Hebrew verb morphology generator

Root:
Binyan (check all that apply): Qal | Qal2 | Qal3 | Niphal | Piel | Pual | Hiphil | Hophal | Hithpael
Context: Normal | Pausal | Connected

Instructions

  1. Use English characters for the root (upper or lower case). Here is a table of equivalences. Some Hebrew letters use two English letters.
    ABGDHWZ HHTYKLMN SEP or FCQR SHSSTT
    אבגדהוז חטיכלמנ סעפצקר שׁשׂת
  2. For verbs like לראות that traditionally are considered to have ה as their third letter, use י instead. Reserve final ה for cases like גבה, which have a true final ה.
  3. Verbs whose first letter is apparently י usually actually start with ו. For instance, you want ושב instead of ישב. Sometimes, though, they actually do start with י, as in יטב (found in Hiphil).
  4. Some roots use particularly strong or weak forms of letters. For example, לקח has a weak ל, which elides with the following letter in forms like אֶקַּח. Here is a table of special versions of letters.
    useto meanas in to get forminstead of
    L-weak ללקח אֶקַּחאֶלְכַּח
    NNstrong נזקנ זָקַֽנְתִּיזָקַֽתִּי
    WWstrong ומצו צִװָּהצוֹיֵ
  5. The program already knows some roots and introduces strong and weak letters. To prevent this substitution, add ! to any of the root letters.
  6. The output marks non-ultimate accents with a meteg (as in אֽ). It marks shwa-na (moving shwa) with a macron over the letter (as in זֿ).
  7. The Qal binyan has three varieties. You usually want ordinary Qal. However, the root כבד follows Qal2, and the root קטן follows Qal3. The difference has to do with the second vowel in the imperfect.
  8. The pausal context is used in Biblical Hebrew on the siluk and ethnakhta tropes, and occasionally on other tropes.
  9. The connected context is used in Biblical Hebrew when the verb is connected by a makef to the following word.
Send comments and suggestions (and errors!) to Raphael Finkel <raphael at cs.uky.edu>

The method we use is discussed in Raphael Finkel and Gregory Stump, A default inheritance hierarchy for computing Hebrew verb morphology, Literary and Linguistic Computing 22, 2, pages 117-136, 2007.