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Headword: *)aasa/mhn
Adler number: alpha,7
Translated headword: I was addled
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
[Meaning] I did wrong, I slipped up;[1] I was damaged,[2] in the sense of "I was overcome by folly."
Greek Original:
*)aasa/mhn: h(/marton, e)sfa/lhn: e)bla/bhn, oi(=on a)/th| perie/peson.
Notes:
The headword is the first person singular, aorist indicative middle/passive, of a)a/w (LSJ entry at web address 1). It is found frequently in epic poetry, e.g. Homer Iliad 9.116 (web address 2).
[1] Up to this point the entry = Synagoge (Codex B) alpha3 (Lexica Segueriana 3.8 Bachmann).
[2] From here on the entry is very similar to Apollonius Sophistes, Homeric Lexicon 1.19, and Hesychius alpha25.
Associated internet addresses:
Web address 1,
Web address 2
Keywords: definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; epic; ethics; poetry; religion
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 21 August 1998@16:50:10.
Vetted by:
William Hutton (Raised status, minor alterations to translation) on 17 October 2000@17:21:27.
William Hutton on 17 October 2000@17:22:15.
David Whitehead (modified headword and translation; cosmetics) on 9 February 2001@04:43:19.
William Hutton (modified translation, augmented notes, added links and keywords, set status) on 20 August 2007@04:52:46.
William Hutton (updated footnote) on 8 November 2007@06:02:11.
Jennifer Benedict (betacode typo) on 22 March 2008@17:15:55.
Jennifer Benedict (cosmetics) on 25 March 2008@00:13:03.
William Hutton on 22 July 2009@15:25:18.
Catharine Roth (upgraded link) on 17 December 2011@00:09:02.
David Whitehead on 16 August 2013@06:06:47.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 3 September 2014@10:30:04.

Headword: *)aa/sxetos
Adler number: alpha,9
Translated headword: irresistible
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
[Something someone/something] uncontrollable.[1]
Greek Original:
*)aa/sxetos: a)kra/thtos.
Notes:
A word from epic poetry, e.g. Homer, Iliad 5.892 (web address 1), with metrical reduplication of the initial alpha (cf. LSJ s.v. a)/sxetos at web address 2). The headword and the gloss are both masculine/feminine nominative singular.
[1] A related but not identical word (a)katakra/thton) is used to gloss the neuter form of the headword at Etymologicum Magnum 1.32.
Associated internet addresses:
Web address 1,
Web address 2
Keywords: definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; epic; meter and music; poetry
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 21 August 1998@16:55:57.
Vetted by:
William Hutton (Raised status) on 17 October 2000@17:25:25.
David Whitehead (modified headword, to differentiate it from gloss) on 9 February 2001@04:47:19.
William Hutton (modified headword, added notes, links and keywords) on 20 August 2007@08:09:43.
Jennifer Benedict (cosmeticule) on 22 March 2008@17:17:54.
David Whitehead (spelling) on 23 March 2008@05:06:11.
Jennifer Benedict (cosmeticule) on 24 March 2008@23:14:55.
Jennifer Benedict (another cosmeticule) on 24 March 2008@23:15:34.
Catharine Roth (upgraded link) on 17 December 2011@00:14:10.
David Whitehead (cosmetics) on 2 April 2015@08:39:22.

