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Headword: *pa=n
Adler number: pi,149
Translated headword: totality, whole
Vetting Status: high
The totality is the cosmos and, in another sense, the system [composed] out of the cosmos and the void outside [it]. Now the cosmos is limited, but the void unlimited.[1]
The fixed stars are carried along with the heaven;[2] by contrast, the planets are moved in accordance with their own movements. The sun traverses its oblique path through the circle of the zodiac, and similarly the moon [traverses its path] in a spiral [...] Besides, the sun is pure fire [...] is bigger than the earth [...] and it is spherical, analogously to the cosmos. Therefore, [they say that] the [sun is] fire, since it does everything that [is proper] of fire, and it is bigger than the earth because the entire [earth] is illuminated by it, and so is the heaven. And since[3] the earth projects a conical shadow, this indicates that [the sun] is bigger; and on account of its size it is seen from every side [of the earth].
The moon is more like the earth, since it also is closer to the earth. These fiery [bodies] and the other stars are nourished: the sun, insofar as it is an ignited and lazy[4] mass, [is nourished] by the great sea. But the moon, insofar as it is mixed with air and closer to the earth, [is nourished] by [bodies of] potable water [...] The other [stars are nourished] by the earth.[5] They [sc. the Stoics] think that both the stars and the earth are spherical, [the earth] being motionless, and that the moon does not have its own light but receives its light from the sun and is illuminated [by it].
The sun is eclipsed when the moon covers it on the side which is toward us.[6] In fact, at its phases [the moon] is evidently approaching [the sun], and occludes it, and [finally] passes it by. This is verifiable by [the reflection] in a dish containing water. By contrast, the moon [is eclipsed] when it falls into the earth’s shadow;[7] this is the reason why there is an eclipse [only] when the moon is full. Although the moon is in a position diametrically opposite to the sun once a month since it moves obliquely towards the sun’s, it diverges in latitude and comes to be either too far to the north or too far to the south. But when its latitude coincides with that of the sun and the ecliptic, and then is diametrically opposite to the sun, at that moment [the moon] is eclipsed. And its latitude coincides with that of the sun and the ecliptic in Libra[8] and Scorpio and Aries and Taurus [...].
Greek Original:
*pa=n: to\ pa=n e)stin o(/ te ko/smos kai\ kaq' e(/teron tro/pon to\ e)k tou= ko/smou kai\ tou= e)/cwqen kenou= susth/matos. o( me\n ou)=n ko/smos peperasme/nos e)sti/, to\ de\ keno\n a)/peiron. tw=n de\ a)ste/rwn ta\ me\n a)planh= sumfe/resqai tw=| ou)ranw=| ta\ de\ planw/mena kat' i)di/as kinh/seis kinei=sqai. to\n de\ h(/lion loch\n th\n porei/an poiei=sqai dia\ tou= zwdiakou= ku/klou, o(moi/ws te th\n selh/nhn e(likoeidh=. ei)=nai de\ to\n me\n h(/lion ei)likrine\s pu=r kai\ mei/zona th=s gh=s kai\ sfairoeidh=, a)nalo/gws tw=| ko/smw|. pu=r me\n ou)=n ei)=nai, o(/ti ta\ puro\s pa/nta poiei=: mei/zw de\ th=s gh=s tw=| pa=san u(p' au)tou= fwti/zesqai, a)lla\ kai\ to\n ou)rano/n. kai\ tw=| th\n gh=n de\ kwnoeidh= skia\n e)piba/llein to\ mei/zona ei)=nai shmai/nei: pa/ntoqen de\ ble/pesqai