headword) on 20 August 2007@08:18:48.
Jennifer Benedict (cosmetics) on 25 March 2008@00:09:21.
David Whitehead (tweaks) on 16 December 2011@05:45:02.
Catharine Roth (upgraded link) on 16 December 2011@11:36:59.
David Whitehead on 16 August 2013@05:57:53.
Catharine Roth (tweaked note) on 22 January 2024@00:54:55.

Headword: *)/aaptos
Adler number: alpha,5
Translated headword: irresistable, invulnerable
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
[Meaning someone/something] unharmed.
Herodianus[1] says about a)/aptos that it comes from i)a/ptw ['I harm'], and after adding alpha-privative and dropping the 'i' [it becomes] a)/aptos, "whom no one can harm." Or perhaps the 'a' is not to be taken as negative but as intensifying, so it would be "one who has great power to harm." Thus the first has a passive sense, the second an active. With the negative prefix it also means "one who is untouched."[2]
Greek Original:
*)/aaptos: a)blabh/s. *(hrwdiano/s fhsi peri\ tou= a)/aptos, o(/ti gi/gnetai a)po\ tou= i)a/ptw to\ bla/ptw, kai\ meta\ tou= sterhtikou= a kai\ kat' e)/lleiyin tou= i a)/aptos, o(\n ou)dei\s du/natai bla/yai. h)\ ou)xi\ kata\ ste/rhsin e)klhpte/on to\ a, a)lla\ kat' e)pi/tasin, i(/n' h)=| o( mega/la duna/menos bla/ptein. w(/ste to\ me\n prw=ton dhloi= pa/qos, to\ de\ deu/teron e)ne/rgeian. le/getai de\ kai\ a)/aptos kata\ ste/rhsin o( a)/yaustos.
Notes:
This form of the headword, the nominative singular masculine/feminine, is unattested outside lexicography; however, plural forms occur frequently in hexameter poetry, in the formula xei=res a)/aptoi or xei=ras a)a/ptous (usually interpreted as 'irresistable hands'); e.g. Homer, Iliad 8.450 (web address 1).
[1] The etymological comments that follow occur only in mss G (= Parisinus 2623) and T (= Vaticanus 881); cf. Herodianus 3.2.30.
[2] This etymology, alpha-privative + a(/ptomai ('touch'), is the one most commonly accepted nowadays. See LSJ s.v. (web address 2) and Schwyzer, DGE. Yet there is reason for doubt, and the correct Homeric form (attested already by Aristophanes of Byzantium) may actually be a)ept-. See Chantraine s.v. a)/aptos.
Reference:
P. Chantraine, Dictionnaire étymologique de la langue grecque, ed. 2 Paris 2009.
Associated internet addresses:
Web address 1,
Web address 2
Keywords: definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; epic; poetry
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 21 August 1998@16:48:12.
Vetted by:
William Hutton (Raised status; cosmetics) on 16 October 2000@15:10:37.
David Whitehead (added keyword; cosmetics) on 23 April 2002@07:40:44.
David Whitehead (betacoding and other cosmetics) on 9 November 2005@09:16:30.
William Hutton (Augmented notes, cosmetics, added keywords and links, set status) on 19 August 2007@18:31:56.
William Hutton (typo) on 20 August 2007@04:20:04.
William Hutton (augmented notes, tweaked headwords) on 20 August 2007@08:59:16.
Jennifer Benedict (cosmetics, consistency) on 25 March 2008@00:11:12.
Catharine Roth (cosmetics) on 16 December 2011@23:59:48.
David Whitehead (cosmetics) on 18 December 2011@10:14:21.
David Whitehead (cosmetics; note typo) on 2 April 2015@08:36:40.
Catharine Roth (added bibliography) on 25 January 2024@00:59:21.

Headword: *)aa/sai
Adler number: alpha,8
Translated headword: to harm, to infatuate
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
has four meanings: to glut,[1] to go to sleep,[2] to harm, to cause pain.
Greek Original:
*)aa/sai te/ssara shmai/nei: kore/sai, kaqupnw=sai, bla/yai, luph=sai.