Headword: *)abbakou/m
Adler number: alpha,12
Translated headword: Habakkuk, Avvakoum
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
[A name meaning] father of awakening. For the [word] abba means father,[1] and koum means awakening.[2] So also in the Holy Gospel: "Talitha, koum," that is, "young girl, get up."[3] From which [it is] clear that Abbakoum must be written with double b.[4]
Greek Original:
*)abbakou/m: path\r e)ge/rsews. to\ me\n ga\r a)bba= shmai/nei path/r, to\ de\ kou\m e)/gersis: w(s kai\ para\ tw=| qei/w| eu)aggeli/w|: talhqa\, kou/m, h)/goun h( pai=s e)gei/rou. o(/qen dh=lon, o(/ti dia\ tw=n du/o bb grapte/on to\ *)abbakou/m.
Notes:
An etymology for the name of the prophet Habakkuk (in the Septuagint, Ambakoum or Avvakoum), based on two Aramaic words found in the New Testament. The Suda is drawing from older onomastica; the same etymology is found in the Origenistic lexicon (see bibliography).
[1] See already alpha 10. The Hebrew/Aramaic אבּא abba means father.
[2] The Hebrew/Aramaic קום kūm means arise; it can also be used to mean awake.
[3] Mark 5:41 (web address 1); not in the other Gospels, but several times in patristic literature.
[4] The Suda is correct. The doubling of the בּ is indicated by its dot (dagesh); unlike Greek, Hebrew and Aramaic do not replicate doubled letters.
Reference:
Paul de Lagarde, Onomastica Sacra, p. 200, line 14-15
Associated internet address:
Web address 1
Keywords: children; Christianity; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; gender and sexuality; imagery; religion; women
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 21 August 1998@16:59:43.
Vetted by:
Catharine Roth (Altered wording.) on 29 July 2000@23:23:46.
Catharine Roth (Augmented note with information supplied by Lee Fields.) on 1 May 2001@19:02:40.
David Whitehead (added x-ref; cosmetics) on 22 July 2003@10:07:42.
Raphael Finkel (Added notes 2, 4, Hebrew.) on 12 August 2004@14:47:21.
Catharine Roth (added a keyword) on 8 October 2005@00:31:59.
William Hutton (cosmetics, added keywords and link, set status) on 21 August 2007@09:59:47.
Jennifer Benedict (cosmetics) on 24 March 2008@23:27:14.
Catharine Roth (upgraded link) on 17 December 2011@00:23:06.
David Whitehead (another keyword; typo and other cosmetics) on 18 December 2011@10:27:45.
Catharine Roth (typo) on 18 December 2011@10:53:04.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 5 August 2013@01:12:51.
Raphael Finkel (Converted Romanization of Hebrew to ISO 259.) on 7 August 2014@13:38:11.
David Whitehead (expanded a note; cosmetics) on 2 April 2015@08:48:00.
David Whitehead (coding) on 15 August 2015@06:56:57.

Headword: *)aba/le
Adler number: alpha,13
Translated headword: would that
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
[Meaning] o that.[1] "Would that [...]."[2]
Greek Original:
*)aba/le: ei)/qe a)ba/le.
Notes:
For the headword see LSJ s.v. a)/bale (web address 1). The entry = Photius, Lexicon alpha26 Theodoridis, and, with the exception of the repetition of the headword within the entry (see note 2), also Synagoge alpha1 (Lexica Segueriana 3.10), Hesychius (s.v. a)/ ba/le, alpha60) and Apollonius Sophistes, Homeric Lexicon 2.15. The word does not occur in the extant text of Homer, but there are other literary attestations including Callimachus fr. 619 Pfeiffer, and Greek Anthology 7.583.1 (Agathias Scholasticus).
cf. generally alpha 14.
[1] For more on ei)/qe see epsiloniota 55.
[2] Apparently the beginning of a quotation, perhaps from one of the works mentioned above; otherwise the repetition of the headword is hard to explain. See Theodoridis' note.
Associated internet address:
Web address 1
Keywords: definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; epic; poetry
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 22 August 1998@12:45:11.
Vetted by:
William Hutton (Cosmetics, raised status) on 18 January 2001@09:23:01.
David Whitehead (modified translation; supplied note) on 2 August 2004@10:13:43.
William Hutton (rearranged translation and notes, added link and keywords, set status) on 22 August 2007@11:14:02.
William Hutton on 22 August 2007@11:17:12.
William Hutton (augmented notes) on 23 August 2007@10:04:46.
William Hutton (corrected and updated references in footnote) on 8 November 2007@06:13:12.
Jennifer Benedict (cosmetics) on 24 March 2008@23:29:07.
David Whitehead (another keyword; cosmetics) on 18 December 2011@10:32:04.
Catharine Roth (cosmeticule) on 18 December 2011@10:54:34.
David Whitehead on 16 August 2013@06:14:01.
Ronald Allen (typo in n.2) on 13 August 2018@21:59:26.

