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Headword: *)anagkai=on
Adler number: alpha,1827
Translated headword: necessary
Vetting Status: high
Thus is the penis called, since it is a token of necessity.[1]
"They resorted to force out of necessity."[2] Meaning because of necessities.
Isaeus calls the [sc. Athenian] prison a)nagkai=on.[3] But Callisthenes said a)nwgai/wn and that is how, rather, it should be written.[4]
"What is necessary is that which, being true, is not capable of being false; or it is capable, but external circumstances are adverse to its being false, such as 'virtue is beneficial'. What is not necessary is that which, while true, is able to be false, if no outside circumstances are adverse [to this]: such as 'Dion is walking'."[5] Democritus the Abderite says: "nothing comes into being from that which is not, nor does it pass away into that which is not. And the atoms are unlimited in size and number, and they are borne swirling round in the whole [universe] and thus engendering all compounds: fire, water, air, earth. For these things are certain composites of atoms and which are unaffected and unchangeable on account of their firmness. Everything occurs by necessity, the vortex being the cause of the generation of all things, which he calls 'necessity'."[6] He divides the things which are into being or being out of necessity, as "man is an living thing." For what is in everything and for all time, this is out of necessity; likewise it is necessary that god be eternal. [I will distinguish] to the best of my ability those of the things which are possible which [happen] for the most part, [such as] man being five-fingered and going grey when he grows old, and those things [which happen] less, which are the opposite of these things, [such as] man being four- or six-fingered. For thus these [less likely] things are [implicitly possible] in the [more likely] things. Either for man to go grey as he grows old -- or not, to travel or to bathe -- or not.[7]
Greek Original:
*)anagkai=on: ou(/tws kalei=tai to\ ai)doi=on, e)pei\ th=s a)na/gkhs e)sti\ sumbo/laion. oi( de\ pro\s a)lkh\n e)tra/ponto e)k tou= a)nagkai/ou. a)nti\ tou= di' a)na/gkas. *)isai=os de\ a)nagkai=on to\ desmwth/rion kalei=. *kallisqe/nhs de\ a)nwgai/wn ei)=pe kai\ ou(/tws dei= ma=llon le/- gesqai. *)anagkai=o/n e)stin, o(/per a)lhqe\s o)\n ou)k e)/stin e)pidektiko\n tou= yeu=dos ei)=nai: h)\ e)pidektiko\n me/n e)sti, ta\ de\ e)kto\s au)tw=| e)nantiou=tai pro\s to\ yeu=dos ei)=nai, oi(=on h( a)reth\ w)felei=. ou)k a)nagkai=on de/ e)stin, o(\ kai\ a)lhqe/s e)sti kai\ yeu=dos oi(=o/n te au)to\ ei)=nai, tw=n e)kto\s mhde\n e)nantioume/nwn: oi(=on peripatei= *di/wn. o(/ti *dhmo/kritos o( *)abdhri/ths fhsi/, mhde\n e)k tou= mh\ o)/ntos gi/nesqai mhde\ ei)s to\ mhde\n o)\n fqei/resqai. kai\ ta\s a)to/mous de\ a)pei/rous ei)=nai kata\ me/geqos kai\ plh=qos, fe/resqai de\ e)n tw=| o(/lw| dinoume/nas kai\ ou(/tw pa/nta ta\ sugkri/mata genna=n, pu=r, u(/dwr, a)e/ra, gh=n. ei)=nai ga\r kai\ tau=ta e)c a)to/mwn tina\ susth/mata, a(/per ei)=nai a)paqh= kai\ a)nalloi/wta dia\ sterro/thta. pa/nta de\ kata\ a)na/gkhn gi/nesqai, th=s di/nhs ai)ti/as th=s gene/sews ou)/shs pa/ntwn, h(\n a)na/gkhn le/gei. diairei= de\ ta\ o)/nta ei)s to\ ei)=nai h)\ e)c a)na/gkhs ei)=nai, w(s to\n a)/nqrwpon zw=|on ei)=nai. o(\ ga\r panti/ te kai\ a)ei\ u(pa/rxei, tou=to e)c a)na/gkhs e)sti/n: o(moi/ws a)nagkai=on kai\ to\ to\n qeo\n a)/fqarton ei)=nai. ta\ de\ e)ndexome/nws, kai\ tou/twn tw=n e)ndexome/nwn ta\ me\n w(s e)pi\ to\ plei=ston w(s to\ to\n a)/nqrwpon pentada/ktulon ei)=nai kai\ ghra/skonta poliou=sqai, ta\ de\ e)p' e)/latton, w(s ta\ tou/tois a)ntikei/mena, to\ to\n a)/nqrwpon tetrada/ktulon h)\ e(cada/ktulon ei)=nai. e)/sti ga\r e)n tou/tois ou(/tws kai\ tau=ta. h)\ to\ mh\ poliou=sqai ghrw=nta to\n a)/nqrwpon h)\ mh\, a)podhmei=n h)\ lou/esqai h)\ mh/.
[1] Artemidorus 1.45; cf. alphaiota 88.
[2] Damascius, Life of Isidore fr. 319 Zintzen (184 Asmus).
[3] Isaeus fr. 52 Sauppe, as cited by Harpokration s.v.; cf. alpha 1892, alpha 2582.
[4] Callisthenes FGrH 124 F17.
[5] An approximation of Diogenes Laertius 7.75.
[6] Diogenes Laertius 9.44-45.
[7] Alexander of Aphrodisias, Commentaries on Aristotle's Topica 177.19-27.
Keywords: definition; ethics; gender and sexuality; historiography; law; medicine; philosophy; science and technology
Translated by: Jennifer Benedict on 28 March 2001@23:34:10.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (modified translation; augmented notes and keywords; cosmetics) on 28 July 2002@10:04:55.
David Whitehead (modified n.2) on 8 February 2011@05:57:22.
David Whitehead (more x-refs; betacode and other cosmetics) on 22 February 2012@07:49:06.
David Whitehead on 26 June 2015@04:06:55.


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