Notes:
The headword is aorist active infinitive, glossed with four others. The entry = Photius, Lexicon alpha9 Theodoridis, and similar material can be found in Synagoge (Codex B) alpha4 (Lexica Segueriana 3.5-7). Compare also Etymologicum Gudianum 1.8. This particular form is unattested outside lexicography, though it appears as an entry in Apollonius Sophistes, Homeric Lexicon 2.5, and is presumably related to such Homeric forms as we find at alpha 7.
[1] This meaning is unattested for the verb a)a/w (LSJ entry at web address 1), except that the verb is used for the effect of overindulgence in wine.
[2] In that one loses consciousness and control in sleep, as in Homer Odyssey 10.68 (web address 2).
Associated internet addresses:
Web address 1,
Web address 2
Keywords: definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; epic; poetry
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 21 August 1998@16:55:13.
Vetted by:
William Hutton (Translated headword, changed status) on 17 October 2000@17:24:27.
David Whitehead (augmented note; cosmetics) on 2 August 2004@09:47:05.
William Hutton (Augmented notes, added links and keywords, set status) on 20 August 2007@05:15:27.
William Hutton (typo) on 20 August 2007@09:12:24.
William Hutton on 8 November 2007@06:10:34.
Jennifer Benedict (cosmetics) on 25 March 2008@00:13:46.
Catharine Roth (upgraded link) on 17 December 2011@00:11:54.
David Whitehead on 16 August 2013@06:08:03.
Catharine Roth (tweaked translation and note) on 1 February 2024@01:06:09.
Catharine Roth (tweaked note) on 9 February 2024@01:16:39.

Headword: *)abba=
Adler number: alpha,10
Translated headword: Abba, Father
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
The ancients called God "Father" from a feeling of relationship. Moses said, "You have forsaken God who begot you."[1] And Malachi: "One God begot us and is our father."[2] They were in a state of grace, moved by the force of the Spirit. Just as there is the Spirit of wisdom by which fools have become wise (for this is clear from the teachings), and the Spirit of power by which they raised both the weak and the dead, and the Spirit of prophecy, and the Spirit of tongues, so also there is the Spirit of adoption.[3] And just as we know the Spirit of prophecy, through which one who has it is moved by grace to tell the future, so also the Spirit of adoption, through which one moved by the Spirit calls God "Father." One who wishes to show that this is most legitimate even used a Hebrew word. For he did not say "Father" but "Abba the Father." This is the word used especially by legitimate children for their father.[4]
Greek Original:
*)abba=: o( path/r. oi( me\n palaioi\ e)ka/loun pate/ra to\n qeo\n e)c oi)kei/as dianoi/as, w(s *mwu+sh=s: qeo\n to\n gennh/santa/ se e)gkate/lipes: kai\ *malaxi/as: o( qeo\s ei(=s e)ge/nnhsen h(ma=s kai\ path/r: oi( de\ e)n xa/riti, a)po\ pneumatikh=s e)nergei/as kinou/menoi. w(/sper pneu=ma sofi/as ei)=nai, kaq' o(\ sofoi\ oi( a)/sofoi e)ge/nonto [kai\ dhlou=tai tou=to a)po\ th=s didaskali/as] kai\ pneu=ma duna/mews ei)=nai, kaq' o(\ kai\ a)sqenei=s kai\ nekrou\s h)/geiron, kai\ pneu=ma profhtei/as, kai\ pneu=ma glwssw=n, ou(/tw kai\ pneu=ma ui(oqesi/as. kai\ w(/sper i)/smen to\ pneu=ma th=s profhtei/as, a)f' w(=n o( e)/xwn au)to\ le/gei ta\ me/llonta u(po\ th=s xa/ritos kinou/menos, ou(/tw dh\ kai\ pneu=ma ui(oqesi/as, a)f' ou(= o( labw\n pate/ra kalei= to\n qeo\n, u(po\ pneu/matos kinou/menos. o( dh\ boulo/menos dei=cai gnhsiw/taton o)\n kai\ th=| tw=n *(ebrai/wn e)xrh/sato glw/tth|. ou) ga\r ei)=pen o( path\r, a)ll' a)bba= o( path/r: o(/per tw=n pai/dwn ma/lista/ e)sti tw=n gnhsi/wn pro\s pate/ra r(h=ma.
Notes:
A paraphrase of St. John Chrysostom, Homily on the Epistle to the Romans PG 60.527.