Headword: *)abarni/s
Adler number: alpha,19
Translated headword: Abarnis
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
Name of a city.
Greek Original:
*)abarni/s: o)/noma po/lews.
Notes:
Same entry, according to Adler, in the Ambrosian Lexicon (74), and cf. more generally the scholia to Apollonius Rhodius, Argonautica 1.932 (where the genitive case occurs), on which see further below.
Abarnis lay on the southern shore of the Propontis (Sea of Marmara), between Parion and Lampsakos; Barrington Atlas map 51 grid H4. According to Stephanus of Byzantium s.v. *)/abarnos (sic), Abarnos and Aparnis were also attested versions of its name.
A scholium to Apollonius Rhodius, Argonautica 1.932 (repeated in more legible form in Etymologicum Magnum 2.11-28) provides an etymological explanation of the origin of the name in Aphrodite's refusal (a)parnh/sasqai) to recognize her offspring Priapos, who was born in the region.
Keywords: children; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; gender and sexuality; geography; mythology; religion; women
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 22 August 1998@12:55:54.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (modified note) on 19 September 2000@03:59:17.
William Hutton (augmented note, added keywords, set status) on 24 August 2007@23:38:41.
David Whitehead (augmented and re-arranged note) on 19 December 2011@06:02:32.
Catharine Roth (coding, typo) on 5 August 2013@00:18:42.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 10 January 2015@22:46:51.

Headword: *)abasa/nistos
Adler number: alpha,21
Translated headword: untested
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
[Meaning someone/something] unexercised or unexamined, unscrutinized. The word comes from the test of the goldsmith's stone, on which they scrutinize gold.[1] Aelian in his On Providence used the word 'untested' to mean 'without pain'.[2]
Greek Original:
*)abasa/nistos: a)gu/mnastos h)\ a)nece/tastos, a)doki/mastos. ei)/rhtai de\ a)po\ th=s basa/nou th=s xrusoxoi+kh=s li/qou, e)n h(=| dokima/zousi to\ xrusi/on. e)xrh/sato de\ *ai)liano\s e)n tw=| peri\ pronoi/as tw=| a)basa/nistos a)nti\ tou= a)/neu o)du/nhs.
Notes:
= Synagoge alpha4 (Lexica Segueriana 3.14); Photius, Lexicon alpha30 Theodoridis; perhaps ultimately derived in part from Phrynichus (Praeparatio rhetorica fr. 39 de Borries); cf. Hesychius alpha89 and a cluster of related entries: alpha 2276, Hesychius alpha4899, Synagoge alpha589, Photius alpha1845.
[1] ba/sanos can mean both the touchstone itself and the testing process. See beta 139, and cf. beta 137.
[2] Aelian fr.9 Hercher (= 9 Domingo-Forasté). The version of the entry at Synagoge alpha4 includes the information that this is from the third book of the work in question.
Keywords: athletics; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; imagery; law; philosophy; rhetoric; science and technology; trade and manufacture
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 22 August 1998@12:58:18.
Vetted by:
William Hutton (Modified translation, cosmetics, added keywords, set status) on 20 January 2001@11:28:32.
David Whitehead (modified translation; augmented notes) on 21 January 2001@05:35:01.
William Hutton (tweaked translation, expanded notes, added keywords, set status) on 27 August 2007@05:12:39.
William Hutton (Updates references in footnotes.) on 11 November 2007@07:10:05.
William Hutton (typo) on 8 February 2008@02:59:18.
Jennifer Benedict (added keyword) on 23 March 2008@00:55:08.
David Whitehead (typos) on 19 December 2011@06:11:54.
David Whitehead on 16 August 2013@06:31:43.
David Whitehead (cosmetics; another keyword) on 2 April 2015@08:51:56.

