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Headword: *)/abel
Adler number: alpha,30
Translated headword: Abel
Vetting Status: high
Son of Adam.[1] This man was chaste and just from the beginning and a shepherd of flocks; out of these he offered a sacrifice to God and was accepted, but was then killed because he was envied by his brother Cain.[2] Cain happened to be a farmer and after the judgement he lived worse, with groaning and trembling. For Abel, by dedicating the firstborn [of the flock] to God, recommended himself as more God-loving than self-loving,[3] and because this was a good choice, he was accepted. But Cain impiously kept his first-fruits for himself and gave the seconds to God, and for this reason was rightly rejected. For it says: "and after some days it happened that Cain offered from the fruits of the earth."[4] Cain was disgraced by the fact that the produce he offered was not the first-fruits but that which was some days old and second-best.
Greek Original:
*)/abel: ui(o\s *)ada/m. ou(=tos parqe/nos kai\ di/kaios u(ph=rxe kai\ poimh\n proba/twn: e)c w(=n kai\ qusi/an tw=| qew=| prosagagw\n kai\ dexqei\s a)nairei=tai, fqonhqei\s u(po\ tou= a)delfou= au)tou= *ka/i+n. o( *ka/i+n de\ gewrgo\s tugxa/nwn kai\ meta\ th\n di/khn xeiro/nws biw/sas ste/nwn kai\ tre/mwn h)=n. o( ga\r *)/abel ta\ prwto/toka tw=| qew=| kaqierw=n filo/qeon ma=llon h)\ fi/lauton e(auto\n suni/sth, o(/qen kai\ dia\ th=s a)gaqh=s au)tou= proaire/sews a)pede/xqh. o( de\ *ka/i+n dussebw=s e(autw=| a)pone/mwn ta\ prwtogennh/mata, qew=| de\ ta\ deu/tera, ei)ko/tws kai\ a)peblh/qh. fhsi\ ga/r: kai\ e)ge/neto meq' h(me/ras, prosh/negke *ka/i+n a)po\ tw=n karpw=n th=s gh=s. w(/ste dia\ tou=to *ka/i+n e)le/gxetai, o(/ti mh\ ta\ a)kroqi/nia gennh/mata prosh/negke tw=| qew=|, a)lla\ ta\ meq' h(me/ras kai\ deu/tera.
George the Monk, Chronicon 6.10-7.16.
[1] alpha 425.
[2] kappa 27.
[3] Again at sigma 1580.
[4] Genesis 4:3.
Keywords: agriculture; biography; botany; Christianity; daily life; ethics; food; historiography; religion; zoology
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 20 August 1998@17:57:27.
Vetted by:
William Hutton (Modified translation, cosmetics, keywords, set status) on 27 January 2001@12:23:00.
David Whitehead (augmented notes and keywords) on 27 February 2003@08:28:31.
David Whitehead (another x-ref) on 8 September 2003@06:15:32.
David Whitehead (another keyword) on 2 October 2005@10:57:50.
David Whitehead (more keywords; cosmetics; raised status) on 22 June 2011@07:14:12.
David Whitehead (another keyword; tweaks) on 29 August 2012@10:24:09.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 5 August 2013@01:03:34.

Headword: *)agelaiw/n
Adler number: alpha,188
Translated headword: pasture
Vetting Status: high
[Meaning] the herd's place.
Greek Original:
*)agelaiw/n: o( to/pos th=s a)ge/lhs.
This noun is attested only in lexicography (besides here, in ps.-Zonaras and, according to Adler, the Ambrosian Lexicon), but cf. generally alpha 183, alpha 186, alpha 187, etc.
Keywords: agriculture; definition; geography; zoology
Translated by: Gregory Hays on 4 June 1999@15:21:21.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (added note) on 25 April 2002@09:49:13.
Catharine Roth (augmented note, added keywords, raised status) on 12 October 2007@01:00:34.
David Whitehead on 18 August 2013@06:17:58.
David Whitehead (my typo) on 5 April 2015@10:26:30.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 5 April 2015@23:26:17.