(Entry placed after alpha 16, Adler reports, in mss GTMB.)
[1] Deuteronomy 32:18 LXX (web address 1).
[2] An approximation of Malachi 2:10 LXX (web address 2).
[3] cf. Ep.Romans 8:15 (web address 3).
[4] On "Abba," see also alpha 12.
Associated internet addresses:
Web address 1,
Web address 2,
Web address 3
Keywords: children; Christianity; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; medicine; religion
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 21 August 1998@16:57:30.
Vetted by:
Samuel Huskey (added links to Bible, changed "sonship" to "filiation") on 15 July 2000@15:01:55.
Catharine Roth (Altered wording.) on 29 July 2000@23:15:23.
David Whitehead (added keyword; cosmetics) on 11 July 2003@08:51:36.
David Whitehead (another keyword) on 6 October 2005@08:51:18.
William Hutton (tweaked translation, augmented notes, fixed broken links, added keywords, set status) on 20 August 2007@10:15:40.
Catharine Roth (upgraded links) on 5 August 2013@01:15:24.
David Whitehead (another note; cosmetics) on 28 March 2014@06:14:49.
Catharine Roth (tweaked translation, added cross-reference) on 28 March 2014@12:15:01.
David Whitehead (coding) on 15 August 2015@07:24:11.
Catharine Roth (tweaked note 2) on 9 February 2024@01:30:43.

Headword: *)aba/khsan
Adler number: alpha,11
Translated headword: they kept quiet
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
[Meaning] they were unaware, they did not understand.
Greek Original:
*)aba/khsan: h)gno/hsan, h)sune/thsan.
Note:
The headword is the third person plural, aorist indicative active, of a)bake/w. This form is found only in Homer, Odyssey 4.249 (web address 1), and the many lexicographical notices generated by it. Of those the most similar to this entry are Photius, Lexicon alpha22 Theodoridis, and Etymologicum Magnum 2.30-31. Compare also Apollonius Sophistes, Homeric Lexicon 2.16; Hesychius alpha54. The glosses offered here and elsewhere probably represent semantic extrapolation from the Homeric context: When Odysseus comes in disguise to Troy, Helen knows who he is but the rest of the people in Troy a)ba/khsan. The translation of the headword, on the other hand, reflects the verb's probable etymological connection with the verb ba/zw 'speak', and the adjective a)bakh/s ('speechless', 'tranquil'). Cf. Chantraine s.v. a)bakh/s, a connection that is sometimes mentioned as a possibility in the ancient scholarship.
Reference:
P. Chantraine, Dictionnaire étymologique de la langue grecque, ed. 2. Paris 2009.
Associated internet address:
Web address 1
Keywords: definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; epic; poetry
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 21 August 1998@16:58:43.
Vetted by:
Catharine Roth (Altered wording, added note and link.) on 29 July 2000@23:31:10.
David Whitehead (expanded note; cosmetics) on 22 July 2003@10:04:22.
Catharine Roth (modified link, added betacode, raised status) on 26 November 2006@23:52:21.
William Hutton (modified headword, augmented note) on 21 August 2007@09:45:37.
Jennifer Benedict (cosmeticule) on 24 March 2008@23:27:53.
Catharine Roth (upgraded link) on 17 December 2011@00:20:49.
David Whitehead on 16 August 2013@06:10:41.
Catharine Roth (added bibliography) on 9 February 2024@01:34:11.

Headword: *)abbakou/m
Adler number: alpha,12
Translated headword: Habakkuk, Abbakoum, Avvakoum
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
[A name meaning] father of awakening. For the [word] abba means father,[1] and koum means awakening.[2] So also in the Holy Gospel: "Talitha, koum," that is, "young girl, get up."[3] From which [it is] clear that Abbakoum must be written with double b.[4]
Greek Original:
*)abbakou/m: path\r e)ge/rsews. to\ me\n ga\r a)bba= shmai/nei path/r, to\ de\ kou\m e)/gersis: w(s kai\ para\ tw=| qei/w| eu)aggeli/w|: talhqa\, kou/m, h)/goun h( pai=s e)gei/rou. o(/qen dh=lon, o(/ti dia\ tw=n du/o bb grapte/on to\ *)abbakou/m.