Headword: *)abaxqanh=
Adler number: alpha,24
Translated headword: abakhthani
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
A Hebrew expression.
Greek Original:
*)abaxqanh=: le/cis *(ebrai+kh/.
Notes:
Strictly speaking the headword is a truncated Aramaic, rather than Hebrew, term. Its proper form in Greek transliteration is sabaxqa/ni and translates "you have forsaken me." The term occurs at Matthew 27:46 and Mark 15:34, where Jesus on the cross quotes Psalm 21:2 LXX (22:2 MT): "God, my God, ... why have you forsaken me?" (see eta 210). For the Hebrew, see Kohlenberger, 3.367. In Aramaic, "why have you forsaken me" is למא שבקתני lama šaḇaqtani. The Suda has carelessly disassociated the sigma, creating in effect "lamas aḇaqtani or a)baxqanh--a clear signal that the compiler was unfamiliar with Aramaic. The Psalmic Hebrew original is עזבתני 'azaḇtani, from עזב ʿazaḇ "forsake, forget". For the triliteral root citation, see Brown, Driver, and Briggs, 736ff. For šaḇaqtani (from שבק šeḇaq), see Perschbacher, 364; Danker, 909.
The Suda item has a circumflex accent on the final syllable. In the Hebrew עזבתני ʿazaḇtani, the accent falls on the penultimate syllable (-ta-), consistent with perfects suffixed with a first person singular pronoun; for this, see Kelley, 154.A; Gesenius, 155(58.1). So in the Aramaic, the accent falls on the penultimate syllable (-ta-). That said, the accent in Greek transliteration is inconsistent. Perschbacher places it over the final iota (sabaxqani/) in the headword; however, his citation from The Greek New Testament According to the Majority Text (1982) places the accent over the penultimate (sabaxqa/ni). In addition, Perschbacher offers the transliteration sabaxqanei/ from The New Testament in the Original Greek (1881). Danker places the accent over the penultimate syllable.
Phonologically, the Aramaic shin (ש š /ʃ/) cannot be accommodated by Greek, which must substitute sigma. For a parallel instance, see omega 182 (note 47). Both chi (for Aramaic ק qaf) and theta (for Aramaic ת taw) function as aspirated plosives (equivalent to English "kit" and "top"). See Allen, 16-17. The theta is noteworthy insofar as its sound value parallels that of the taw (ת) in šaḇaqtani, hardened by silent shewa and dagesh lene. Moreover, the Aramaic in Greek transliteration bolsters the linguistic argument for the compound "chi-theta" as successive aspirated plosives. See Allen, 24-27. Aramaic taw, like its Hebrew counterpart, otherwise has a "th" (as in "both") value. See "Aramaic" in Encyclopaedia Judaica, 3.263; a modern descriptive approach is found in "Aramaic" (Kaufman). For theta as a fricative in Hebrew transliteration, see omega 182 (note 47).
That the Suda terminates the headword with eta rather than iota (paralleling the Aramaic khireq-yod or long "i") showcases a phonological shift in Greek. By the 3rd century CE, the Greek letters eta, and the digraph epsilon-iota (note the -ei alternative in Perschbacher) were sounded as long iota. See Allen, 74. The Suda compiler viewed eta as the more elegant solution. This feature bears directly on the Suda's own taxonomy: the homophones epsilon-iota, eta, and iota follow zeta in the Suda's "alphabetical" scheme. See "Suidas" in the Encyclopaedia Britannica, XXVI.51.
References:
Allen, W.S. Vox Graeca. Cambridge: Cambridge University, 1968
"Aramaic" in Encyclopaedia Judaica. Jerusalem: Encyclopaedia Judaica, 1973
Brown, F., Driver, S.R., and Briggs, C.A. A Hebrew and English Lexicon of the Old Testament. Oxford: Clarendon, 1951
Danker, F.W. A Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament and Other Early Christian Literature. Chicago: University of Chicago, 2000
Kautzsch, E. Gesenius' Hebrew Grammar. Oxford: Clarendon, 1910
Kelley, P.H. Biblical Hebrew: An Introductory Grammar. Grand Rapids: William B. Erdmans, 1992
Kohlenberger, J.R. The Interlinear Hebrew-English Old Testament. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1987
Kaufman, S.A. "Aramaic" in Hetzron, R. The Semitic Languages. New York: Routledge, 1997
Perschbacher, W.J. The New Analytical Greek Lexicon. Peabody: Hendrickson, 1996
"Suidas" in Encyclopaedia Britannica. Cambridge: Cambridge University, 1910
Keywords: Christianity; chronology; dialects, grammar, and etymology; poetry; religion
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 4 December 1999@16:23:20.
Vetted by:
Raphael Finkel on 9 December 1999@11:17:30.
Elizabeth Vandiver on 14 December 1999@16:17:44.
Craig Miller on 27 May 2002@01:29:46.
Craig Miller (Reformatted translation; modified/expanded notes; added bibliography; expanded keywords. Cosmetics pending by editor.) on 27 May 2002@01:58:58.
Craig Miller (Cosmetics) on 27 May 2002@15:48:11.
Craig Miller on 27 May 2002@16:11:44.
Catharine Roth (added cross-reference) on 4 October 2002@00:55:00.
Raphael Finkel (Added Hebrew and Aramaic characters.) on 31 October 2002@10:06:56.
Raphael Finkel (Minor fixes.) on 31 October 2002@12:39:23.
Elizabeth Vandiver (Added italics; cosmetics) on 12 February 2005@21:58:54.
Catharine Roth (cosmetics) on 1 March 2006@01:08:11.
David Whitehead (another keyword; tweaks and cosmetics) on 19 December 2011@06:21:33.
Catharine Roth (coding, typo) on 5 August 2013@00:57:53.
Raphael Finkel (Fixed translation of LXX; changed to ISO 259 Romanization of Hebrew and Aramaic.) on 7 August 2014@13:30:23.
Raphael Finkel (Standardized Romanization fonts.) on 7 August 2014@13:46:48.
David Whitehead (coding) on 15 August 2015@07:25:56.