Headword: *)/agein kai\ fe/rein
Adler number: alpha,209
Translated headword: to plunder and to pillage
Vetting Status: high
Marauding and despoiling. But a)gein [can mean], without distinction, both to carry away things, even from dead bodies, and to gather [them].[1]
"When [Baian] crossed to the land opposite the stream, immediately he set fire to the villages of the Slavs and laid waste to their fields. He plundered and pillaged everything, and at that point none of the barbarians there dared to come to blows with him; instead they took refuge in the most overgrown and sheltered parts of the woods".[2]
Greek Original:
*)/agein kai\ fe/rein: to\ lh|steu/ein kai\ a(rpa/zein. a)/gein de\ kai\ a)pa/gein xrh/mata kai\ e)pi\ a)yu/xwn kai\ komi/zein a)diafo/rws. o( de\ e)pei\ e)peraiw/qh e)s to\ kat' a)ntikru\ tou= r(ei/qrou, paraxrh=ma ta/s te kw/mas e)nepi/mpra tw=n *sklabhnw=n kai\ e)si/neto tou\s a)grou\s, h)=ge/ te kai\ e)/feren a(/panta, ou)deno/s pw tw=n e)kei=se barba/rwn qarrh/santo/s oi( ei)s xei=ras e)lqei=n, ei)s ta\ la/sia kai\ kathrefh= th=s u(/lhs katapefeugo/twn.
[1] Same or similar material in other lexica; references at Photius alpha139 Theodoridis. For the idiom, see also alpha 293 and epsilon 427.
[2] Part of Menander Protector fr. 21 Blockley. For the Slavs (Sklavenoi) see generally sigma 634.
Keywords: agriculture; biography; definition; geography; historiography; history; military affairs
Translated by: William Hutton on 22 October 2000@13:28:47.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (added note; cosmetics) on 23 October 2000@06:18:52.
David Whitehead (added x-ref and keyword) on 5 December 2003@10:27:09.
David Whitehead (another keyword) on 7 October 2005@06:01:12.
David Whitehead (tweaked tr; augmented and updated notes; more keywords) on 3 January 2012@04:35:39.
David Whitehead on 18 August 2013@06:46:28.
Catharine Roth (cross-references) on 17 December 2016@01:01:54.

Headword: *)agnw=tas
Adler number: alpha,287
Translated headword: unknown
Vetting Status: high
[Meaning them] not being recognized.[1] "He brought a man unknown to me, who also happened to be unknown to him."[2]
"They had just left farming and entered into the danger of war, which was previously unknown to them."[3]
And elsewhere: "naming what was the price to give herself to an unknown man." Aelian says [this] in On Forethought.[4]
For agnos, [genitive] agnotos, [means] unknown [agnostos].
Greek Original:
*)agnw=tas: mh\ e)piginwskome/nous. a)gnw=ta de/ moi proseko/mizen a)/nqrwpon, o(\s kai\ e(autou= a)gnw\s e)tu/gxanen w)/n. oi( de\ a)/rti th=s gewrgi/as a)fe/menoi, e)s ki/ndunon tou= pole/mou kate/sthsan, a)gnw=ta sfi/si ta\ pro/tera o)/nta. kai\ au)=qis: fa/skousa ei)=nai mi/sqwma to\ e(auth\n parabalei=n a)ndri\ a)gnw=ti. fhsi\n *ai)liano\s e)n tw=| *peri\ pronoi/as. *)agnw\s ga\r a)gnw=tos, o( a)/gnwstos.
The first part of this entry is also in Photius (alpha219 Theodoridis), the second part in other lexica.
[1] Masculine accusative plural, evidently quoted from somwhere (other than the quotation given); there are numerous possibilities.
[2] Quotation unidentifiable.
[3] Procopius, History of the Wars of Justinian 1.18.39.
[4] Aelian fr. 12b Domingo-Forasté (12 Hercher); again at mu 1123, pi 274, and pi 2648.
Keywords: agriculture; biography; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; economics; gender and sexuality; historiography; history; military affairs; women
Translated by: Jennifer Benedict on 17 March 2001@23:31:54.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (modified translation; augmented notes; added keywords) on 18 March 2001@03:42:00.
David Whitehead (restorative cosmetics) on 22 December 2002@07:32:13.
David Whitehead (another keyword) on 2 October 2005@11:07:45.
David Whitehead (more keywords) on 5 December 2005@08:41:06.
David Whitehead (augmented notes and keywords; tweaks and cosmetics) on 5 January 2012@07:57:28.
Catharine Roth (updated reference in note 4) on 28 January 2012@20:16:50.
David Whitehead on 18 August 2013@08:39:02.