dia\ to\ me/geqos. gewdeste/ran de\ th\n selh/nhn, a(/te kai\ prosgeiote/ran ou)=san. tre/fesqai de\ ta\ e)/mpura tau=ta kai\ ta\ a)/lla a)/stra, to\n me\n h(/lion e)k mega/lhs qala/tths nwqro\n o)/nta a)/namma: th\n de\ selh/nhn e)k poti/mwn u(da/twn, a)eromigh= tugxa/nousan kai\ pro/sgeion ou)=san: ta\ de\ a)/lla a)po\ gh=s. dokei= de\ au)toi=s sfairoeidh= ei)=nai kai\ ta\ a)/stra kai\ th\n gh=n a)ki/nhton ou)=san. th\n de\ selh/nhn ou)k i)/dion e)/xein fw=s, a)ll' a)po\ h(li/ou lamba/nein e)pilampome/nhn. e)klei/pein de\ to\n h(/lion, e)piprosqou/shs au)tw=| th=s selh/nhs kata\ to\ e)f' h(ma=s me/ros. fai/netai ga\r u(perxome/nh tai=s suno/dois kai\ a)pokru/ptousa au)to\n kai\ pa/lin paralla/ttousa: gnwri/zetai de\ tou=to dia\ leka/nhs u(/dwr e)xou/shs. th\n de\ selh/nhn e)mpi/ptousan ei)s to\ th=s gh=s a)poski/asma: o(/qen kai\ tai=s panse/lhnois e)klei/pein, kai/per kata\ dia/metron i(stame/nhn kata\ mh=na tw=| h(li/w|, o(/ti kata\ locou= w(s pro\s to\n h(/lion kinoume/nh paralla/ttei tw=| pla/tei, h)\ boreiote/ra h)\ notiwte/ra ginome/nh. o(/tan me/ntoi to\ pla/tos au)th=s kata\ tw=n h(liakw=n kai\ tw=n dia\ me/swn ge/nhtai, ei)=ta diametrh/sh| to\n h(/lion, to/te e)klei/pei. gi/netai de\ to\ pla/tos au)th=s kata\ tw=n h(liakw=n kai\ tw=n dia\ me/swn e)n *xhlai=s kai\ *skorpi/w| kai\ *kriw=| kai\ *tau/rw|.
Much abbreviated (and with some textual changes: see below) from Diogenes Laertius 7.143-146, already in part at alpha 1956. In particular, the Suda leaves out all the citations of philosophers' names.
[1] This is the Stoic definition of "whole" (pa=n) as attributed to the Stoic philosopher Apollodorus (SVF 3.9). At the end of the first sentence here, Diogenes' su/sthma, nominative, mistakenly becomes the genitive susth/matos.
[2] The mss of Diogenes Laertius give a better sense: “the fixed stars are moved in a circle (sumperife/resqai) along with the entire heaven (tw=| o(/lw| ou)ranw=|).
[3] Diogenes' text reads the nominative to\ rather than the Suda's dative tw=|.
[4] Again, Diogenes Laertius (7.145) gives a much better sense: “intelligent” (noero/n) instead of “lazy (nwqro/n). In fact, for the Stoics the heavenly bodies, and especially the sun, are intelligent beings.
[5] Posidonius fr.10 Edelstein-Kidd..
[6] This claim belongs to the Stoic Zeno (in his work On the universe).
[7] That is to say, when the moon is on the opposite side of the earth from the sun.
[8] The Loeb translator, R.D. Hicks, renders e)n xhlai=s as 'in Cancer', but see LSJ s.v. xhlh/ I.3.b., citing Aratus and Ptolemy.
Keywords: definition; geography; philosophy; science and technology
Translated by: Marcelo Boeri on 28 March 2008@09:40:51.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (x-ref; tweaks and cosmetics) on 28 March 2008@10:26:47.
Marcelo Boeri (Corrected the Greek in the notes.) on 28 March 2008@15:48:07.
Catharine Roth (betacode cosmetics) on 29 March 2008@22:07:41.
Catharine Roth (tweaked translation, set status) on 23 April 2008@14:53:13.
David Whitehead on 13 August 2013@05:23:15.
David Whitehead (modified tr and added a note, at the prompting of Dr Joanna Sheldon) on 14 October 2014@02:55:40.
David Whitehead (more tweaking) on 14 October 2014@06:56:05.
Catharine Roth (tweaks) on 15 October 2014@19:57:08.
David Whitehead (tweaks to tr) on 26 April 2021@03:25:49.


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