Headword: *)/abdhra
Adler number: alpha,26
Translated headword: Abdera
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
The sea, and a name of a city[1] and 'Abderite' [is] the citizen [of it].[2]
Also Phalera and Kythera [sc. are spelled with eta]; but Gadeira, Stageira, Topeira, and Dobeira [sc. are spelled with epsiloniota].[3]
Greek Original:
*)/abdhra: h( qa/lassa, kai\ o)/noma po/lews kai\ *)abdhri/ths o( poli/ths. kai\ *fa/lhra kai\ *ku/qhra. *ga/deira de\ kai\ *sta/geira kai\ *to/peira kai\ *do/beira.
Notes:
[1] Actually, as Stephanus of Byzantium and others noted, there were two cities called Abdera: one, the present-day Avdira, in northern Greece (Barrington Atlas map 51 grid D3; RE I.22-23; OCD(4) s.v.); the other, the present-day Adra, in southern Spain (Barrington Atlas map 27 grid B5). But the idea of Abdera as 'the sea' is unintelligible.
[2] Similarly glossed in the Etymologicum Magnum and the Lexicon Ambrosianum. An "Abderite" could also signify someone generically stupid: see LSJ s.v. *)abdhri/ths (web address 1 below).
[3] These six city-names (whether spelled with an eta, like Abdera, or epsilon-iota; there would have been little difference in pronounciation by the time of the Suda) generate an ethnikon in the same way. See also delta 1318, sigma 977. This part of the entry, Adler reports, is lacking in mss A (= Parisinus 2625), G (= Parisinus 2623), and T (= Vaticanus 881).
Associated internet address:
Web address 1
Keywords: definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; geography
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 23 August 1998@16:24:49.
Vetted by:
Catharine Roth (Added note.) on 30 July 2000@22:42:39.
David Whitehead (modified translation and notes) on 18 September 2000@05:28:33.
William Hutton (Cosmetics) on 20 January 2001@23:00:39.
Catharine Roth (augmented note, added cross-reference, raised status) on 3 October 2007@19:38:55.
Catharine Roth (punctuation) on 4 October 2007@10:32:59.
David Whitehead (augmented n.1 (and corrected note numbering)) on 5 October 2007@03:15:34.
Jennifer Benedict (added link, cosmetics) on 25 March 2008@00:58:26.
David Whitehead (tweaks) on 19 December 2011@06:31:43.
Catharine Roth (betacode cosmetics) on 20 December 2011@15:48:25.
David Whitehead (another x-ref) on 17 January 2014@03:47:11.
David Whitehead (updated a ref) on 29 July 2014@12:08:37.
Catharine Roth (coding, tweaked link) on 30 March 2022@17:58:35.

Headword: *)abe/lteros
Adler number: alpha,32

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