Notes:
An etymology for the name of the prophet Habakkuk (in the Septuagint, Ambakoum or Avvakoum), based on two Aramaic words found in the New Testament. The Suda is drawing from older onomastica; the same etymology is found in the Origenistic lexicon (see bibliography).
[1] See already alpha 10. The Hebrew/Aramaic אבּא abba means "father".
[2] The Hebrew/Aramaic קום kūm means "arise"; it can also be used to mean "awake".
[3] Mark 5:41 (web address 1); not in the other Gospels, but several times in patristic literature.
[4] The Suda is correct. The doubling of the בּ is indicated by its dot (dagesh); unlike Greek, Hebrew and Aramaic do not replicate doubled letters.
Reference:
Paul de Lagarde, Onomastica Sacra, p. 200, line 14-15
Associated internet address:
Web address 1
Keywords: children; Christianity; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; gender and sexuality; imagery; religion; women
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 21 August 1998@16:59:43.
Vetted by:
Catharine Roth (Altered wording.) on 29 July 2000@23:23:46.
Catharine Roth (Augmented note with information supplied by Lee Fields.) on 1 May 2001@19:02:40.
David Whitehead (added x-ref; cosmetics) on 22 July 2003@10:07:42.
Raphael Finkel (Added notes 2, 4, Hebrew.) on 12 August 2004@14:47:21.
Catharine Roth (added a keyword) on 8 October 2005@00:31:59.
William Hutton (cosmetics, added keywords and link, set status) on 21 August 2007@09:59:47.
Jennifer Benedict (cosmetics) on 24 March 2008@23:27:14.
Catharine Roth (upgraded link) on 17 December 2011@00:23:06.
David Whitehead (another keyword; typo and other cosmetics) on 18 December 2011@10:27:45.
Catharine Roth (typo) on 18 December 2011@10:53:04.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 5 August 2013@01:12:51.
Raphael Finkel (Converted Romanization of Hebrew to ISO 259.) on 7 August 2014@13:38:11.
David Whitehead (expanded a note; cosmetics) on 2 April 2015@08:48:00.
David Whitehead (coding) on 15 August 2015@06:56:57.
Catharine Roth (added punctuation in notes) on 9 February 2024@01:37:17.
Catharine Roth (another headword transliteration) on 17 February 2024@00:45:15.

Headword: *)abasa/nistos
Adler number: alpha,21
Translated headword: untested
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
[Meaning someone/something] unexercised or unexamined, unscrutinized. The word comes from the test of the goldsmith's stone, on which they scrutinize gold.[1] Aelian in his On Providence used the word 'untested' to mean 'without pain'.[2]
Greek Original:
*)abasa/nistos: a)gu/mnastos h)\ a)nece/tastos, a)doki/mastos. ei)/rhtai de\ a)po\ th=s basa/nou th=s xrusoxoi+kh=s li/qou, e)n h(=| dokima/zousi to\ xrusi/on. e)xrh/sato de\ *ai)liano\s e)n tw=| peri\ pronoi/as tw=| a)basa/nistos a)nti\ tou= a)/neu o)du/nhs.
Notes:
= Synagoge alpha4 (Lexica Segueriana 3.14); Photius, Lexicon alpha30 Theodoridis; perhaps ultimately derived in part from Phrynichus (Praeparatio rhetorica fr. 39 de Borries); cf. Hesychius alpha89 and a cluster of related entries: alpha 2276, Hesychius alpha4899, Synagoge alpha589, Photius alpha1845.
[1] *ba/sanos can mean both the touchstone itself and the testing process. See beta 139, and cf. beta 137.
[2] Aelian fr.9 Hercher (= 9 Domingo-Forasté). The version of the entry at Synagoge alpha4 includes the information that this is from the third book of the work in question.
Keywords: athletics; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; imagery; law; philosophy; rhetoric; science and technology; trade and manufacture
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 22 August 1998@12:58:18.
Vetted by:
William Hutton (Modified translation, cosmetics, added keywords, set status) on 20 January 2001@11:28:32.
David Whitehead (modified translation; augmented notes) on 21 January 2001@05:35:01.
William Hutton (tweaked translation, expanded notes, added keywords, set status) on 27 August 2007@05:12:39.
William Hutton (Updates references in footnotes.) on 11 November 2007@07:10:05.
William Hutton (typo) on 8 February 2008@02:59:18.