Headword: *)ago/nwn xow=n
Adler number: alpha,297
Translated headword: [than] unfruitful drink-offerings
Vetting Status: high
It is used in two ways.[1]
The Theologian says [this]; that is, [more pious] than the offerings which are poured for the dead and are therefore unfruitful.[2]
Also [sc. attested is] a)goni/a, barrenness.[3]
"That Artemis was angered and that she attacked with sterility of the earth as punishment."[4]
Greek Original:
*)ago/nwn xow=n. diforei=tai o( *qeolo/gos fhsi/: toute/sti tw=n e)pi\ toi=s nekroi=s xeome/nwn kai\ dia\ tou=to a)go/nwn. kai\ *)agoni/a, h( a)fori/a. th\n *)/artemin mhni/sai kai\ metelqei=n dikaiou=san au)th\n gh=s a)goni/a|.
[1] This comment (a single word in the Greek; in ms A only, Adler reports) perhaps refers to the active and passive senses of the adjective ("not bearing" and "not born"): see LSJ entry at web address 1, and again at alpha 337.
[2] Scholion on Gregory of Nazianzus (PG 36.378b), who does use the headword phrase.
[3] See already alpha 295.
[4] Aelian fr. 49d Domingo-Forasté (46 Hercher); cf. delta 1079.
Associated internet address:
Web address 1
Keywords: aetiology; agriculture; botany; Christianity; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; religion
Translated by: Catharine Roth on 12 February 2001@11:03:29.
Vetted by:
William Hutton (Raised status) on 12 February 2001@19:54:21.
David Whitehead (cosmetics) on 16 July 2001@08:08:46.
David Whitehead (modified headword and translation; augmented note 2) on 14 April 2004@07:29:21.
David Whitehead (tweak) on 25 July 2006@07:01:45.
David Whitehead (another x-ref; more keywords; cosmetics) on 5 January 2012@09:03:04.
Catharine Roth (updated reference in note 4) on 29 January 2012@22:33:54.
David Whitehead (expanded n.1; cosmetics) on 9 April 2015@08:51:08.

Headword: *)/agrauloi
Adler number: alpha,341
Translated headword: field-dwelling
Vetting Status: high
[Meaning] those passing the night or camping in a field.[1]
Greek Original:
*)/agrauloi: oi( e)n a)grw=| dianuktereu/ontes h)\ au)lizo/menoi.
Same or similar entry in other lexica; references at Photius alpha250 Theodoridis. The headword is nominative plural of the adjective a)/graulos (see generally LSJ s.v.) and is quoted either from Homer, Odyssey 10.410 (heifers) or from Hesiod, Theogony 26 (shepherds) -- both of which have glosses, in their scholia, very like the present one.
[1] Or: "in the countryside".
Keywords: agriculture; daily life; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; epic; zoology
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 30 September 1998@16:58:13.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (modified headword; added notes and keywords; cosmetics) on 16 July 2001@08:23:56.
David Whitehead (augmented notes and keywords; tweaks and cosmetics) on 6 January 2012@07:22:59.
David Whitehead (expanded note) on 19 August 2013@04:29:22.

