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Headword: Apolinarios
Adler number: alpha,3397
Translated headword: Apollinarios, Apollinarius
Vetting Status: high
Of Laodicea in Syria. He lived in the days of Constantius and Julian the Apostate, and until the reign of Theodosius the Great; he was a contemporary of Basil and Gregory, the much-admired Cappadocians.[1] He was an acquaintance of them both, and of the sophist Libanius,[2] and of a number of others. He was not just a grammarian and a talented poet, but also (and far more) he was trained in philosophy; and he was a very able rhetor. He wrote in prose 30 volumes against the impious Porphyry,[3] and the whole of the Hebrew scriptures in epic verse. He wrote letters, and also many commentaries on the Scriptures. Philostorgius mentions Apollinarius in his history of his own times, and says: "In those days Apollinarius was flourishing in Laodicea in Syria, Basil in Caesarea in Cappadocia, and Gregory in Nazianzus (this place is a way-station in Cappadocia). These three men were then champions of consubstantiality against difference of substance, completely overshadowing all those who previously, or subsequently up to my own time, had stood up for that heresy; Athanasius could be judged a child by comparison with them.[4] For they were very advanced in the so-called 'external' education, and they had great proficiency in everything that contributes to the study and prompt recollection of Holy Scripture. This was especially true of Apollinarius, since he could understand Hebrew. Each of them was very well able to write in his own manner. Apollinarius far excelled in the style that suits commentaries; Basil was most brilliant in panegryic; but Gregory, compared with the two of them, had the soundest basis for written composition. Apollinarius was more powerful, Basil weightier, in speech. Such was their ability in speech and written composition; and in the same degree these men presented a character attractive to the public gaze. So all who saw them or heard them or received their writings were drawn into their communion, if they could easily be caught by any of their arguments." That is what Philostorgius the Arian wrote about them in passing.
Greek Original:
Apolinarios, Laodikeus tês Surias, gegonôs en hêmerais Kônstantiou kai Ioulianou tou Parabatou kai heôs tês archês Theodosiou tou megalou, sunchronos Basileiou kai Grêgoriou, tôn ek Kappadokias thaumazomenôn. egeneto de kai gnôrimos amphoterôn kai Libaniou tou sophistou kai allôn tinôn. houtos ou monon grammatikos kai ta es tên poiêsin dexios, alla pollôi pleiô kai es philosophian exêskêto kai rhêtôr ên amphidexios. houtos egrapse katalogadên kata Porphuriou tou dussebous tomous l#, kai di' hêrôôn epôn pasan tên tôn Hebraiôn graphên. egrapse de epistolas kai alla polla eis tên Graphên hupomnêmata. tou de ge Apolinariou kai Philostorgios mnê- mên pepoiêtai en têi kat' auton historiai kai phêsin: Apolinarios gar êkmaze kat' ekeinous tous chronous en têi Laodikeiai tês Surias, kai Basileios en Kaisareiai tês Kappadokias, kai Grêgorios en têi Nazianzôi: stathmos de houtos ho topos esti tês autês Kappadokias. treis dê houtoi andres tote tou homoousiou proumachoun kata tou heteroousiou, makrôi pantas parenenkontes tous proteron kai husteron achris emou tês autês haireseôs prostantas, hôs paida par' autois krithênai ton Athanasion. tês te gar exôthen kaloumenês paideuseôs epipleiston houtoi proelêlutheisan kai tôn hierôn graphôn, hoposa eis anagnôsin kai tên procheiron mnêmên etelei, pollên eichon tên empeirian, kai malista ge autôn ho Apolinarios. houtos gar dê kai tês Hebraïdos dialektou epaïein hoios t' ên. kai mên kai sungraphein hekastos autôn es ton heautou tropon ên hikanôtatos. tôi men ge Apolinariôi to hupomnêmatikon eidos tês lexeôs makrôi arista eiche, Basileios de panêgurisai lamprotatos ên, tôi de ge Grêgoriôi kai par' amphoterois exetazomenôi meizô basin eis sungraphên eichen ho logos: kai ên eipein Apolinariou men hadroteros, Basileiou de statherôteros. tosautês de autois en tôi legein kai graphein dunameôs ousês, kai to êthos ouden hêtton hoi andres pareichonto pros tên tôn pollôn thean epagôgotaton: hôste kai hois hôrônto kai hois elegon kai hoposa graphontes diedidosan, dia pantôn hêiroun eis tên heautôn koinônian tous kath' hotioun autôn eumaresteron haliskesthai dunamenous. tosauta peri autôn hôs en paradromêi Philostorgios ho Areianos egrapsen.
C4 AD. See generally RE Apollinarios; NP Apollinarios(3), and cf. [alpha 3398] Apollinarius. The Suda consistently spells his name with a single lambda (and the TLG Canon lists him under Apollinaris).
[1] [beta 150] Basil of Caesarea; [gamma 450] Gregory of Nazianzus.
[2] [lambda 486] Libanius.
[3] [pi 2098] Porphyry. The reference is to Porphyry's Against the Christians.
[4] 'Consubstantiality' (to\ o(moou/sion) was the formula adopted by the Council of Nicaea (AD 325) to define the relationship between the three persons of the Trinity and reaffirmed at the Council of Constantinople (AD 381); it was heresy from the point of view of the Suda's source, Philostorgius, who was an Arian (the same passage is quoted at beta 150 and gamma 450).The Suda surprisingly has no entry for Athanasius, the great defender of Nicene orthodoxy during the mid-fourth century. (Sources: Philostorgius, Historia Ecclesiastica 8.11a, pp. 111-113 Bidez-Winkelmann.)
P. Speck 'Sokrates scholastikos ├╝ber die beiden Apolinarioi' Philologus 141 (1997) 362-9
Keywords: biography; Christianity; chronology; geography; philosophy; poetry; religion; rhetoric
Translated by: Malcolm Heath on 25 February 2000@16:11:48.
Vetted by:
Catharine Roth (cosmetics; added keywords) on 14 January 2002@19:49:56.
Catharine Roth (cosmetics) on 14 January 2002@19:54:08.
Catharine Roth (supplied headword translation) on 5 March 2002@00:41:53.
David Whitehead (augmented note and keywords; cosmetics) on 21 August 2002@05:54:27.
Catharine Roth (typo) on 9 November 2004@19:39:48.
Catharine Roth (added page numbers to note) on 28 November 2004@23:30:48.
Catharine Roth (corrected my typo) on 28 November 2004@23:42:11.
Catharine Roth (added a keyword) on 3 October 2005@00:52:03.
Catharine Roth (cosmetics) on 16 July 2009@18:53:09.
David Whitehead (another keyword; cosmetics) on 3 April 2012@06:39:26.
Catharine Roth (expanded title) on 16 September 2015@23:12:53.
Catharine Roth (punctuation) on 16 September 2015@23:16:41.


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