Jennifer Benedict (added keyword) on 23 March 2008@00:55:08.
David Whitehead (typos) on 19 December 2011@06:11:54.
David Whitehead on 16 August 2013@06:31:43.
David Whitehead (cosmetics; another keyword) on 2 April 2015@08:51:56.
Catharine Roth (cosmeticule) on 18 February 2024@01:52:52.

Headword: *)aba/skanos
Adler number: alpha,22
Translated headword: unprejudiced
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
[Meaning someone/something] deceit-free, envy-free.
"He [Mithradates] became an unprejudiced witness to Caesar of the achievements of Antipater."[1]
Greek Original:
*)aba/skanos: a)yeudh\s, a)nepi/fqonos. o( de\ ma/rtus a)ba/skanos gi/netai pro\s *kai/sara tw=n *)antipa/trou katorqwma/twn.
Notes:
For the etymology of the (rare) headword adjective cf. beta 167, beta 168, beta 169.
[1] Josephus, Jewish War 1.192 (see web address 1 below). For Antipater, father of Herod the Great, see OCD(4) s.v. Antipater(6), pp.107-8. 'Caesar' is Julius Caesar. Mithradates is not one of the six kings of Pontus who bore that name (cf. mu 1044) but the half-caste son of the last of them: a.k.a. M. of Pergamum.
Associated internet address:
Web address 1
Keywords: biography; definition; ethics; geography; historiography; history
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 22 August 1998@12:59:41.
Vetted by:
Catharine Roth (Altered wording, added note and link.) on 29 July 2000@23:43:06.
David Whitehead (cosmetics) on 27 February 2003@07:58:27.
David Whitehead (tweaked tr; augmented notes and keywords; raised status) on 27 August 2007@09:00:04.
Jennifer Benedict (cosmeticule) on 25 March 2008@00:17:46.
David Whitehead (another keyword) on 19 December 2011@06:13:12.
Catharine Roth (tweaked link) on 20 December 2011@00:53:00.
David Whitehead (updated a ref) on 29 July 2014@12:07:55.
David Whitehead (expanded a note; tweaks and cosmetics) on 2 April 2015@09:05:10.
Catharine Roth (tweaked link) on 2 October 2018@02:01:48.

Headword: *)abaxqanh=
Adler number: alpha,24
Translated headword: abakhthani
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
A Hebrew expression.
Greek Original:
*)abaxqanh=: le/cis *(ebrai+kh/.
Notes:
Strictly speaking the headword is a truncated Aramaic, rather than Hebrew, term. Its proper form in Greek transliteration is sabaxqa/ni and translates "you have forsaken me." The term occurs at Matthew 27:46 and Mark 15:34, where Jesus on the cross quotes Psalm 21:2 LXX (22:2 MT): "God, my God, ... why have you forsaken me?" (see eta 210). For the Hebrew, see Kohlenberger, 3.367. In Aramaic, "why have you forsaken me" is למא שבקתני lama šaḇaqtani. The Suda has carelessly disassociated the sigma, creating in effect "lamas aḇaqtani or a)baxqanh--a clear signal that the compiler was unfamiliar with Aramaic. The Psalmic Hebrew original is עזבתני 'azaḇtani, from עזב ʿazaḇ "forsake, forget". For the triliteral root citation, see Brown, Driver, and Briggs, 736ff. For šaḇaqtani (from שבק šeḇaq), see Perschbacher, 364; Danker, 909.
The Suda item has a circumflex accent on the final syllable. In the Hebrew עזבתני ʿazaḇtani, the accent falls on the penultimate syllable (-ta-), consistent with perfects suffixed with a first person singular pronoun; for this, see Kelley, 154.A; Gesenius, 155(58.1). So in the Aramaic, the accent falls on the penultimate syllable (-ta-). That said, the accent in Greek transliteration is inconsistent. Perschbacher places it over the final iota (sabaxqani/) in the headword; however, his citation from The Greek New Testament According to the Majority Text (1982) places the accent over the penultimate (sabaxqa/ni). In addition, Perschbacher offers the transliteration sabaxqanei/ from The New Testament in the Original Greek (1881). Danker places the accent over the penultimate syllable.