Headword: *)agrei/a a)oidh/
Adler number: alpha,350
Translated headword: rustic song
Vetting Status: high
The rural [kind].[1]
"He stretched the hide down a rustic plane tree." In the Epigrams.[2]
Also [sc. attested is] a)grei=os, [meaning] the yokel, the ignoramus.[3]
Or someone from the country.
Aristophanes in Clouds [writes]: "you are rustic and clumsy."[4]
The rustic and possessor of a large beard.[5]
And elsewhere: "it's particularly vulgar to see a poet who is rustic and hairy."[6]
Greek Original:
*)agrei/a a)oidh/: h( a)groikikh/. to\ sku/tos a)grei/hs t' ei)/ne kata\ plata/nou. e)n *)epigra/mmasi. kai\ *)agrei=os, o( a)/groikos, o( a)maqh/s. h)\ o( a)po\ tou= a)grou=. *)aristofa/nhs *nefe/lais: a)grei=os ei)= kai\ skaio/s. o( a)/groikos kai\ me/gan pw/gwna e)/xwn. kai\ au)=qis: a)/llws t' a)/mouso/n e)sti poihth\n i)dei=n a)grei=on o)/nta kai\ dasu/n.
[1] The headword phrase is presumably quoted from somewhere.
[2] Greek Anthology 6.35.2 (Leonidas of Tarentum), a rustic dedication to Pan; cf. Gow and Page, vol. I (122) and vol. II (356-357); cf. further extracts from this epigram at alpha 325, alphaiota 210, gamma 73, lambda 189, rho 72, and tau 264. The plane tree of the epigram, pla/tanos, is almost certainly the Old World or Asiatic Plane, Platanus orientalis, whose range extends from Asia into Greece and the eastern Mediterranean; cf. Raven (24, 70).
[3] From the scholia to Aristophanes, Clouds 655, about to be quoted.
[4] Aristophanes, Clouds 655.
[5] From the scholia to Aristophanes, Thesmophoriazusae 160, about to be quoted.
[6] Aristophanes, Thesmophoriazusae 159-160 (copied here from alpha 1633).
A.S.F. Gow and D.L. Page, eds., The Greek Anthology: Hellenistic Epigrams, vol. I, (Cambridge 1965)
A.S.F. Gow and D.L. Page, eds., The Greek Anthology: Hellenistic Epigrams, vol. II, (Cambridge 1965)
J.E. Raven, Plants and Plant Lore in Ancient Greece, (Oxford 2000)
Keywords: agriculture; botany; clothing; comedy; definition; ethics; meter and music; poetry; religion
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 28 August 1998@16:33:29.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (modified translation; added keywords; cosmetics) on 16 July 2001@09:09:20.
David Whitehead (another keyword) on 7 October 2005@06:02:12.
David Whitehead (augmented notes and keywords; tweaks and cosmetics) on 6 January 2012@08:01:32.
David Whitehead (x-ref) on 6 January 2012@08:05:59.
Ronald Allen (tweaked translation, expanded n.2, added bibliography, added cross-references, added keyword) on 8 November 2018@20:53:37.
Ronald Allen (better wording n.2) on 15 November 2018@18:19:23.

Headword: *)agrei=fna
Adler number: alpha,351
Translated headword: rake, harrow
Vetting Status: high
A farm tool, with which they collect hay. "Alkimos [dedicated] his toothless rake and a share of a noise-loving shovel bereft of its olivewood handle."[1]
Greek Original:
*)agrei=fna: gewrgiko\n e)rgalei=on, di' ou(= suna/gousi to\n xo/rton. a)/lkimos a)grei=fnan kenodo/ntida kai\ filodou/pou fa/rsos a(/ma steleou= xh=ron e)lai+ne/ou.
Feminine noun, also found in the form a)gri/fh (alpha 365).
[1] An approximation of Greek Anthology 6.297.1-2 (Phanias), a dedication of agricultural implements to Athena, again (in part) at phi 116; cf. Gow and Page, vol. I (162-163) and vol. II (470-471); cf. further extracts from this epigram at alpha 3945 and kappa 2794. The opening word is a proper name. Here the translation adopts Toup's emendation (cf. Gow and Page, vol. I, 162) and reads a)/mas [cf. alpha 1574] for the Suda's a(/ma; cf. phi 116. The verb is supplied in translation here from line 6.
A.S.F. Gow and D.L. Page, eds., The Greek Anthology: Hellenistic Epigrams, vol. I, (Cambridge 1965)
A.S.F. Gow and D.L. Page, eds., The Greek Anthology: Hellenistic Epigrams, vol. II, (Cambridge 1965)
Keywords: agriculture; botany; daily life; dialects, grammar, and etymology; imagery; poetry; religion; trade and manufacture
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 28 August 1998@16:34:30.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (augmented keywords; cosmetics) on 29 April 2002@08:27:51.
David Whitehead (another keyword) on 2 October 2005@11:08:14.
David Whitehead (tweaked tr; added primary note and more keywords; cosmetics) on 6 January 2012@08:20:25.
David Whitehead on 6 January 2012@08:21:15.
David Whitehead on 8 January 2012@09:17:43.
Ronald Allen (betacode typo n.1, expanded and rearranged n.1, added bibliography, added cross-references, added keywords) on 22 December 2018@23:31:13.
Ronald Allen (my punctuation error n.1) on 25 December 2018@12:59:02.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 8 January 2021@01:13:00.

Headword: *)agri/dion
Adler number: alpha,355

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