Phonologically, the Aramaic shin (ש š /ʃ/) cannot be accommodated by Greek, which must substitute sigma. For a parallel instance, see omega 182 (note 47). Both chi (for Aramaic ק qaf) and theta (for Aramaic ת taw) function as aspirated plosives (equivalent to English "kit" and "top"). See Allen, 16-17. The theta is noteworthy insofar as its sound value parallels that of the taw (ת) in šaḇaqtani, hardened by silent shewa and dagesh lene. Moreover, the Aramaic in Greek transliteration bolsters the linguistic argument for the compound "chi-theta" as successive aspirated plosives. See Allen, 24-27. Aramaic taw, like its Hebrew counterpart, otherwise has a "th" (as in "both") value. See "Aramaic" in Encyclopaedia Judaica, 3.263; a modern descriptive approach is found in "Aramaic" (Kaufman). For theta as a fricative in Hebrew transliteration, see omega 182 (note 47).
That the Suda terminates the headword with eta rather than iota (paralleling the Aramaic khireq-yod or long "i") showcases a phonological shift in Greek. By the 3rd century CE, the Greek letters eta, and the digraph epsilon-iota (note the -ei alternative in Perschbacher) were sounded like iota. See Allen, 74. The Suda compiler viewed eta as the more elegant solution. This feature bears directly on the Suda's own taxonomy: the homophones epsilon-iota, eta, and iota follow zeta in the Suda's alphabetical scheme (antistoichia). See "Suidas" in the Encyclopaedia Britannica, XXVI.51.
References:
Allen, W.S. Vox Graeca. Cambridge: Cambridge University, 1968
"Aramaic" in Encyclopaedia Judaica. Jerusalem: Encyclopaedia Judaica, 1973
Brown, F., Driver, S.R., and Briggs, C.A. A Hebrew and English Lexicon of the Old Testament. Oxford: Clarendon, 1951
Danker, F.W. A Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament and Other Early Christian Literature. Chicago: University of Chicago, 2000
Kautzsch, E. Gesenius' Hebrew Grammar. Oxford: Clarendon, 1910
Kelley, P.H. Biblical Hebrew: An Introductory Grammar. Grand Rapids: William B. Erdmans, 1992
Kohlenberger, J.R. The Interlinear Hebrew-English Old Testament. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1987
Kaufman, S.A. "Aramaic" in Hetzron, R. The Semitic Languages. New York: Routledge, 1997
Perschbacher, W.J. The New Analytical Greek Lexicon. Peabody: Hendrickson, 1996
"Suidas" in Encyclopaedia Britannica. Cambridge: Cambridge University, 1910
Keywords: Christianity; chronology; dialects, grammar, and etymology; poetry; religion
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 4 December 1999@16:23:20.
Vetted by:
Raphael Finkel on 9 December 1999@11:17:30.
Elizabeth Vandiver on 14 December 1999@16:17:44.
Craig Miller on 27 May 2002@01:29:46.
Craig Miller (Reformatted translation; modified/expanded notes; added bibliography; expanded keywords. Cosmetics pending by editor.) on 27 May 2002@01:58:58.
Craig Miller (Cosmetics) on 27 May 2002@15:48:11.
Craig Miller on 27 May 2002@16:11:44.
Catharine Roth (added cross-reference) on 4 October 2002@00:55:00.
Raphael Finkel (Added Hebrew and Aramaic characters.) on 31 October 2002@10:06:56.
Raphael Finkel (Minor fixes.) on 31 October 2002@12:39:23.
Elizabeth Vandiver (Added italics; cosmetics) on 12 February 2005@21:58:54.
Catharine Roth (cosmetics) on 1 March 2006@01:08:11.
David Whitehead (another keyword; tweaks and cosmetics) on 19 December 2011@06:21:33.
Catharine Roth (coding, typo) on 5 August 2013@00:57:53.
Raphael Finkel (Fixed translation of LXX; changed to ISO 259 Romanization of Hebrew and Aramaic.) on 7 August 2014@13:30:23.
Raphael Finkel (Standardized Romanization fonts.) on 7 August 2014@13:46:48.
David Whitehead (coding) on 15 August 2015@07:25:56.
Catharine Roth (tweaked note) on 19 February 2024@00:35:25.
Catharine Roth on 19 February 2024@00:43:40.

Headword: *)abe/baios
Adler number: alpha,28

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